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William of Ockham
William of Ockham
(/ˈɒkəm/; also Occam, from Latin: Gulielmus Occamus;[6][7] c. 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan
Franciscan
friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.[8] He is considered to be one of the major figures of medieval thought and was at the centre of the major intellectual and political controversies of the 14th century. He is commonly known for Occam's razor, the methodological principle that bears his name, and also produced significant works on logic, physics, and theology. In the Church of England, his day of commemoration is 10 April.[9]

Contents

1 Life 2 Faith and reason 3 Philosophical thought

3.1 Nominalism 3.2 Efficient reasoning 3.3 Natural philosophy 3.4 Theory of knowledge 3.5 Political theory 3.6 Logic

4 Literary Ockhamism/nominalism 5 Works

5.1 Philosophical writings 5.2 Theological writings 5.3 Political writings 5.4 Doubtful writings 5.5 Spurious writings 5.6 Translations

5.6.1 Philosophical works 5.6.2 Theological works

6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

Life[edit] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
was born in Ockham, Surrey
Ockham, Surrey
in 1285 and joined the Franciscan
Franciscan
order at an early age.[10] It is believed that he studied theology at the University of Oxford[11] from 1309 to 1321,[12] but while he completed all the requirements for a master's degree in theology, he was never made a regent master.[13] Because of this, he acquired the honorific title Venerabilis Inceptor, or "Venerable Beginner" (an inceptor was a student formally admitted to the ranks of teachers by the university authorities).[14] During the Middle Ages, theologian Peter Lombard's Sentences
Sentences
(1150) had become a standard work of theology, and many ambitious theological scholars wrote commentaries on it.[15] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
was among these scholarly commentators. However, William's commentary was not well received by his colleagues,[citation needed] or by the Church authorities. In 1324, his commentary was condemned as unorthodox by a synod of bishops,[citation needed] and he was ordered to Avignon, France, to defend himself before a papal court.[15] An alternative understanding, recently proposed by George Knysh, suggests that he was initially appointed in Avignon
Avignon
as a professor of philosophy in the Franciscan
Franciscan
school, and that his disciplinary difficulties did not begin until 1327.[16] It is generally believed that these charges were levied by Oxford chancellor John Lutterell.[17][18] The Franciscan
Franciscan
Minister General, Michael of Cesena, had been summoned to Avignon, to answer charges of heresy. A theological commission had been asked to review his Commentary on the Sentences, and it was during this that William of Ockham
William of Ockham
found himself involved in a different debate. Michael of Cesena
Michael of Cesena
had asked William to review arguments surrounding Apostolic poverty. The Franciscans believed that Jesus
Jesus
and his apostles owned no property either individually or in common, and the Rule of Saint Francis commanded members of the order to follow this practice.[19] This brought them into conflict with Pope
Pope
John XXII. Because of the pope's attack on the Rule of Saint Francis, William of Ockham, Michael of Cesena
Michael of Cesena
and other leading Franciscans
Franciscans
fled Avignon on 26 May 1328, and eventually took refuge in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Bavaria, who was also engaged in dispute with the papacy, and became William's patron.[15] After studying the works of John XXII
John XXII
and previous papal statements, William agreed with the Minister General. In return for protection and patronage William wrote treatises that argued for emperor Louis to have supreme control over church and state in the Holy Roman Empire.[15] "On June 6, 1328, William was officially excommunicated for leaving Avignon
Avignon
without permission,"[13] and William argued that John XXII
John XXII
was a heretic for attacking the doctrine of Apostolic poverty and the Rule of Saint Francis, which had been endorsed by previous popes.[13] However it should be noted that William of Ockham's philosophy was never officially condemned as heretical.[13] He spent much of the remainder of his life writing about political issues, including the relative authority and rights of the spiritual and temporal powers. After Michael of Cesena's death in 1342, William became the leader of the small band of Franciscan
Franciscan
dissidents living in exile with Louis IV. William of Ockham
William of Ockham
died (prior to the outbreak of the plague) on 9 April 1347.[20] He was officially rehabilitated by Innocent VI
Innocent VI
in 1359[citation needed]. Faith and reason[edit] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
espoused fideism, stating that "only faith gives us access to theological truths. The ways of God are not open to reason, for God has freely chosen to create a world and establish a way of salvation within it apart from any necessary laws that human logic or rationality can uncover."[21] He believed that science was a matter of discovery and saw God as the only ontological necessity.[13] His importance is as a theologian with a strongly developed interest in logical method, and whose approach was critical rather than system building.[10] Philosophical thought[edit]

Quaestiones in quattuor libros sententiarum

In scholasticism, William of Ockham
William of Ockham
advocated reform in both method and content, the aim of which was simplification. William incorporated much of the work of some previous theologians, especially Duns Scotus. From Duns Scotus, William of Ockham
William of Ockham
derived his view of divine omnipotence, his view of grace and justification, much of his epistemology[citation needed] and ethical convictions[22]. However, he also reacted to and against Scotus in the areas of predestination, penance, his understanding of universals, his formal distinction ex parte rei (that is, "as applied to created things"), and his view of parsimony which became known as Occam's Razor. Nominalism[edit] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
was a pioneer of nominalism, and some consider him the father of modern epistemology, because of his strongly argued position that only individuals exist, rather than supra-individual universals, essences, or forms, and that universals are the products of abstraction from individuals by the human mind and have no extra-mental existence.[23] He denied the real existence of metaphysical universals and advocated the reduction of ontology. William of Ockham
William of Ockham
is sometimes considered an advocate of conceptualism rather than nominalism, for whereas nominalists held that universals were merely names, i.e. words rather than existing realities, conceptualists held that they were mental concepts, i.e. the names were names of concepts, which do exist, although only in the mind. Therefore, the universal concept has for its object, not a reality existing in the world outside us, but an internal representation which is a product of the understanding itself and which "supposes" in the mind the things to which the mind attributes it; that is, it holds, for the time being, the place of the things which it represents. It is the term of the reflective act of the mind. Hence the universal is not a mere word, as Roscelin taught, nor a sermo, as Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard
held, namely the word as used in the sentence, but the mental substitute for real things, and the term of the reflective process. For this reason William has sometimes also been called a "terminist", to distinguish him from a nominalist or a conceptualist.[24] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
was a theological voluntarist who believed that if God had wanted to, he could have become incarnate as a donkey or an ox, or even as both a donkey and a man at the same time. He was criticized for this belief by his fellow theologians and philosophers.[25] Efficient reasoning[edit] One important contribution that he made to modern science and modern intellectual culture was efficient reasoning with the principle of parsimony in explanation and theory building that came to be known as Occam's Razor. This maxim, as interpreted by Bertrand Russell,[26] states that if one can explain a phenomenon without assuming this or that hypothetical entity, there is no ground for assuming it, i.e. that one should always opt for an explanation in terms of the fewest possible causes, factors, or variables. He turned this into a concern for ontological parsimony; the principle says that one should not multiply entities beyond necessity – Entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate – although this well-known formulation of the principle is not to be found in any of William's extant writings.[27] He formulates it as: "For nothing ought to be posited without a reason given, unless it is self-evident (literally, known through itself) or known by experience or proved by the authority of Sacred Scripture."[28] For William of Ockham, the only truly necessary entity is God; everything else is contingent. He thus does not accept the principle of sufficient reason, rejects the distinction between essence and existence, and opposes the Thomistic doctrine of active and passive intellect. His scepticism to which his ontological parsimony request leads appears in his doctrine that human reason can prove neither the immortality of the soul nor the existence, unity, and infinity of God. These truths, he teaches, are known to us by revelation alone.[24] Natural philosophy[edit] William wrote a great deal on natural philosophy, including a long commentary on Aristotle's Physics[29]. According to the principle of ontological parsimony, he holds that we do not need to allow entities in all ten of Aristotle's categories; we thus do not need the category of quantity, as the mathematical entities are not "real". Mathematics must be applied to other categories, such as the categories of substance or qualities, thus anticipating modern scientific renaissance while violating Aristotelian prohibition of metabasis. Theory of knowledge[edit] In the theory of knowledge, William rejected the scholastic theory of species, as unnecessary and not supported by experience, in favour of a theory of abstraction. This was an important development in late medieval epistemology. He also distinguished between intuitive and abstract cognition; intuitive cognition depends on the existence or non existence of the object, whereas abstractive cognition "abstracts" the object from the existence predicate. Interpreters are, as yet, undecided about the roles of these two types of cognitive activities. Political theory[edit] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
is also increasingly being recognized as an important contributor to the development of Western constitutional ideas, especially those of government with limited responsibility.[30] He was one of the first medieval authors to advocate a form of church/state separation,[30] and was important for the early development of the notion of property rights. His political ideas are regarded as "natural" or "secular", holding for a secular absolutism.[30] The views on monarchical accountability espoused in his Dialogus (written between 1332 and 1347)[31] greatly influenced the Conciliar movement and assisted in the emergence of liberal democratic ideologies.[citation needed] William argued for complete separation of spiritual rule and earthly rule[32]. He thought that the pope and churchmen have no right or grounds at all for secular rule like having property, citing 2 Tim. 2:4. That belongs solely to earthly rulers, who may also accuse the pope of crimes, if need be.[33] After the Fall God had given men, including non-Christians, two powers: private ownership and the right to set their rulers, who should serve the interest of the people, not some special interests. Thus he preceded Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
in formulating social contract theory along with earlier scholars.[33] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
said that the Franciscans
Franciscans
avoided both private and common ownership by using commodities, including food and clothes, without any rights, with mere usus facti, the ownership still belonging to the donor of the item or to the pope. Their opponents such as pope John XXII
John XXII
wrote that use without any ownership cannot be justified: "It is impossible that an external deed could be just if the person has no right to do it." [33] Thus the disputes on the heresy of Franciscans
Franciscans
led William of Ockham and others to formulate some fundamentals of economic theory and the theory of ownership.[33] Logic[edit] In logic, William of Ockham
William of Ockham
wrote down in words the formulae that would later be called De Morgan's Laws,[34] and he pondered ternary logic, that is, a logical system with three truth values; a concept that would be taken up again in the mathematical logic of the 19th and 20th centuries. His contributions to semantics, especially to the maturing theory of supposition, are still studied by logicians.[35][36] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
was probably the first logician to treat empty terms in Aristotelian syllogistic effectively; he devised an empty term semantics that exactly fit the syllogistic. Specifically, an argument is valid according to William's semantics if and only if it is valid according to Prior
Prior
Analytics.[37] Literary Ockhamism/nominalism[edit] William of Ockham
William of Ockham
and his works have been discussed as a possible influence on several late medieval literary figures and works, especially Geoffrey Chaucer, but also Jean Molinet, the Gawain poet, François Rabelais, John Skelton, Julian of Norwich, the York and Townely Plays, and Renaissance romances. Only in very few of these cases is it possible to demonstrate direct links to William of Ockham or his texts. Correspondences between Ockhamist and Nominalist philosophy/theology and literary texts from medieval to postmodern times have been discussed within the scholarly paradigm of literary nominalism.[38] Erasmus, in his Praise of Folly, criticized him together with Duns Scotus
Duns Scotus
as fuelling unnessary controversies inside the Church. Works[edit] The standard edition of the philosophical and theological works is: William of Ockham: Opera philosophica et theologica, Gedeon Gál, et al., eds. 17 vols. St. Bonaventure, N. Y.: The Franciscan Institute, 1967–88. The seventh volume of the Opera Philosophica contains the doubtful and spurious works. The political works, all but the Dialogus, have been edited in H. S. Offler, et al., eds. Guilelmi de Ockham Opera Politica, 4 vols., 1940–97, Manchester: Manchester University Press [vols. 1–3]; Oxford: Oxford University Press [vol. 4]. Abbreviations: OT = Opera Theologica voll. 1–10; OP = Opera Philosophica voll. 1–7. Philosophical writings[edit]

Summa logicae (Sum of Logic) (c. 1323, OP 1). Expositionis in Libros artis logicae prooemium, 1321–24, OP 2). Expositio in librum Porphyrii de Praedicabilibus, 1321–24, OP 2). Expositio in librum Praedicamentorum Aristotelis, 1321–24, OP 2). Expositio in librum in librum Perihermenias Aristotelis, 1321–24, OP 2). Tractatus de praedestinatione et de prescientia dei respectu futurorum contingentium (Treatise on Predestination
Predestination
and God’s Foreknowledge with respect to Future Contingents, 1322–24, OP 2). Expositio super libros Elenchorum (Exposition of Aristotle’s Sophistic refutations, 1322–24, OP 3). Expositio in libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Prologus et Libri I–III (Exposition of Aristole’s Physics) (1322–24, OP 4). Expositio in libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Prologus et Libri IV–VIII (Exposition of Aristole’s Physics) (1322–24, OP 5). Brevis summa libri Physicorum (Brief Summa of the Physics, 1322–23, OP 6). Summula philosophiae naturalis (Little Summa of Natural Philosophy, 1319–21, OP 6). Quaestiones in libros Physicorum Aristotelis (Questions on Aristotle’s Books of the Physics, before 1324, OP 6).

Theological writings[edit]

In libros Sententiarum (Commentary on the Sentences
Sentences
of Peter Lombard).

Book
Book
I (Ordinatio) completed shortly after July 1318 (OT 1–4). Books II–IV (Reportatio) 1317-18 (transcription of the lectures; OT 5–7).

Quaestiones variae (OT 8). Quodlibeta septem (before 1327), (OT 9). Tractatus de quantitate (1323–24. OT 10). Tractatus de corpore Christi (1323–24, OT 10).

Political writings[edit]

Opus nonaginta dierum (1332–34). Epistola ad fratres minores (1334). Dialogus (before 1335). Tractatus contra Johannem [XXII] (1335). Tractatus contra benedictum [XII] (1337–38). Octo quaestiones de potestate papae (1340–41). Consultatio de causa matrimoniali (1341–42). Breviloquium (1341–42). De imperatorum et pontifcum potestate [also known as "Defensorium"] (1346–47).

Doubtful writings[edit]

Tractatus minor logicae (Lesser Treatise on logic) (1340–47?, OP 7). Elementarium logicae (Primer of logic) (1340–47?, OP 7).

Spurious writings[edit]

Tractatus de praedicamentis (OP 7). Quaestio de relatione (OP 7). Centiloquium (OP 7). Tractatus de principiis theologiae (OP 7).

Translations[edit] Philosophical works[edit]

Philosophical Writings, tr. P Boehner, rev. S Brown, (Indianapolis, IN, 1990) Ockham's Theory of Terms: Part I of the Summa logicae, translated by Michael J. Loux, (Notre Dame; London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1974) [translation of Summa logicae, part 1] Ockham's Theory of Propositions: Part II of the Summa logicae, translated by Alfred J. Freddoso and Henry Schuurman, (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1980) [translation of Summa logicae, part 2] Demonstration and Scientific Knowledge in William of Ockham: a Translation of Summa logicae III-II, De syllogismo demonstrativo, and Selections from the Prologue to the Ordinatio, translated by John Lee Longeway, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 2007) Ockham on Aristotle's Physics: A Translation of Ockham's Brevis Summa Libri Physicorum, translated by Julian Davies, (St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute, 1989) Kluge, Eike-Henner W., William of Ockham's Commentary on Porphyry: Introduction and English Translation, Franciscan
Franciscan
Studies 33, pp. 171–254, and 34, pp. 306–82, (1973-4) Predestination, God's Foreknowledge, and Future Contingents, translated by Marilyn McCord Adams
Marilyn McCord Adams
and Norman Kretzmann, (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969) [translation of Tractatus de praedestinatione et de praescientia Dei et de futuris contigentibus] Quodlibetal Questions, translated by Alfred J Freddoso and Francis E Kelley, 2 vols, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1991) (translation of Quodlibeta septem) Paul Spade, Five Texts on the Mediaeval Problem of Universals: Porphyry, Boethius, Abelard, Duns Scotus, Ockham, (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1994) [Five questions on Universals from His Ordinatio d. 2 qq. 4-8]

Theological works[edit]

An princeps pro suo uccursu, scilicet guerrae, possit recipere bona ecclesiarum, etiam invito papa, translated in Political thought in early fourteenth-century England: treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula, and William of Ockham, translated by Cary J. Nederman, (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2002) A translation of William of Ockham's Work of Ninety Days, translated by John Kilcullen and John Scott, (Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 2001) [translation of Opus nonaginta dierum] Tractatus de principiis theologiae, translated in A compendium of Ockham's teachings: a translation of the Tractatus de principiis theologiae, translated by Julian Davies, (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute, St. Bonaventure
Bonaventure
University, 1998) On the Power of Emperors and Popes, translated by Annabel S. Brett, (Bristol, 1998) Rega Wood, Ockham on the Virtues, (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1997) [includes translation of On the Connection of the Virtues] A Letter to the Friars Minor, and Other Writings, translated by John Kilcullen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995) [includes translation of Epistola ad Fratres Minores] A Short Discourse on the Tyrannical Government, translated by John Kilcullen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) [translation of Breviloquium de principatu tyrannico] The De sacramento altaris of William of Ockham, translated by T Bruce Birch, (Burlington, Iowa: Lutheran Literary Board, 1930) [translation of Treatise on Quantity and On the Body of Christ] William of Ockham, [Question One of] Eight Questions on the Power of the Pope, translated by Jonathan Robinson[39]

See also[edit]

Ernest Addison Moody Gabriel Biel History of science
History of science
in the Middle Ages List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics List of scholastic philosophers occam (programming language) Ockham algebra Oxford Franciscan
Franciscan
school Philotheus Boehner Rule according to higher law Terminism

Notes[edit]

^ Spade, Paul Vincent (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 18. ^ Spade, Paul Vincent (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 20. ^ " Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury
(1033–1109)", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006, retrieved 10 November 2017  ^ Jaegwon Kim, Ernest Sosa, Gary S. Rosenkrantz (eds.), A Companion to Metaphysics, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, p. 164: "Buridan, Jean." ^ Summa Logicae (c. 1323), Prefatory Letter, as translated by Paul Vincent Spade (1995). ^ Jortin, John. Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, Volume 3. p. 371. ^ Johann Jacob Hofmann. Lexicon universale, historiam sacram et profanam omnis aevi omniumque... p. 431. ^ There are claims also that he was born in Ockham, Yorkshire but it is now accepted that his birth place was in Surrey. See Wood, Rega (1997). Ockham on the Virtues. Purdue University
Purdue University
Press. pp. 3, 6–7n1. ISBN 978-1-55753-097-4.  ^ "Holy Days". Liturgical Calendar. Church of England. Retrieved 12 May 2013.  ^ a b The Oxford Companion to English Literature, 6th Edition. Edited by Margaret Drabble, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 735. ^ He has long been claimed as a Merton alumnus, but there is no contemporary evidence to support this claim and as a Franciscan, he would have been ineligible for fellowships at Merton (see G. H. Martin and J. R. L. Highfield, A History of Merton College, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 53). The claim that he was a pupil of Duns Scotus at Oxford is also disputed (see Philip Hughes, History of the Church: Volume 3: The Revolt Against The Church: Aquinas To Luther, Sheed and Ward, 1979, p. 119 n. 2). ^ During that time (1312–1317) Henry Harclay was the Chancellor of Oxford and it is believed that William was his pupil (see John Marenbon (ed.), Medieval Philosophy, Routledge, 2003, p. 329). ^ a b c d e Spade, Paul Vincent. "William of Ockham". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  ^ Brundage, James (2008). "Canon Law in the Law schools", in The history of medieval canon law in the classical period. Catholic University of America Press (Wilfried Hartmann & Kenneth Pennington, eds.). p. 115. ISBN 0813214912.  ^ a b c d Roger Olson. The Story of Christian Theology, p. 350. ISBN 0-8308-1505-8 ^ Knysh, George, Biographical rectifications concerning William's Avignon
Avignon
period. Franciscan
Franciscan
Studies 46, 1986, pp.61–91. ^ Hundersmarck, Lawrence (1992). Great Thinkers of the Western World. Harper Collins. pp. 123–128. ISBN 0-06-270026-X.  ^ "William of Occam". wotug.org.  ^ McGrade, Arthur (1974). The Political Thought of William of Ockham: Personal and Institutional Principles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20284-1.  ^ Gál, Gedeon, 1982. William of Ockham
William of Ockham
Died Impenitent in April 1347. Franciscan
Franciscan
Studies 42, pp. 90–95 ^ Dale T. Irvin and Scott W. Sunquist. History of World Christian Movement Volume I: Earliest Christianity to 1453, p. 434. ISBN 9781570753961 ^ Lucan Freeport, Basis of Morality According to William Ockham, 0819909181, 9780819909183, Franciscan
Franciscan
Herald Press, 1988. ^ Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato
Plato
to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6.  ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William Turner (1913). "William of Ockham". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  ^ Stanley J. Grenz. The Named God and the Question Of Being: A Trinitarian Theo-Ontology.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (2000). History of Western Philosophy. Allen & Unwin. pp. 462–463. ISBN 0-415-22854-9.  ^ W. M. Thorburn (1918). "The Myth of Occam's Razor". Mind. 27 (107): 345–353. doi:10.1093/mind/XXVII.3.345. Retrieved 2006-10-25.  ^ Spade, Paul Vincent (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 104. ^ André Goddu, The Physics
Physics
of William of Ockham, 9004069127, 9789004069121, Brill Academic Pub., 1984. ^ a b c William of Ockham
William of Ockham
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy): Stanford.edu ^ "British Academy - William of Ockham: Dialogus". www.britac.ac.uk.  ^ Takashi Shogimen, Ockham and Political Discourse in the Late Middle Ages [1 ed.], 0521845815, 9780521845816, Cambridge University Press, 2007. ^ a b c d Virpi Mäkinen, Keskiajan aatehistoria, Atena Kustannus Oy, Jyväskylä, 2003, ISBN 9517963106, 9789517963107. Pages 160, 167-168, 202, 204, 207-209. ^ In his Summa Logicae, part II, sections 32 and 33.Translated on page 80 of Philosophical Writings, tr. P. Boehner, rev. S. Brown, (Indianapolis, IN, 1990) ^ Graham Priest; Read, S. (1977). "The Formalization of Ockham's Theory of Supposition". Mind. LXXXVI (341): 109–113. doi:10.1093/mind/LXXXVI.341.109.  ^ John Corcoran and John Swiniarski. 1978. Logical Structures of Ockham's Theory of Supposition, Franciscan
Franciscan
Studies 38, 161–83. ^ John Corcoran. 1981. "Ockham's Syllogistic Semantics", Journal of Symbolic Logic, 46 (1981) 197–198. ^ William H. Watts and Richard J. Utz, "Nominalist Influence on Chaucer's Poetry: A Bibliographical Essay," Medievalia & Humanistica 20 n.s. (1993), 147–73; Helen Ruth Andretta, Chaucer's 'Troilus and Criseyde.' A Poet's Response to Ockhamism (New York: Lang, 1997). ^ "Jonathan Robinson". individual.utoronto.ca. 

Further reading[edit]

Adams, Marilyn (1987). William Ockham. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-01940-1.  Beckmann, Jan (1992). Ockham-Bibliographie, 1900–1990. Hamburg: F. Meiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7873-1103-3.  Freppert, Lucan (1988). The Basis of Morality According to William Ockham. Franciscan
Franciscan
Herald Press. ISBN 978-0-8199-0918-3.  Keele, Rondo (2010), Ockham Explained: From Razor to Rebellion, Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, ISBN 978-08126-965-09, retrieved 19 November 2012  Knysh, George (1996). Political Ockhamism. Winnipeg: WCU Council of Learned Societies. ISBN 978-1-896637-00-6.  Labellarte, Alberto (2015). Logica, conoscenza e filosofia della natura in Guglielmo di Ockham. Roma: Gruppo Albatros Il Filo. ISBN 978-88-567-7421-4.  Lenzen, Wolfgang (2015), "Ockham’s Calculus of Strict Implication", Logica Universalis, 2015. doi:10.1007/s11787-014-0114-4 McGrade, Arthur Stephen (2002). The Political Thought of William Ockham. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52224-3.  Panaccio, Claude (2004). Ockham on Concepts. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-3228-3.  Pelletier, Jenny (2012). William Ockham on Metaphysics. The Science of Being and God. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-9-0042-3015-6.  Robinson, Jonathan (2012). William of Ockham's Early Theory of Property Rights in Context. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-9-0042-4346-0.  Schierbaum, Sonja (2014). Ockham's Assumption of Mental Speech: Thinking in a World of Particulars. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-9-0042-7734-2.  Spade, Paul (1999). The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58244-X.  Wood, Rega (1997). Ockham on the Virtues. Purdue University
Purdue University
Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-097-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: William of Ockham

Wikisource
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has original works written by or about: William of Ockham

Mediaeval Logic
Logic
and Philosophy, maintained by Paul Vincent Spade William of Ockham
William of Ockham
at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy William of Ockham
William of Ockham
biography at University of St Andrews, Scotland Dialogus, text translation and studies at British Academy, UK The Nominalist Ontology
Ontology
of William of Ockham, with an annotated bibliography Richard Utz and Terry Barakat, "Medieval Nominalism and the Literary Questions: Selected Studies." Perspicuitas The Myth of Occam's Razor
Occam's Razor
by William M. Thorburn (1918) BBC Radio 4 'In Our Time' programme on Ockham Download and listen Literature by and about William of Ockham
William of Ockham
in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about William of Ockham
William of Ockham
in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (German Digital Library) "Occam, Guillelmus". Repertorium "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages" (Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters). 

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Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon
Avignon
Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
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Paul VI Pope
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John Paul I Pope
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John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

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History of Catholic theology

General history

History of the Catholic Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

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Medieval philosophers

Islamic

Early

Al-Jahiz Alkindus Ibn al-Rawandi Al-Razi (Rhazes) Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
(Alpharabius) Ibn Masarra Al Amiri Ebn Meskavayh Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) Abu Rayhan Biruni "Brethren of Purity"

High

Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) Ibn Hazm Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(Algazel) Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Ibn Bajjah (Avempace) Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani Ibn Tufail Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

Late

Ibn Sab'in Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Rashid al-Din Ibn Arabi Zachariah Kazwin Abd-el-latif Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Ibn al-Nafis Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Khaldun

Jewish

Medieval

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon Saadia Gaon Solomon ibn Gabirol Judah Halevi Abraham ibn Daud Maimonides Nachmanides Gersonides Hasdai Crescas Joseph Albo

Christian

Early

"Church Fathers" Augustine of Hippo Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Isidore of Seville Johannes Scotus Eriugena Alcuin

11–12th century

"Scholasticism" Anselm of Canterbury Peter Abelard Anselm of Laon Hugh of Saint Victor Richard of Saint Victor Roscelin Peter Lombard Alexander of Hales Bernard of Chartres Dominicus Gundissalinus Gilbert de la Porrée Alain de Lille

13–14th century

Robert Grosseteste Albertus Magnus Bonaventure Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Roger Bacon John Peckham Ramon Llull Petrus Aureolus Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt Durandus Giles of Rome Godfrey of Fontaines Duns Scotus William of Ockham

Late

Jean Buridan Nicole Oresme Albert of Saxony Francesc Eiximenis Vincent Ferrer Paul of Venice Lambertus de Monte John Hennon

See also Renaissance philosophy

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Philosophy of science

Concepts

Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism

Philosophy of

Physics

thermal and statistical Motion

Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology

Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science

Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space and time

Related topics

Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance

Philosophers of science by era

Ancient

Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans

Medieval

Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby

Early modern

Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume

Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

Portal Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 262145669298005170004 LCCN: n79081704 ISNI: 0000 0001 2129 5969 GND: 118633015 SELIBR: 196264 SUDOC: 02667520X BNF: cb11887886s (data) NLA: 35394699 NDL: 00621226 NKC: jn20000701331 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV107490 BNE: XX982

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