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The early HISTORY OF SURINAME dates from 3000 BCE when Native Americans first inhabited the area. The Dutch acquired Suriname
Suriname
from the English, and European settlement in any numbers dates from the seventeenth century, when it was a plantation colony utilizing slavery for sugar cultivation. With abolition in the late nineteenth century, planters sought labor from China, Madeira, India, and Indonesia
Indonesia
, which was also colonized by the Dutch. Although Dutch is Suriname's official language, with such a diverse population, it developed a Creole language , Sranan .

CONTENTS

* 1 Indigenous settlement

* 2 European colonization

* 2.1 English colonization

* 2.1.1 Willoughbyland

* 2.2 Dutch colonization * 2.3 Slavery and emancipation * 2.4 Twentieth century

* 3 Decolonization * 4 Independence * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

INDIGENOUS SETTLEMENT

Suriname
Suriname
was populated millennia before the Europeans by many distinct indigenous cultures. The largest tribes were the Arawaks
Arawaks
, a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing , and the Caribs . The Arawaks
Arawaks
were the first inhabitants of Suriname; later, the Caribs arrived, and conquered the Arawaks
Arawaks
using their sailing ships. They settled in Galibi (_Kupali Yumï_, meaning "tree of the forefathers") on the mouth of the Marowijne river. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived off the coast and savanna , smaller groups of indigenous peoples lived in the rainforest inland, such as the Akurio , Trió , Warrau , and Wayana
Wayana
.

EUROPEAN COLONIZATION

A plantation in Suriname
Suriname
by Dirk Valkenburg
Dirk Valkenburg
(1707?) Plantations in Suriname
Suriname
around 1800.

ENGLISH COLONIZATION

Coastline of the Guianas

The first Europeans who came to Suriname
Suriname
were Spanish explorers and Dutch traders who visited the area along with other parts of South America 's 'Wild Coast.' The first attempts to settle the area by Europeans was in 1630, when English settlers led by Captain Marshall attempted to found a colony. They cultivated crops of tobacco , but the venture failed financially.

Willoughbyland

In 1650, Lord Willoughby , the governor of Barbados
Barbados
, furnished out a vessel to settle a colony in Suriname. At his own cost he equipped a ship of 20 guns, and two smaller vessels with things necessary for the support of the plantation. Major Anthony Rowse settled there in his name. Two years later, for the better settling of the colony, he went in person, fortified and furnished it with things requisite for defence and trade. 'Willoughbyland' consisted of around 30,000 acres (120 km2) and a fort. In 1663 most of the work on the ca. 50 plantations was done by native Indians and 3,000 African slaves. There were around 1,000 whites there, joined by Brazilian Jews, attracted by religious freedom which was granted to all the settlers by the English.

DUTCH COLONIZATION

Main article: Surinam (Dutch colony)

The settlement was invaded by seven Dutch ships (from the Zeeland region), led by Abraham Crijnssen , on February 26, 1667. Fort Willoughby was captured the next day after a three-hour fight and renamed Fort Zeelandia . On July 31, 1667, the English and Dutch signed the Treaty of Breda , in which for the time being the status quo was respected: the Dutch could keep occupying Suriname
Suriname
and the British the formerly Dutch colony New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
(modern-day New York ). Willoughbyland was renamed Suriname
Suriname
. This arrangement was made official in the Treaty of Westminster of 1674, after the British had regained and again lost Suriname
Suriname
in 1667 and the Dutch regained the colony in 1668. In 1683 the Society of Suriname
Society of Suriname
was set up, modelled on the ideas of Jean-Baptiste Colbert to profit from the management and defence of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
's colony. It had three participants, with equal shares in the society's responsibilities and profits—the city of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, the family Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck , and the Dutch West India Company . The Van Aerssen family only managed to sell its share in 1770. The Society came to an end in 1795 when this kind of trade and business was no longer seen as acceptable.

SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION

A Dutch plantation owner and female slave from William Blake
William Blake
's illustrations of the work of John Gabriel Stedman
John Gabriel Stedman
, published in 1792-1794. Funeral at slave plantation, Suriname. Colored lithograph printed circa 1840-1850, digitally restored. Maroon village, Suriname
Suriname
River , 1955

In South America, slavery was the norm. The native people proved to be in limited supply and consequently the Atlantic slave trade supplied the workforce for the plantations. The plantations were producing sugar , coffee , cocoa , cotton which were exported for the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
market. In 1713 for instance most of the work on the 200 plantations was done by 13,000 African slaves. Their treatment was horrific, and slaves periodically escaped to the jungle from the start. These _Maroons _ (also known as "Djukas" or "Bakabusi Nengre") attacked the plantations in order to acquire goods that were in short supply and to acquire women. Notable leaders of the Surinam Maroons were Alabi , Boni , Joli-coeur and Broos (Captain Broos). In the 18th century, three of the Maroon people signed a peace treaty, similar to the peace treaty ending the First Maroon War in Jamaica, whereby they were recognised as free people and received a yearly tribute that provided them with the goods they used to "liberate" from the plantations. A contemporary description of the war between the Maroons and the plantation owners in Suriname
Suriname
can be found in _Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam_ by John Gabriel Stedman
John Gabriel Stedman
.

Suriname
Suriname
was occupied by the British in 1799, after the Netherlands were incorporated by France, and was returned to the Dutch in 1816, after the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
. The Dutch abolished slavery only in 1863, although the British had already abolished it during their short rule. The slaves were, however, not released until 1873; up to that date they conducted obligatory but paid work at the plantations. In the meantime, many more workers had been imported from the Dutch East Indies , mostly Chinese inhabitants of that colony, creating a Chinese Surinamese population. From 1873 to 1916, many laborers were imported from India, creating the Indo-Surinamese . After 1916, many laborers were again imported from the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
, especially Java , creating the Javanese Surinamese .

TWENTIETH CENTURY

In the 20th century, the natural resources of Suriname, rubber , gold and bauxite , were exploited. The US company Alcoa had a claim on a large area in Suriname
Suriname
where bauxite, from which aluminum can be made, was found. Given that the peace treaties with the Maroon people granted them title to the lands, there have been international court cases that negated the right of the Surinam government to grant these claims (meaning the right to take the land for themselves). On November 23, 1941, under an agreement with the Netherlands government-in-exile, the United States occupied Dutch Guiana to protect the bauxite mines.

DECOLONIZATION

See also: Suriname (Kingdom of the Netherlands)

In 1945, the first full election was held, with the Netherlands providing aid in health matters.

In 1954, Suriname
Suriname
gained self-government , with the Netherlands retaining control of defence and foreign affairs.

INDEPENDENCE

Henck Arron , Beatrix and Johan Ferrier
Johan Ferrier
on November 25, 1975 See also: Suriname
Suriname

In 1973 the Dutch government started independence negotiations with the local government, led by the NPS (a largely Creole party), which was granted on November 25, 1975. The Dutch instituted an aid programme worth US$1.5 billion to last till 1985. The first President of the country was Johan Ferrier
Johan Ferrier
, with Henck Arron (leader of the NPS) as Prime Minister. Roughly a third of the population emigrated to the Netherlands
Netherlands
prior to independence, fearing that the new country would not be viable.

In 1980, the government of Henck Arron was overthrown in a military coup led by Sergeant-Major Dési Bouterse
Dési Bouterse
. President Ferrier refused to recognise the new government, appointing Henk Chin A Sen (of the Nationalist Republican Party). Another coup followed five months later, with the army replacing Ferrier with Chin A Sen. These developments were largely welcomed by a population that expected the new army-installed government to put an end to corruption and improve the standard of living. This was despite the fact that the new regime banned opposition parties and became increasingly dictatorial. The Dutch initially accepted the new government; however, relations between Suriname
Suriname
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
collapsed when 15 members of the political opposition were killed by the army on December 8, 1982, in Fort Zeelandia . This event is also known as the _ December murders _ (_Decembermoorden_ in Dutch). The Dutch and Americans cut off their aid in protest at the move.

In 1985, the ban on opposition parties was lifted, and work began on devising a new constitution. The following year saw the start of an anti-government rebellion of the Maroons in the interior, calling themselves the Jungle Commando and led by Ronnie Brunswijk . The Bouterse government violently tried to suppress the insurgency by burning villages and other similar means. Many Maroons fled to French Guiana .

SEE ALSO

* British colonization of the Americas
British colonization of the Americas
* Dutch colonization of the Americas * French colonization of the Americas * History of the Americas * History of South America
South America
* History of the Caribbean * List of colonial heads of Suriname
Suriname
( Netherlands
Netherlands
Guiana) * List of Presidents of Suriname
Suriname
* List of Prime Ministers of Suriname
Suriname
* Politics of Suriname
Suriname
* Spanish colonization of the Americas

REFERENCES

* ^ Albert Gastmann, " Suriname
Suriname
and the Dutch in the Caribbean" in _Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture_ vol. 5, p. 189. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996. * ^ Romero-Figueroa, Andrés. Basic Word Order and Sentence Types in Kari'ña. Meunchen: Lincom Europa 2000 * ^ Carlin, Eithne and Boven, Karen (2002). The native population: Migrations and identities. In: Atlas of the languages of Suriname, Eithne Carlin and Jacques Arends (Eds.) Leiden: KITLV Press * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of ARTS, SCIENCES, and General LITERATURE, Volume XI_ (Ninth Edition—Popular Reprint ed.). Retrieved 2008-05-04. In 1614 the states of Holland granted to any Dutch citizen a four years' monopoly of any harbour or place of commerce which he might discover in that region (Guiana). The first settlement, however, in Suriname
Suriname
(in 1630) was made by an Englishman, whose name is still preserved by Marshal's Creek. * ^ http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76434&strquery=Francis%20Willoughby%201651%20Surinam * ^ George Warren (1667) An impartial description of Surinam. * ^ http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76508;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Dutch Empire

COLONIES AND TRADING POSTS OF THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY (1602–1798)

GOVERNORATE GENERAL

* Batavia

GOVERNORATES

* Ambon * Banda Islands * Cape Colony * Celebes * Ceylon * Coromandel * Formosa * Malacca * Moluccas * Northeast coast of Java

DIRECTORATES

* Bengal * Persia * Suratte

COMMANDMENTS

* Bantam * Malabar * West coast of Sumatra

RESIDENCIES

* Bantam * Banjarmasin * Batavia * Cheribon * Palembang * Preanger * Pontianak

OPPERHOOFD SETTLEMENTS

* Myanmar
Myanmar
* Canton * Dejima
Dejima
* Mauritius * Siam * Timor * Tonkin
Tonkin

COLONIES AND TRADING POSTS OF THE DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY (1621–1792)

COLONIES IN THE AMERICAS

* Berbice  1 * Brazil * Cayenne * Curaçao and Dependencies * Demerara * Essequibo * New Netherland * Pomeroon * Sint Eustatius and Dependencies * Surinam  2 * Tobago
Tobago
* Virgin Islands

TRADING POSTS IN AFRICA

* Arguin
Arguin
* Gold
Gold
Coast * Loango-Angola * Senegambia * Slave Coast

* 1 Governed by the Society of Berbice * 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname
Society of Suriname

SETTLEMENTS OF THE NOORDSCHE COMPAGNIE (1614–1642)

SETTLEMENTS

* Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
* Smeerenburg
Smeerenburg

COLONIES OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (1815–1962)

UNTIL 1825

* Bengal * Coromandel * Malacca * Suratte

UNTIL 1853

* Dejima
Dejima

UNTIL 1872

* Gold
Gold
Coast

UNTIL 1945

* Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies

UNTIL 1954

* Curaçao and Dependencies  3 * Surinam  3

UNTIL 1962

* New Guinea

* 3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles , which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (1954–PRESENT)

CONSTITUENT COUNTRIES

* Aruba * Curaçao
Curaçao
* Netherlands
Netherlands
* Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten

PUBLIC BODIES OF THE NETHERLANDS

* Bonaire
Bonaire
* Saba
Saba
* Sint Eustatius

* v * t * e

History of South America
South America

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Argentina * Bolivia * Brazil * Chile * Colombia * Ecuador * Guyana * Paraguay * Peru * Suriname * Uruguay * Venezuela

Dependencies and other territories

* Falkland Islands * French Guiana
French Guiana
* South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

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