William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an
American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer
a psychology course in the United States.  James was one of the
leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by
many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States
has ever produced, while others have labeled him the "Father of
Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, James is considered
to be one of the major figures associated with the philosophical
school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders
of functional psychology. A Review of General
published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist
of the 20th century. He also developed the philosophical
perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced
intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund
Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and
Richard Rorty, and has even influenced Presidents, such as Jimmy
Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian
Henry James Sr.
Henry James Sr. and the brother of both the prominent
Henry James and the diarist Alice James. James initially
trained as a physician but never practiced medicine. Instead he
discovered his true interests lay in philosophy and psychology. James
wrote widely on many topics, including epistemology, education,
metaphysics, psychology, religion, and mysticism. Among his most
influential books are The Principles of Psychology, which was a
groundbreaking text in the field of psychology; Essays in Radical
Empiricism, an important text in philosophy; and The Varieties of
Religious Experience, which investigated different forms of religious
experience, including theories on mind-cure.
1 Early life
Pragmatism and "cash value"
5.2 Will to believe doctrine
6 Free will
7 Philosophy of religion
10 Theory of emotion
10.1 William James' bear
11 Philosophy of history
12 View on spiritualism and associationism
13 Jamesian theory of self
13.1 Material self
13.2 Social self
13.3 Spiritual self
13.4 Pure ego
14 Notable works
15 See also
18 External links
William James in Brazil, 1865
William James was born at the
Astor House in New York City in 1842. He
was the son of
Henry James Sr., a noted and independently wealthy
Swedenborgian theologian well acquainted with the literary and
intellectual elites of his day. The intellectual brilliance of the
James family milieu and the remarkable epistolary talents of several
of its members have made them a subject of continuing interest to
historians, biographers, and critics.
William James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education,
developing fluency in both German and French.
Education in the James
household encouraged cosmopolitanism. The family made two trips to
William James was still a child, setting a pattern that
resulted in thirteen more European journeys during his life. His early
artistic bent led to an apprenticeship in the studio of William Morris
Hunt in Newport, Rhode Island, but he switched in 1861 to scientific
studies at the
Lawrence Scientific School
Lawrence Scientific School of
In his early adulthood, James suffered from a variety of physical
ailments, including those of the eyes, back, stomach, and skin. He was
also tone deaf. He was subject to a variety of psychological
symptoms which were diagnosed at the time as neurasthenia, and which
included periods of depression during which he contemplated suicide
for months on end. Two younger brothers, Garth Wilkinson (Wilky) and
Robertson (Bob), fought in the Civil War. The other three siblings
(William, Henry, and Alice James) all suffered from periods of
He took up medical studies at
Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School in 1864
(according to his brother Henry James, the author). He took a break in
the spring of 1865 to join naturalist
Louis Agassiz on a scientific
expedition up the Amazon River, but aborted his trip after eight
months, as he suffered bouts of severe seasickness and mild smallpox.
His studies were interrupted once again due to illness in April 1867.
He traveled to Germany in search of a cure and remained there until
November 1868; at that time he was 26 years old. During this period,
he began to publish; reviews of his works appeared in literary
periodicals such as the North American Review.
James finally earned his M.D. degree in June 1869 but he never
practiced medicine. What he called his "soul-sickness" would only be
resolved in 1872, after an extended period of philosophical searching.
He married Alice Gibbens in 1878. In 1882 he joined the Theosophical
James's time in Germany proved intellectually fertile, helping him
find that his true interests lay not in medicine but in philosophy and
psychology. Later, in 1902 he would write: "I originally studied
medicine in order to be a physiologist, but I drifted into psychology
and philosophy from a sort of fatality. I never had any philosophic
instruction, the first lecture on psychology I ever heard being the
first I ever gave".
In 1875–1876, James,
Henry Pickering Bowditch
Henry Pickering Bowditch (1840–1911), Charles
Pickering Putnam (1844–1914), and
James Jackson Putnam (1846–1918)
Putnam Camp at St. Huberts, Essex County, New York.
James interacted with a wide array of writers and scholars throughout
his life, including his godfather Ralph Waldo Emerson, his godson
William James Sidis, as well as Charles Sanders Peirce, Bertrand
Russell, Josiah Royce, Ernst Mach, John Dewey, Macedonio Fernández,
Walter Lippmann, Mark Twain, Horatio Alger, Jr., G. Stanley Hall,
Henri Bergson and Sigmund Freud.
James spent almost all of his academic career at Harvard. He was
appointed instructor in physiology for the spring 1873 term,
instructor in anatomy and physiology in 1873, assistant professor of
psychology in 1876, assistant professor of philosophy in 1881, full
professor in 1885, endowed chair in psychology in 1889, return to
philosophy in 1897, and emeritus professor of philosophy in 1907.
James studied medicine, physiology, and biology, and began to teach in
those subjects, but was drawn to the scientific study of the human
mind at a time when psychology was constituting itself as a science.
James's acquaintance with the work of figures like Hermann Helmholtz
in Germany and
Pierre Janet in France facilitated his introduction of
courses in scientific psychology at
Harvard University. He taught his
first experimental psychology course at
Harvard in the 1875–1876
Harvard years, James joined in philosophical discussions
and debates with Charles Peirce, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Chauncey
Wright that evolved into a lively group informally known as The
Metaphysical Club in 1872.
Louis Menand (2001) suggested that this
Club provided a foundation for American intellectual thought for
decades to come. James joined the Anti-Imperialist League in 1898, in
opposition to the United States annexation of the Philippines.
William James and Josiah Royce, near James's country home in Chocorua,
New Hampshire in September 1903. James's daughter Peggy took the
picture. On hearing the camera click, James cried out: "Royce, you're
being photographed! Look out! I say Damn the Absolute!"
Among James's students at
Harvard University were luminaries such as
Boris Sidis, Theodore Roosevelt, George Santayana, W. E. B. Du Bois,
G. Stanley Hall, Ralph Barton Perry, Gertrude Stein, Horace Kallen,
Morris Raphael Cohen, Walter Lippmann, Alain Locke, C. I. Lewis, and
Mary Whiton Calkins. Antiquarian bookseller
Gabriel Wells tutored
under him at
Harvard in the late 1890s.
Following his January, 1907 retirement from Harvard, James continued
to write and lecture, publishing Pragmatism, A Pluralistic Universe,
and The Meaning of Truth. James was increasingly afflicted with
cardiac pain during his last years. It worsened in 1909 while he
worked on a philosophy text (unfinished but posthumously published as
Some Problems in Philosophy). He sailed to Europe in the spring of
1910 to take experimental treatments which proved unsuccessful, and
returned home on August 18. His heart failed on August 26, 1910 at his
home in Chocorua, New Hampshire. He was buried in the family plot in
Cambridge Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He was one of the strongest proponents of the school of functionalism
in psychology and of pragmatism in philosophy. He was a founder of the
Society for Psychical Research, as well as a champion of
alternative approaches to healing. He challenged his professional
colleagues not to let a narrow mindset prevent an honest appraisal of
In an empirical study by Haggbloom et al. using six criteria such as
citations and recognition, James was found to be the 14th most eminent
psychologist of the 20th Century.
Alice Runnels James (Mrs. William James), John Singer Sargent, 1921
William James was the son of
Henry James (Senior) of Albany, and Mary
Robertson Walsh. He had four siblings: Henry (the novelist), Garth
Wilkinson, Robertson, and Alice. William became engaged to Alice Howe
Gibbens on May 10, 1878; they were married on July 10. They had 5
children: Henry (born May 18, 1878), William (born June 17, 1882),
Herman (born 1884, died in infancy), Margaret (born March, 1887) and
Alexander (the artist) (born December 22, 1890).
William James wrote voluminously throughout his life. A non-exhaustive
bibliography of his writings, compiled by John McDermott, is 47 pages
He gained widespread recognition with his monumental The Principles of
Psychology (1890), totaling twelve hundred pages in two volumes, which
took twelve years to complete. Psychology: The Briefer Course, was an
1892 abridgement designed as a less rigorous introduction to the
field. These works criticized both the English associationist school
and the Hegelianism of his day as competing dogmatisms of little
explanatory value, and sought to re-conceive the human mind as
inherently purposive and selective.
President Jimmy Carter's Moral Equivalent of War Speech, on April 17,
1977, equating the United States' 1970s energy crisis, oil crisis and
the changes and sacrifices Carter's proposed plans would require with
the "moral equivalent of war," may have borrowed its title, much of
its theme and the memorable phrase from James' classic essay "The
Moral Equivalent of War" derived from his last speech, delivered at
Stanford University in 1906, and published in 1910, in which "James
considered one of the classic problems of politics: how to sustain
political unity and civic virtue in the absence of war or a credible
threat...." and which "...sounds a rallying cry for service in the
interests of the individual and the nation."  
William James by John La Farge, circa 1859
James defined true beliefs as those that prove useful to the believer.
His pragmatic theory of truth was a synthesis of correspondence theory
of truth and coherence theory of truth, with an added dimension. Truth
is verifiable to the extent that thoughts and statements correspond
with actual things, as well as the extent to which they "hang
together," or cohere, as pieces of a puzzle might fit together; these
are in turn verified by the observed results of the application of an
idea to actual practice.
"The most ancient parts of truth . . . also once were plastic. They
also were called true for human reasons. They also mediated between
still earlier truths and what in those days were novel observations.
Purely objective truth, truth in whose establishment the function of
giving human satisfaction in marrying previous parts of experience
with newer parts played no role whatsoever, is nowhere to be found.
The reasons why we call things true is the reason why they are true,
for 'to be true' means only to perform this marriage-function," he
"Anything short of God is not rational, anything more than God is not
possible" he wrote.
He writes, "First, it is essential that God be conceived as the
deepest power in the universe, and second, he must be conceived under
the form of a mental personality."
He also writes, "A God who can relish such superfluities of horror is
no God for human beings to appeal to. ...In other words the "Absolute"
with his one purpose, is not the man-like God of common people."
James held a world view in line with pragmatism, declaring that the
value of any truth was utterly dependent upon its use to the person
who held it. Additional tenets of James's pragmatism include the view
that the world is a mosaic of diverse experiences that can only be
properly interpreted and understood through an application of "radical
empiricism." Radical empiricism, not related to the everyday
scientific empiricism, asserts that the world and experience can never
be halted for an entirely objective analysis; the mind of the observer
and the act of observation affect any empirical approach to truth. The
mind, its experiences, and nature are inseparable. James's emphasis on
diversity as the default human condition—over and against duality,
especially Hegelian dialectical duality—has maintained a strong
influence in American culture. James's description of the mind-world
connection, which he described in terms of a "stream of
consciousness", had a direct and significant impact on avant-garde and
modernist literature and art, notably in the case of James Joyce.
Pragmatism Means, James writes that the central point of his
own doctrine of truth is, in brief, that "Truths emerge from facts,
but they dip forward into facts again and add to them; which facts
again create or reveal new truth (the word is indifferent) and so on
indefinitely. The 'facts' themselves meanwhile are not true. They
Truth is the function of the beliefs that start and
terminate among them."
Richard Rorty made the contested claim that
James did not mean to give a theory of truth with this statement and
that we should not regard it as such. However, other pragmatism
scholars such as
Susan Haack and Howard Mounce do not share Rorty's
instrumentalist interpretation of James.
In The Meaning of Truth, James seems to speak of truth in relativistic
terms: "The critic's [sc., the critic of pragmatism] trouble...seems
to come from his taking the word 'true' irrelatively, whereas the
pragmatist always means 'true for him who experiences the workings.'
" However, James responded to critics accusing him of relativism,
scepticism or agnosticism, and of believing only in relative truths.
To the contrary, he supported an epistemological realism position.
Pragmatism and "cash value"
From the introduction to William James's
Pragmatism by Bruce Kuklick,
James went on to apply the pragmatic method to the epistemological
problem of truth. He would seek the meaning of 'true' by examining how
the idea functioned in our lives. A belief was true, he said, if it
worked for all of us, and guided us expeditiously through our
semihospitable world. James was anxious to uncover what true beliefs
amounted to in human life, what their "cash value" was, and what
consequences they led to. A belief was not a mental entity which
somehow mysteriously corresponded to an external reality if the belief
were true. Beliefs were ways of acting with reference to a precarious
environment, and to say they were true was to say they were
efficacious in this environment. In this sense the pragmatic theory of
truth applied Darwinian ideas in philosophy; it made survival the test
of intellectual as well as biological fitness.
Will to believe doctrine
Main article: The Will to Believe
In William James's lecture of 1896 titled "The Will to Believe", James
defends the right to violate the principle of evidentialism in order
to justify hypothesis venturing. This idea foresaw 20th century
objections to evidentialism and sought to ground justified belief in
an unwavering principle that would prove more beneficial. Through his
philosophy of pragmatism
William James justifies religious beliefs by
using the results of his hypothetical venturing as evidence to support
the hypothesis' truth. Therefore, this doctrine allows one to assume
belief in a god and prove its existence by what the belief brings to
This was criticized by advocates of skepticism rationality, like
Bertrand Russell in
Free Thought and Official Propaganda
Free Thought and Official Propaganda and Alfred
Henry Lloyd with The Will to Doubt. Both argued that one must always
adhere to fallibilism, recognizing of all human knowledge that "None
of our beliefs are quite true; all have at least a penumbra of
vagueness and error", and that the only means of progressing
ever-closer to the truth is to never assume certainty, but always
examine all sides and try to reach a conclusion objectively.
In The Will to Believe, James simply asserted that his will was free.
As his first act of freedom, he said, he chose to believe his will was
free. He was encouraged to do this by reading Charles Renouvier, whose
work convinced James to convert from monism to pluralism. In his diary
entry of April 30, 1870, James wrote,
I think that yesterday was a crisis in my life. I finished the first
part of Renouvier's second Essais and see no reason why his definition
of free will—"the sustaining of a thought because I choose to when I
might have other thoughts"—need be the definition of an illusion. At
any rate, I will assume for the present—until next year—that it is
no illusion. My first act of free will shall be to believe in free
In 1884 James set the terms for all future discussions of determinism
and compatibilism in the free will debates with his lecture to Harvard
Divinity School students published as "The Dilemma of Determinism." In
this talk he defined the common terms "hard determinism" and "soft
determinism" (now more commonly called "compatibilism").
Old-fashioned determinism was what we may call hard determinism. It
did not shrink from such words as fatality, bondage of the will,
necessitation, and the like. Nowadays, we have a soft determinism
which abhors harsh words, and, repudiating fatality, necessity, and
even predetermination, says that its real name is freedom; for freedom
is only necessity understood, and bondage to the highest is identical
with true freedom.
James called compatibilism a "quagmire of evasion", just as the
Thomas Hobbes and David Hume—that free will was simply
freedom from external coercion—were called a "wretched subterfuge"
by Immanuel Kant.
James described chance as neither hard nor soft determinism, but
"indeterminism". He said
The stronghold of the determinist argument is the antipathy to the
idea of chance...This notion of alternative possibility, this
admission that any one of several things may come to pass is, after
all, only a roundabout name for chance.
James asked the students to consider his choice for walking home from
Lowell Lecture Hall after his talk.
What is meant by saying that my choice of which way to walk home after
the lecture is ambiguous and matter of chance?...It means that both
Divinity Avenue and Oxford Street are called but only one, and that
one either one, shall be chosen.
With this simple example, James laid out a two-stage decision process
with chance in a present time of random alternatives, leading to a
choice of one possibility that transforms an ambiguous future into a
simple unalterable past. James' two-stage model separates chance
(undetermined alternative possibilities) from choice (the free action
of the individual, on which randomness has no effect). Subsequent
thinkers using this model include Henri Poincaré, Arthur Holly
Compton, and Karl Popper.
Philosophy of religion
James did important work in philosophy of religion. In his Gifford
Lectures at the
University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh he provided a wide-ranging
The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) and
interpreted them according to his pragmatic leanings. Some of the
important claims he makes in this regard:
Religious genius (experience) should be the primary topic in the study
of religion, rather than religious institutions—since institutions
are merely the social descendant of genius.
The intense, even pathological varieties of experience (religious or
otherwise) should be sought by psychologists, because they represent
the closest thing to a microscope of the mind—that is, they show us
in drastically enlarged form the normal processes of things.
In order to usefully interpret the realm of common, shared experience
and history, we must each make certain "over-beliefs" in things which,
while they cannot be proven on the basis of experience, help us to
live fuller and better lives.
Mysticism is only one half of mysticism, the other half is
composed of the insane and both of these are co-located in the 'great
subliminal or transmarginal region'.
James investigated mystical experiences throughout his life, leading
him to experiment with chloral hydrate (1870), amyl nitrite (1875),
nitrous oxide (1882), and peyote (1896). James
claimed that it was only when he was under the influence of nitrous
oxide that he was able to understand Hegel. He concluded that
while the revelations of the mystic hold true, they hold true only for
the mystic; for others, they are certainly ideas to be considered, but
can hold no claim to truth without personal experience of such.
American Philosophy: An Encyclopedia classes him as one of several
figures who "took a more pantheist or pandeist approach by rejecting
views of God as separate from the world."
William James provided a description of the mystical experience, in
his famous collection of lectures published in 1902 as The Varieties
of Religious Experience.  These criteria are as follows
Passivity - a feeling of being grasped and held by a superior power
not under your own control.
Ineffability - no adequate way to use human language to describe the
Noetic - universal truths revealed that are unable to be acquired
Transient - the mystical experience is only a temporary experience.
See also: Instinct
Like Sigmund Freud, James was influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of
natural selection. At the core of James' theory of psychology, as
defined in The Principles of
Psychology (1890), was a system of
"instincts". James wrote that humans had many instincts, even more
than other animals. These instincts, he said, could be overridden
by experience and by each other, as many of the instincts were
actually in conflict with each other. In the 1920s, however,
psychology turned away from evolutionary theory and embraced radical
Theory of emotion
James is one of the two namesakes of the
James–Lange theory of
emotion, which he formulated independently of Carl Lange in the 1880s.
The theory holds that emotion is the mind's perception of
physiological conditions that result from some stimulus. In James's
oft-cited example, it is not that we see a bear, fear it, and run; we
see a bear and run; consequently, we fear the bear. Our mind's
perception of the higher adrenaline level, heartbeat, etc. is the
This way of thinking about emotion has great consequences for the
philosophy of aesthetics as well as to the philosophy and practice of
education. Here is a passage from his great work, The Principles
of Psychology, that spells out those consequences:
[W]e must immediately insist that aesthetic emotion, pure and simple,
the pleasure given us by certain lines and masses, and combinations of
colors and sounds, is an absolutely sensational experience, an optical
or auricular feeling that is primary, and not due to the repercussion
backwards of other sensations elsewhere consecutively aroused. To this
simple primary and immediate pleasure in certain pure sensations and
harmonious combinations of them, there may, it is true, be added
secondary pleasures; and in the practical enjoyment of works of art by
the masses of mankind these secondary pleasures play a great part. The
more classic one's taste is, however, the less relatively important
are the secondary pleasures felt to be, in comparison with those of
the primary sensation as it comes in.
Classicism and romanticism have
their battles over this point.
The theory of emotion was also independently developed in Italy by the
Anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi,. In order to give due credit,
such a theory should be called the James-Lange-Sergi theory of
William James' bear
From Joseph LeDoux's description of William James's Emotion
Why do we run away if we notice that we are in danger? Because we are
afraid of what will happen if we don't. This obvious answer to a
seemingly trivial question has been the central concern of a
century-old debate about the nature of our emotions.
It all began in 1884 when
William James published an article titled
"What Is an Emotion?" The article appeared in a philosophy journal
called Mind, as there were no psychology journals yet. It was
important, not because it definitively answered the question it
raised, but because of the way in which James phrased his response. He
conceived of an emotion in terms of a sequence of events that starts
with the occurrence of an arousing stimulus (the sympathetic nervous
system or the parasympathetic nervous system); and ends with a
passionate feeling, a conscious emotional experience. A major goal of
emotion research is still to elucidate this stimulus-to-feeling
sequence—to figure out what processes come between the stimulus and
James set out to answer his question by asking another: do we run from
a bear because we are afraid or are we afraid because we run? He
proposed that the obvious answer, that we run because we are afraid,
was wrong, and instead argued that we are afraid because we run:
Our natural way of thinking about... emotions is that the mental
perception of some fact excites the mental affection called emotion,
and that this latter state of mind gives rise to the bodily
expression. My theory, on the contrary, is that the bodily changes
follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our
feeling of the same changes as they occur IS the emotion (called
'feeling' by Damasio).
The essence of James's proposal was simple. It was premised on the
fact that emotions are often accompanied by bodily responses (racing
heart, tight stomach, sweaty palms, tense muscles, and so on;
sympathetic nervous system) and that we can sense what is going on
inside our body much the same as we can sense what is going on in the
outside world. According to James, emotions feel different from other
states of mind because they have these bodily responses that give rise
to internal sensations, and different emotions feel different from one
another because they are accompanied by different bodily responses and
sensations. For example, when we see James's bear, we run away. During
this act of escape, the body goes through a physiological upheaval:
blood pressure rises, heart rate increases, pupils dilate, palms
sweat, muscles contract in certain ways (evolutionary, innate defense
mechanisms). Other kinds of emotional situations will result in
different bodily upheavals. In each case, the physiological responses
return to the brain in the form of bodily sensations, and the unique
pattern of sensory feedback gives each emotion its unique quality.
Fear feels different from anger or love because it has a different
physiological signature (the parasympathetic nervous system for love).
The mental aspect of emotion, the feeling, is a slave to its
physiology, not vice versa: we do not tremble because we are afraid or
cry because we feel sad; we are afraid because we tremble and are sad
because we cry.
Philosophy of history
One of the long-standing schisms in the philosophy of history concerns
the role of individuals in social change.
One faction sees individuals (as seen in Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
and Thomas Carlyle's The French Revolution, A History) as the motive
power of history, and the broader society as the page on which they
write their acts. The other sees society as moving according to
holistic principles or laws, and sees individuals as its more-or-less
willing pawns. In 1880, James waded into this controversy with "Great
Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment," an essay published in the
Atlantic Monthly. He took Carlyle's side, but without Carlyle's
one-sided emphasis on the political/military sphere, upon heroes as
the founders or overthrowers of states and empires.
A philosopher, according to James, must accept geniuses as a given
entity the same way as a biologist accepts as an entity Darwin's
‘spontaneous variations.’ The role of an individual will depend on
the degree of its conformity with the social environment, epoch,
James introduces a notion of receptivities of the moment. The
societies' mutations from generation to generation are determined
(directly or indirectly) mainly by the acts or examples of individuals
whose genius was so adapted to the receptivities of the moment or
whose accidental position of authority was so critical that they
became ferments, initiators of movements, setters of precedent or
fashion, centers of corruption, or destroyers of other persons, whose
gifts, had they had free play, would have led society in another
View on spiritualism and associationism
William James in a séance with a spiritualist medium
James studied closely the schools of thought known as associationism
and spiritualism. The view of an associationist is that each
experience that one has leads to another, creating a chain of events.
The association does not tie together two ideas, but rather physical
objects. This association occurs on an atomic level. Small
physical changes occur in the brain which eventually form complex
ideas or associations. Thoughts are formed as these complex ideas work
together and lead to new experiences.
Isaac Newton and David Hartley
both were precursors to this school of thought, proposing such ideas
as "physical vibrations in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are the
basis of all sensations, all ideas, and all motions..." James
disagreed with associationism in that he believed it to be too simple.
He referred to associationism as "psychology without a soul"
because there is nothing from within creating ideas; they just arise
by associating objects with one another.
On the other hand, a spiritualist believes that mental events are
attributed to the soul. Whereas in associationism, ideas and behaviors
are separate, in spiritualism, they are connected. Spiritualism
encompasses the term innatism, which suggests that ideas cause
behavior. Ideas of past behavior influence the way a person will act
in the future; these ideas are all tied together by the soul.
Therefore, an inner soul causes one to have a thought, which leads
them to perform a behavior, and memory of past behaviors determine how
one will act in the future.
James had a strong opinion about these schools of thought. He was, by
nature, a pragmatist and thus took the view that one should use
whatever parts of theories make the most sense and can be proven.
Therefore, he recommended breaking apart spiritualism and
associationism and using the parts of them that make the most sense.
James believed that each person has a soul, which exists in a
spiritual universe, and leads a person to perform the behaviors they
do in the physical world. James was influenced by Emanuel
Swedenborg, who first introduced him to this idea. James stated that,
although it does appear that humans use associations to move from one
event to the next, this cannot be done without this soul tying
everything together. For, after an association has been made, it is
the person who decides which part of it to focus on, and therefore
determines in which direction following associations will lead.
Associationism is too simple in that it does not account for
decision-making of future behaviors, and memory of what worked well
and what did not. Spiritualism, however, does not demonstrate actual
physical representations for how associations occur. James combined
the views of spiritualism and associationism to create his own way of
James was a founding member and vice president of the American Society
for Psychical Research. The lending of his name made Leonora Piper
a famous medium. In 1885, the year after the death of his young son,
James had his first sitting with Piper at the suggestion of his
mother-in-law. James was soon convinced that Piper knew things she
could only have discovered by supernatural means. He expressed his
belief in Piper by saying, "If you wish to upset the law that all
crows are black, it is enough if you prove that one crow is white. My
white crow is Mrs. Piper." However, James did not believe that
Piper was in contact with spirits. After evaluating sixty-nine reports
of Piper's mediumship he considered the hypothesis of telepathy as
well as Piper obtaining information about her sitters by natural means
such as her memory recalling information. According to James the
"spirit-control" hypothesis of her mediumship was incoherent,
irrelevant and in cases demonstrably false.
James held séances with Piper and was impressed by some of the
details he was given; however, according to
Massimo Polidoro a maid in
the household of James was friendly with a maid in Piper's house and
this may have been a source of information that Piper used for private
details about James. Bibliographers
Frederick Burkhardt and
Fredson Bowers who compiled the works of James wrote "It is thus
possible that Mrs. Piper's knowledge of the James family was acquired
from the gossip of servants and that the whole mystery rests on the
failure of the people upstairs to realize that servants [downstairs]
also have ears."
James was convinced that the "future will corroborate" the existence
of telepathy. Psychologists such as
James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell and
Edward B. Titchener
Edward B. Titchener took issue with James's support for psychical
research and considered his statements unscientific. Cattell
in a letter to James wrote that the "
Society for Psychical Research is
doing much to injure psychology".
Jamesian theory of self
William James' theory of self divided a person's mental picture of
self into two categories: the "Me" and the "I". The "Me" can be
thought of as a separate object or individual a person refers to when
describing their personal experiences; while the "I" is the self that
knows who they are and what they have done in their life. Both
concepts are depicted in the statement; "I know it was me who ate the
cookie." He called the "Me" part of self the "empirical me" and the
"I" part "the pure Ego". For James, the "I" part of self was the
thinking self, which could not be further divided. He linked this part
of the self to the soul of a person, or what is now thought of as the
mind. Educational theorists have been inspired in various ways by
James's theory of self, and have developed various applications of
these theories to curricular and pedagogical theory and practice.
James further divided the "Me" part of self into: the material self,
the social self, and the spiritual self, as below.
The material self consists of things that belong to a person or
entities that a person belongs to. Thus, things like the body, family,
clothes, money, and such make up the material self. For James, the
core of the material self was the body. Second to the body, James
felt a person's clothes were important to the material self. He
believed a person's clothes were one way they expressed who they felt
they were; or clothes were a way to show status, thus contributing to
forming and maintaining one's self-image. Money and family are
critical parts of the material self. James felt that if one lost a
family member, a part of who they are was lost also. Money figured in
one's material self in a similar way. If once a person had significant
money then lost it, who they were as a person changed as well.
Our social selves are who we are in a given social situation. For
James, people change how they act depending on the social situation
that they are in. James believed that people had as many social selves
as they did social situations they participated in. For example, a
person may act in a different way at work when compared to how that
same person may act when they are out with a group of friends. James
also believed that in a given social group, an individual's social
self may be divided even further. An example of this would be, in
the social context of an individual's work environment, the difference
in behavior when that individual is interacting with their boss versus
their behavior when interacting with a co-worker.
For James, the spiritual self was who we are at our core. The
spiritual self is more concrete or permanent than the other two
selves. The spiritual self is our subjective and most intimate self.
Aspects of an individual's spiritual self include things like their
personality, core values, and conscience that do not typically change
throughout their lifetime. The spiritual self involves introspection,
or looking inward to deeper spiritual, moral, or intellectual
questions without the influence of objective thoughts. For James,
achieving a high level of understanding of who we are at our core, or
understanding our spiritual selves is more rewarding than satisfying
the needs of the social and material selves.
The pure ego is what James refers to as the "I" self. For James, the
pure ego is what provides the thread of continuity between our past,
present, and future selves. The pure ego's perception of consistent
individual identity arises from a continual stream of
consciousness. James believed that the pure ego was similar to
what we think of as the soul, or the mind. The pure ego was not a
substance and therefore could not be examined by science.
The Principles of Psychology, 2 vols. (1890), Dover Publications 1950,
vol. 1: ISBN 0-486-20381-6, vol. 2: ISBN 0-486-20382-4
Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892), University of Notre Dame Press
1985: ISBN 0-268-01557-0, Dover Publications 2001:
The Will to Believe, and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897)
Human Immortality: Two Supposed Objections to the Doctrine (the
Ingersoll Lecture, 1897)
The Will to Believe, Human Immortality (1956) Dover Publications,
Talks to Teachers on Psychology: and to Students on Some of Life's
Ideals (1899), Dover Publications 2001: ISBN 0-486-41964-9,
IndyPublish.com 2005: ISBN 1-4219-5806-6
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature (1902),
Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking (1907), Hackett
Publishing 1981: ISBN 0-915145-05-7, Dover 1995:
A Pluralistic Universe (1909), Hibbert Lectures, University of
Nebraska Press 1996: ISBN 0-8032-7591-9
The Meaning of Truth: A Sequel to "Pragmatism" (1909), Prometheus
Books, 1997: ISBN 1-57392-138-6
Some Problems of Philosophy: A Beginning of an Introduction to
Philosophy (1911), University of Nebraska Press 1996:
Memories and Studies (1911), Reprint Services Corp: 1992:
Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912), Dover Publications 2003,
Frederick Burkhardt and Fredson Bowers, editors.
Harvard University Press 1976: ISBN 0-674-26717-6 (includes
commentary, notes, enumerated emendations, appendices with English
translation of "La Notion de Conscience")
Letters of William James, 2 vols. (1920)
Collected Essays and Reviews (1920)
Ralph Barton Perry, The Thought and Character of William James, 2
vols. (1935), Vanderbilt University Press 1996 reprint:
ISBN 0-8265-1279-8 (contains some 500 letters by William James
not found in the earlier edition of the Letters of William James)
William James on Psychical Research (1960)
The Correspondence of William James, 12 vols. (1992–2004) University
of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-2318-2
"The Dilemma of Determinism"
William James on Habit, Will, Truth, and the Meaning of Life, James
Sloan Allen, ed. Frederic C. Beil, Publisher,
William James: Writings 1878–1899 (1992). Library of America, 1212
p., ISBN 978-0-940450-72-1
Psychology: Briefer Course (rev. and condensed Principles of
The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular
Philosophy, Talks to Teachers and Students, Essays (nine others)
William James: Writings 1902–1910 (1987). Library of America, 1379
p., ISBN 978-0-940450-38-7
The Varieties of Religious Experience, Pragmatism, A Pluralistic
Universe, The Meaning of Truth, Some Problems of Philosophy, Essays
The Writings of William James: A Comprehensive Edition (1978).
University of Chicago Press, 912 pp., ISBN 0-226-39188-4
Pragmatism, Essays in Radical Empiricism, and A Pluralistic Universe
complete; plus selections from other works
Harvard University Press began publication of a standard
edition of The Works of William James.
"The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life"
Psychology of religion
List of American philosophers
William James Lectures
William James Society
Stream of consciousness (psychology)
^ "Bill James, of Harvard, was among the first foreigners to take
cognizance of Thought and Reality, already in 1873...", Lettres
African Spir au professeur Penjon (Unpublished Letters of
African Spir to professor Penjon), Neuchâtel, 1948, p. 231, n. 7.
^ "Krey, Peter (2004). The Ethics of Belief: William Clifford versus
William." p. 1.
^ T.L. Brink (2008) Psychology: A Student Friendly Approach. "Unit
One: The Definition and History of Psychology". p. 10
^ "William James: Writings 1878–1899". The Library of America.
1992-06-01. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
^ "William James: Writings 1902–1910". The Library of America.
1987-02-01. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
^ Dr. Megan E. Bradley. "William James". PSYography.
Faculty.frostburg.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.;
Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey,
Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th
century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–52.
doi:10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.124. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.
^ "William James". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the
Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
^ James, William (2009). The Varieties of Religious Experience. The
Library of America. pp. 74–120. ISBN 1598530623.
^ Sachs, Oliver (2008). Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain,
Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Vintage Books. pp. xiii.
^ Antony Lysy, "William James, Theosophist", The Quest Volume 88,
number 6, November–December 2000.
^ Ralph Barton Perry, The Thought and Character of William James, vol.
1, (1935), 1996 edition: ISBN 0-8265-1279-8, p. 228.
^ "Cultural Resource Information System (CRIS)" (Searchable database).
New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation.
Retrieved 2016-02-01. [permanent dead link] Note: This includes
Rachel D. Carley (January 2012). "National Register of Historic Places
Registration Form: Putnam Camp" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-02-01. and
^ Duane P. Schultz; Sydney Ellen Schultz (22 March 2007). A History of
Modern Psychology. Cengage Learning. pp. 185–.
ISBN 978-0-495-09799-0. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
^ Schmidt, Barbara. "A History of and Guide to Uniform Editions of
Mark Twain's Works". twainquotes.com. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
^ Haggbloom, S.J.; et al. (2002). "The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists
of the 20th Century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–15.
doi:10.1037/1089-26126.96.36.199. Archived from the original on
2006-04-29. . Haggbloom et al. combined 3 quantitative variables:
citations in professional journals, citations in textbooks, and
nominations in a survey given to members of the Association for
Psychological Science, with 3 qualitative variables (converted to
quantitative scores): National Academy of
Science (NAS) membership,
American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association (APA) President and/or recipient of
the APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award, and surname used
as an eponym. Then the list was rank ordered.
^ John J. McDermott, The Writings of William James: A Comprehensive
Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1977 revised edition,
ISBN 0-226-39188-4, pp. 812–58.
^ William James' The Moral Equivalent of War Introduction by John
Roland. Constitution.org. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
^ William James' The Moral Equivalent of War – 1906.
Constitution.org. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
^ Harrison Ross Steeves; Frank Humphrey Ristine (1913). Representative
essays in modern thought: a basis for composition. American Book
Company. pp. 519–. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
^ ""The Moral Equivalent of War" by William James, McClure's Magazine,
August 1910". UNZ.org. Retrieved 2016-11-25.
^ James, William, Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking
Lect. 6, "Pragmatism's Conception of Truth," (1907)
^ Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol.6, "Pragmatic Theory of Truth", pp.
427–28 (Macmillan, 1969)
^ William James. "Pragmatism's Conception of Truth". Lecture 6 in
Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. New York:
Longman Green and Co (1907): p. 83. Archived 2006-07-15 at the Wayback
^ H. O. Mounce (1997). The two pragmatisms: from Peirce to Rorty.
Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-15283-9. Retrieved 28 August
^ The Meaning of Truth, Longmans, Green, & Co., New York, 1909, p.
^ See his Defense of a Pragmatic Notion of Truth, written to counter
criticisms of his Pragmatism's Conception of
Truth 1907 lecture
^ Ralph Barton Perry, The Thought and Character of William James, vol.
1, p. 323; Letters of William James, vol. I, p. 147
^ a b The Dilemma of Determinism, republished in The Will to Believe,
Dover, 1956, p. 149
^ The Dilemma of Determinism, republished in The Will to Believe,
Dover, 1956, p. 153
^ The Dilemma of Determinism, republished in The Will to Believe,
Dover, 1956, p. 155
^ James, William (1985). The Varieties of Religious Experience. New
York: Penguin Classics. p. 426.
^ William James, "Subjective Effects of Nitrous Oxide"
John Lachs and
Robert Talisse (2007). American Philosophy: An
Encyclopedia. p. 310. ISBN 0415939267.
Mysticism Defined by William James".
www.bodysoulandspirit.net. [dead link]
^ a b c d e Buss, David M. Evolutionary psychology: the new science of
the mind. Pearson. 2008. Chapter 1, pp. 2–35.
^ a b Ergas, Oren (2017). Reconstructing 'education' through mindful
attention. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
^ Giuseppe Sergi, (1858) L'origine dei fenomeni psichici e loro
significazione biologica, ISBN 1271529408, Milano, Fratelli
^ Giuseppe Sergi, (1894) Principi di Psicologie: Dolore e Piacere;
Storia Naturale dei Sentimenti", ISBN 1147667462, Milano,
^ Joseph E. LeDoux, (1996) The Emotional Brain: the Mysterious
Underpinnings of Emotional Life, ISBN 0-684-83659-9, p. 43.
^ "What is an Emotion?" Mind, vol. 9, 1884, pp. 188–205
^ Grinin L. E. 2010. The Role of an Individual in History: A
Reconsideration. Social Evolution & History, Vol. 9 No. 2 (pp.
95–136). p. 103
^ James, W. 2005 . Great Men and Their Environment. Kila, MT:
Kessinger Publishing. p. 174.
^ a b James, (1892)
^ Richardson, (2006)
^ a b James, (1890).
^ a b Richardson (2006)
^ Eugene Taylor. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of
Psychodynamic Theories. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-0387981031
^ Deborah Blum. (2007).
William James and the Search
for Scientific Proof of Life. Penguin Group. p. 98.
^ Gardner Murphy, Robert O. Ballou. (1960).
William James on Psychical
Research. Viking Press. p. 41
^ Francesca Bordogna. (2008).
William James at the Boundaries:
Philosophy, Science, and the Geography of Knowledge. University Of
Chicago Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0226066523
^ Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship
Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. p. 36.
Frederick Burkhardt and Fredson Bowers. (1986). Essays in Psychical
Harvard University Press. p. 397 in William James. The Works
of William James. Edited by Frederick H. Burkhardt, Fredson Bowers,
and Ignas K. Skrupskelis. 19 vols. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard
University Press. 1975–1988.
^ About the Shadow World. Everybody's Magazine. v.20 (1909).
^ Lamont, Peter. (2013). Extraordinary Beliefs: A Historical Approach
to a Psychological Problem. Cambridge University Press. pp. 184-188.
^ Kimble, Gregory A; Wertheimer, Michael; White, Charlotte. (2013).
Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology.
Psychology Press. p. 23.
^ Goodwin, C. James. (2015). A History of Modern Psychology. Wiley. p.
154. ISBN 978-1-118-83375-9
^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-20.
^ a b Cooper, W. E. (1992). "William James's theory of the self".
Monist 75(4), 504.
^ a b c d e f g "Archived copy". Archived from the original on
2013-12-06. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
^ "Introduction to William James". www.uky.edu.
Essays Philosophical and Psychological in Honor of William James, by
his Colleagues at Columbia University (London, 1908)
James Sloan Allen,
William James on Habit, Will, Truth, and the
Meaning of Life (2014). Frederic C. Beil, Publisher,
Margo Bistis, "Remnant of the Future: William James' Automated
Utopia", in Norman M. Klein and Margo Bistis, The Imaginary 20th
Century (Karlsruhe: ZKM, 2016).
William James (New York, 1912)
Werner Bloch, Der Pragmatismus von James und Schiller nebst Exkursen
über Weltanschauung und über die Hypothese (Leipzig, 1913)
K. A. Busch,
William James als Religionsphilosoph (Göttingen, 1911)
Jacques Barzun. A Stroll with
William James (1983). Harper and Row:
William James and the Search for
Scientific Proof of Life After Death (2006). Penguin Press,
Wesley Cooper. The Unity of William James's Thought (2002). Vanderbilt
University Press, ISBN 0-8265-1387-5
Howard M. Feinstein. Becoming
William James (1984). Cornell University
Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-8642-5
Théodore Flournoy, La Philosophie de
William James (Saint-Blaise,
Sergio Franzese, The Ethics of Energy. William James's Moral
Philosophy in Focus, Ontos Verlag, 2008
Sergio Franzese & Felicitas Krämer (eds.), Fringes of Religious
Experience. Cross-perspectives on William James's Varieties of
Religious Experience, Frankfurt / Lancaster, ontos verlag, Process
Thought XII, 2007
Peter Hare, Michel Weber, James K. Swindler, Oana-Maria Pastae,
Cerasel Cuteanu (eds.), International Perspectives on Pragmatism,
Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009
James Huneker, "A Philosophy for Philistines" in his The Pathos of
Distance (New York, 1913)
Henry James's A Small Boy and Others (1913) and Notes of a Son and
Amy Kittelstrom, The
Religion of Democracy: Seven Liberals and the
American Moral Tradition. New York: Penguin, 2015.
H. V. Knox, Philosophy of
William James (London, 1914)
R, W. B. Lewis The Jameses: A Family Narrative (1991) Farrar, Straus
Louis Menand. The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America
(2001). Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, ISBN 0-374-52849-7.
Ménard, Analyse et critique des principes de la psychologie de W.
James (Paris, 1911) analyzes the lives and relationship between James,
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Charles Sanders Peirce, and John Dewey.
Gerald E. Myers. William James: His Life and Thought (1986). Yale
University Press, 2001, paperback: ISBN 0-300-08917-1. Focuses on
his psychology; includes 230 pages of notes.
Giuseppe Sergi L'origine dei fenomeni psichici e loro significazione
biologica, Milano, Fratelli Dumolard, 1885.
Giuseppe Sergi Principi di Psicologie: Dolore e Piacere; Storia
Naturale dei Sentimenti, Milano, Fratelli Dumolard, 1894.
James Pawelski. The Dynamic Individualism of
William James (2007).
SUNY press, ISBN 0-7914-7239-6.
R. B. Perry, Present Philosophical Tendencies (New York, 1912)
Robert D. Richardson. William James: In the Maelstrom of American
Modernism (2006). Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-43325-2
Robert D. Richardson, ed. The Heart of
William James (2010). Harvard
U. Press, ISBN 978-0-674-05561-2
Jane Roberts. The Afterdeath Journal of an American Philosopher: The
William James (1978. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-018515-9.)
William James and Other Essays on the Philosophy of Life
(New York, 1911)
J. Michael Tilley, "William James: Living Forward and the Development
of Radical Empiricism," In Kierkegaard's Influence on Philosophy:
Anglophone Philosophy, edited by Jon Stewart, 2012, Ashgate
Linda Simon. Genuine Reality: A Life of
William James (1998). Harcourt
Brace & Company, ISBN 0-226-75859-1
Michel Weber. Whitehead’s Pancreativism. Jamesian Applications.
Ontos Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-386838-103-0
Michel Weber, "On Religiousness and Religion. Huxley’s Reading of
Religion in the Making in the Light of James’
Varieties of Religious Experience", Jerome Meckier and Bernfried Nugel
(eds.), Aldous Huxley Annual. A Journal of Twentieth-Century Thought
and Beyond, Volume 5, Münster, LIT Verlag, March 2005,
Michel Weber, "James’s Mystical Body in the Light of the
Transmarginal Field of Consciousness", in Sergio Franzese &
Felicitas Krämer (eds.), Fringes of Religious Experience.
Cross-perspectives on William James's Varieties of Religious
Experience, Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag, Process Thought XII,
2007, pp. 7–37.
Wiseman, R. (2012). Rip it up: The radically new approach to changing
your life. London, UK: Macmillan
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Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001)
Harry Harlow (1905–1981)
Raymond Cattell (1905–1998)
Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
Neal E. Miller (1909–2002)
Jerome Bruner (1915–2016)
Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996)
Hans Eysenck (1916–1997)
Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001)
David McClelland (1917–1998)
Leon Festinger (1919–1989)
George Armitage Miller (1920–2012)
Richard Lazarus (1922–2002)
Stanley Schachter (1922–1997)
Robert Zajonc (1923–2008)
Albert Bandura (b. 1925)
Roger Brown (1925–1997)
Endel Tulving (b. 1927)
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987)
Noam Chomsky (b. 1928)
Ulric Neisser (1928–2012)
Jerome Kagan (b. 1929)
Walter Mischel (b. 1930)
Elliot Aronson (b. 1932)
Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934)
Paul Ekman (b. 1934)
Michael Posner (b. 1936)
Amos Tversky (1937–1996)
Bruce McEwen (b. 1938)
Larry Squire (b. 1941)
Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941)
Martin Seligman (b. 1942)
Ed Diener (b. 1946)
Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946)
John Anderson (b. 1947)
Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947)
Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949)
Richard Davidson (b. 1951)
Susan Fiske (b. 1952)
Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)
Schools of thought
Being in itself
Existence precedes essence
Abdel Rahman Badawi
Jane Welsh Carlyle
Walter A. Davis
Simone de Beauvoir
William A. Earle
James Anthony Froude
José Ortega y Gasset
Joseph B. Soloveitchik
Miguel de Unamuno
John Daniel Wild
Peter Wessel Zapffe
Philosophy of mind
Concept and object
Hard problem of consciousness
Language of thought
Problem of other minds
Philosophy of artificial intelligence / information /
perception / self
Philosophy of religion
Concepts in religion
Problem of evil
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Fine-tuning of the Universe
Divine command theory
Theories about religions
Problem of evil
Best of all possible worlds
(by date active)
Anselm of Canterbury
Augustine of Hippo
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers
Pico della Mirandola
King James VI and I
Marcion of Sinope
Gottfried W Leibniz
Johann G Herder
Karl C F Krause
Georg W F Hegel
W. K. Clifford
J L Mackie
George I Mavrodes
William L Rowe
Dewi Z Phillips
Robert Merrihew Adams
Peter van Inwagen
William Lane Craig
Ali Akbar Rashad
Criticism of religion
Ethics in religion
History of religions
Relationship between religion and science
Political science of religion
Faith and rationality
ISNI: 0000 0001 2134 0790
BNF: cb12034524d (data)