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The Info List - William S. Paley


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William Samuel Paley (September 28, 1901 – October 26, 1990) was the chief executive who built the Columbia Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System (CBS) from a small radio network into one of the foremost radio and television network operations in the United States.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Broadcasting
Broadcasting
pioneer 3 Other interests

3.1 Philanthropy

4 Personal life

4.1 Marriage to Dorothy Hart Hearst 4.2 Marriage to Barbara Cushing
Barbara Cushing
Mortimer 4.3 Other affairs 4.4 Death

5 Works 6 Awards and honors 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Early life[edit] Paley was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Goldie (Drell) and Samuel Paley. His family was Jewish, and his father was an immigrant from Ukraine who ran a cigar company. As the company became increasingly successful, Paley became a millionaire, and moved his family to Philadelphia in the early 1920s.[2] William Paley matriculated at Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois
Illinois
and later received his college degree from the Wharton School
Wharton School
at the University of Pennsylvania in expectation that he would take an increasingly active role running the family cigar business.[2] In 1927, Paley's father, brother-in-law and some business partners bought a struggling Philadelphia-based radio network of 16 stations called the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System.[3] Samuel Paley's intention was to use his acquisition as an advertising medium for promoting the family's cigar business, which included the La Palina brand. Within a year, under William's leadership, cigar sales had more than doubled, and, in 1928, the Paley family secured majority ownership of the network from their partners. Within a decade, William S. Paley had expanded the network to 114 affiliate stations. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
pioneer[edit] Paley quickly grasped the earnings potential of radio and recognized that good programming was the key to selling advertising time and, in turn, bringing in profits to the network and to affiliate owners. Before Paley, most businessmen viewed stations as stand-alone local outlets or, in other words, as the broadcast equivalent of local newspapers. Individual stations originally bought programming from the network and, thus, were considered the network's clients. Paley changed broadcasting's business model not only by developing successful and lucrative broadcast programming but also by viewing the advertisers (sponsors) as the most significant element of the broadcasting equation. Paley provided network programming to affiliate stations at a nominal cost, thereby ensuring the widest possible distribution for both the programming and the advertising. The advertisers then became the network's primary clients and, because of the wider distribution brought by the growing network, Paley was able to charge more for the ad time. Affiliates were required to carry programming offered by the network for part of the broadcast day, receiving a portion of the network's fees from advertising revenue. At other times in the broadcast day, affiliates were free to offer local programming and sell advertising time locally. Paley's recognition of how to harness the potential reach of broadcasting was the key to his growing CBS
CBS
from a tiny chain of stations into what was eventually one of the world's dominant communication empires. During his prime, Paley was described as having an uncanny sense for popular taste[4] and exploiting that insight to build the CBS
CBS
network. As war clouds darkened over Europe in the late 1930s, Paley recognized Americans' desire for news coverage of the coming war and built the CBS
CBS
news division into a dominant force just as he had previously built the network's entertainment division. During World War II, Paley served as director of radio operations of the Psychological Warfare
Psychological Warfare
branch in the Office of War Information
Office of War Information
at Allied Force Headquarters in London, where he held the rank of colonel. While based in England during the war, Paley came to know and befriend Edward R. Murrow, CBS's head of European news who expanded the news division's foreign coverage with a team of war correspondents later known as the Murrow Boys. In 1946, Paley promoted Frank Stanton to president of CBS. CBS
CBS
expanded into TV and rode the post-World War II boom to surpass NBC, which had dominated radio. CBS
CBS
has owned the Columbia Record Company
Columbia Record Company
and its associated CBS Laboratories since 1939. In 1948, Columbia Records
Columbia Records
introduced the 33-1/3-rpm long-playing vinyl disc to successfully compete with RCA Victor's 45-rpm vinyl disc. Also, CBS
CBS
Laboratories and Peter Goldmark developed a method for color television. After lobbying by RCA President David Sarnoff
David Sarnoff
and Paley in Washington, D.C., the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the RCA color system
RCA color system
as the standard, and CBS
CBS
sold the patents to its system to foreign broadcasters as PAL
PAL
SECAM. CBS
CBS
was the last of the three broadcast networks to adopt color television, having to buy and license RCA equipment and technology, taking the RCA
RCA
markings off of the equipment,[5] and later relying exclusively on Norelco
Norelco
for color equipment beginning in 1964.[6] PAL
PAL
or Phase Alternating Line, an analogue TV-encoding system, is today a television-broadcasting standard used in large parts of the world. "Bill Paley erected two towers of power: one for entertainment and one for news," 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
creator Don Hewitt
Don Hewitt
claimed in his autobiography, Tell Me a Story. "And he decreed that there would be no bridge between them.... In short, Paley was the guy who put Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
and Edward R. Murrow on the radio and 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
on television." Paley was not fond of one of the network's biggest stars. Arthur Godfrey had been working locally in Washington, DC and New York City hosting morning shows. Paley did not consider him worthy of CBS, being a mere local host. When Paley went into the Army and took up his assignment in London, and Frank Stanton assumed his duties, he decided to try Godfrey on the network. By the time Paley returned, Godfrey was a rising star on the network with his daily Arthur Godfrey
Arthur Godfrey
Time program. Paley had to accept the entertainer, but the two were never friends. Godfrey would, on occasion, mock Paley and other CBS executives by name, on the air. Godfrey's massive revenues from advertising on the popular morning programs and his two prime-time shows Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts and Arthur Godfrey
Arthur Godfrey
and his Friends, protected him from any reprisals. In private, Paley and his colleagues despised Godfrey. The relationship between Paley and his news staff was not always smooth. His friendship with Edward R. Murrow, one of the leading lights in the CBS
CBS
news division (and by then a vice president of CBS), suffered during the 1950s over the hard-hitting tone of the Murrow-hosted See It Now series. The implication was that the network's sponsors were uneasy about some of the controversial topics of the series, leading Paley to worry about lost revenue to the network as well as unwelcome scrutiny during the era of McCarthyism. In 1955, Alcoa
Alcoa
withdrew its sponsorship of See It Now, and eventually the program's weekly broadcast on Tuesdays was stopped, though it continued as a series of special segments until 1958. In 1959, James T. Aubrey Jr.
James T. Aubrey Jr.
became the president of CBS. Under Aubrey, the network became the most popular on television with shows like The Beverly Hillbillies
The Beverly Hillbillies
and Gilligan's Island. However, Paley's personal favorite was Gunsmoke; in fact, he was such a fan of Gunsmoke that, upon its threatened cancellation in 1967, he demanded that it be reinstated, a dictum that led to the abrupt demise of Gilligan's Island, which had already been renewed for a fourth season. During the 1963–1964 television season, 14 of the top 15 shows on prime-time and the top 12 shows of daytime television were on CBS. Aubrey, however, fought constantly with Fred W. Friendly
Fred W. Friendly
of CBS
CBS
News, and Paley did not like Aubrey's taste in low-brow programming. Aubrey and Paley bickered to the point that Aubrey approached Frank Stanton to propose a take-over of CBS. The takeover never materialized and, when CBS's ratings began to slip, Paley fired Aubrey in 1965. In 1972, Paley ordered the shortening of a second installment of a two-part CBS
CBS
Evening News series on the Watergate, based on a complaint by Charles Colson, an aide to President Richard Nixon. And later, Paley briefly ordered the suspension of instant and often negatively critical analyses by CBS
CBS
news commentators, which followed the Presidential addresses. Over the years, Paley sold portions of his family stockholding in CBS. At the time of his death, he owned less than nine percent of the outstanding stock. In 1995, five years after Paley's death, CBS
CBS
was bought by Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
and, in 1999, by Viacom, which itself was once a subsidiary of CBS. Today, CBS
CBS
is owned by the CBS
CBS
Corporation, after being spun off from Viacom
Viacom
in 2006. National Amusements is the majority owner of the CBS
CBS
Corporation and the "new" Viacom. Other interests[edit] In the 1940s, William Paley
William Paley
and Leon Levy formed Jaclyn Stable, which owned and raced a string of thoroughbred race horses. Paley formed a modern art collection with as many as 40 major works, and he enjoyed photographing Picasso
Picasso
in Cap d'Antibes. Like Picasso, Paley drove an exotic French Facel Vega Facel II, the fastest four-seater car in the world in the early 1960s.[7] In 1964, CBS
CBS
purchased the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
from Del Webb. Subsequently, the storied baseball team fell into mediocrity, not making the postseason for the next ten years. In 1973, Paley sold the team at its low ebb for $8.7 million to Cleveland
Cleveland
shipbuilder George Steinbrenner and a group of investors. Under the Steinbrenner regime, the Yankees grew in value to what, in April 2006, Forbes magazine estimated was $1.26 billion, or about $280 million in 1973 dollars.[8]

Samuel L. Paley library at Temple University, named for William S. Paley's father

Philanthropy[edit] Encouraged by Paley's avid interest in modern art and his outstanding collection, Paley became a trustee of the Rockefeller family's Museum of Modern Art in the 1930s and, in 1962, was tapped by then-chairman David Rockefeller
David Rockefeller
to be its president. In 1968, he joined a syndicate with Rockefeller and others to buy six works by Picasso
Picasso
for the museum from the notable Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
collection. He subsequently became chairman, stepping down from the museum post in 1985.[9] The Paley Center for Media
The Paley Center for Media
in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and New York City
New York City
was founded by Paley in 1976, when it was known as the Museum of Broadcasting. From 1991 to 2007, it was known as The Museum of Television and Radio; its new location was known as the Paley Building. In 1974, Paley dedicated the second building at the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University. He also personally dedicated the Samuel L. Paley library at Temple University named in honor of his father. Personal life[edit] Marriage to Dorothy Hart Hearst[edit] Paley met Dorothy Hart Hearst (1908–1998) while she was married to John Randolph Hearst, the third son of William Randolph Hearst. Paley fell in love with her, and, after her Las Vegas divorce from Hearst, she and Paley married on May 12, 1932, in Kingman, Arizona.[10] Dorothy called on her extensive social connections acquired during her previous marriage to introduce Paley to several top members of President Franklin Roosevelt's government. She also exerted a considerable influence over Paley's political views. She later said: "I can't believe he would have voted Democrat without me."[4] Dorothy began to become estranged from Paley during the early 1940s because of his infidelity. They divorced on July 24, 1947, in Reno, Nevada. She retained custody of their two adopted children, Jeffrey Paley and Hilary Paley. In 1953, Dorothy married stockbroker Walter Hirshon; they divorced in 1961.[10] Marriage to Barbara Cushing
Barbara Cushing
Mortimer[edit] Paley married divorcée, socialite and fashion icon Barbara "Babe" Cushing Mortimer (1915–1978) on July 28, 1947. She was the daughter of renowned neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing. Paley and his second wife, in spite of their successes and social standing, were barred from being members of country clubs on Long Island
Long Island
because he was Jewish. As an alternative, the Paleys built a summer home, "Kiluna North," on Squam Lake in New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and spent the summers there for many years, routinely entertaining their many friends, including Lucille Ball, Grace Kelly, and David O. Selznick. The couple had two children, William and Kate. Other affairs[edit] Paley was a notorious ladies man his entire life. Indeed, his first marriage to Dorothy ended when a newspaper published a suicide note written to Paley by a former girlfriend. As a result of another relationship, he provided a stipend to a former lover, actress Louise Brooks, for the rest of her life. In his later years, he enjoyed keeping company with several women. Paley was included in a list of the ten most eligible bachelors compiled by Cosmopolitan magazine in 1985; the irony of the octogenarian Paley being on the list was an inspiration for Late Night with David Letterman's nightly Top Ten lists.[11] Death[edit] Paley died of kidney failure on October 26, 1990. He was 89.[1] Works[edit]

As It Happened: A Memoir (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1979)

Awards and honors[edit]

Croix de Guerre with Palm, 1946 Legion of Honor Legion of Merit, 1946 Peabody Award, 1958 and 1961 Inducted into the Junior Achievement
Junior Achievement
U.S. Business Hall of Fame, 1984 Inducted into the Television Hall of Fame, 1984 Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism, 1984.[12]

In popular culture[edit]

In the 1986 television movie Murrow, Paley is played by Dabney Coleman, while in the 2005 film Good Night, and Good Luck, he is played by Frank Langella. In the 2006 film Infamous, Paley is played by Lee Ritchey. Paley is also portrayed by Shawn Lawrence in the 2002 television film Gleason.[13] The philandering character Sidney Dillon in Truman Capote's unfinished novel Answered Prayers
Answered Prayers
is based on Paley.[14] In "We Shall Overcome," an episode of the NBC
NBC
series Dark Skies Paley (played by radio talk show host Art Bell) is presented as a member of the MJ-12 Committee.[15] On AMC's series Mad Men, Harry Crane names Paley as the "most important" person he could ever bring into the office.[16] The Museum of Television and Radio
Radio
in New York City
New York City
and Los Angeles were renamed the Paley Center for Media.

See also[edit]

Biography portal

History of television

References[edit] Notes

^ a b Gerard, Jeremy (October 27, 1990). "William S. Paley, Builder of CBS, Dies at 89". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-25. William S. Paley, who personified the power, glamour, allure and influence of CBS Inc., the communications empire he built, died last night at his home in Manhattan. He was 89 years old.  ^ a b Bergreen, Laurence, (1980). Look Now, Pay Later: The Rise of Network Broadcasting. New York: Doubleday and Company. ISBN 978-0-451-61966-2. p. 57. ^ Bergreen, p. 58. ^ a b Bedell Smith, Sally (1990). In All His Glory. The Life of William S. Paley. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-61735-4.  ^ http://eyesofageneration.com/RCA_Cameras_TK40_41.php ^ http://eyesofageneration.com/Norelco_Philips_Gallery.php ^ " ... they have a place at Squam Lake
Squam Lake
in New Hampshire, where Paley tears up the back roads at 80 m.p.h. in his Facel-Vega": Time, Jan. 31, 1964 ^ Inflation Calculator ^ MoMA and the Stein collection - see David Rockefeller, Memoirs, New York: Random House, 2002. (pp.450-58) ^ a b Nemy, Enid (January 31, 1998). "Dorothy H. Hirshon, 89, Dies; Socialite and Philanthropist". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-26. Dorothy Hart Hirshon, a glamorous figure in New York society from the 1920s through the 40s who later became active in social, human rights and political causes, died Thursday in an automobile accident while driving near her home in Glen Cove, on Long Island. She was 89.  ^ Phil Rosenthal (2009-12-13), "No chance of a list-less columnist this time of year", Chicago
Chicago
Tribune  ^ Arizona State University. "Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication". Retrieved November 23, 2016.  ^ Gallo, Phil (10 October 2002). "Gleason". Variety (magazine). Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Clark, Gerald. "Bye Society", Vanity Fair (April 1988) ^ "We Shall Overcome" Dark Skies Broadcast December 14, 1996. ^ Watkins, Gwynne (2012-05-21). "Mad Men's Rich Sommer on Harry Crane's Sordid Sex Life: The Stream: GQ on TV". GQ. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 

Further reading

Museum of Broadcast Communication's page on William Paley Business Week article about William Paley, June 1, 2004 Paper, Lewis J. Empire: William S. Paley
William S. Paley
and the Making of CBS
CBS
(New York, St. Martin's Press, 1987) Sally Bedell Smith
Sally Bedell Smith
(1948- ), In All His Glory: the Life and Times of William S. Paley
William S. Paley
and the Birth of Modern Broadcasting
Broadcasting
(New York, Simon & Schuster, 1990) 782 pages

External links[edit]

Papers of William S. Paley
William S. Paley
(1944, 1969), Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library William S. Paley
William S. Paley
at Find a Grave Booknotes interview with Sally Bedell Smith
Sally Bedell Smith
on In All His Glory: The Life of William Paley, December 9, 1990.

v t e

Television Hall of Fame Class of 1984

Lucille Ball Milton Berle Paddy Chayefsky Norman Lear Edward R. Murrow William S. Paley David Sarnoff

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 94314965 LCCN: n79003951 ISNI: 0000 0000 8281 6951 GND: 136406068 SUDOC: 193717832 BNF: cb11941652t (data) BIBSYS: 90123902 SN

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