William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English
physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology. He
was the first known physician to describe completely and in detail the
systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain
and body by the heart, though earlier writers, such as Realdo Colombo,
Michael Servetus, and Jacques Dubois, had provided precursors of the
theory. In 1973 the
William Harvey Hospital
William Harvey Hospital was constructed in
the town of Ashford, a few miles from his birthplace of Folkestone.
2.1 Early life and the University of Padua
2.2 The College of Physicians, marriage and Saint Bartholomew's
2.3 Lumleian Lecturer
2.4 Physician to James I
2.5 Witchcraft trials
2.6 Excursions abroad, election as physician to Charles I and the
English Civil War
2.7 Harvey's later years, death and burial
De Motu Cordis
De Motu Cordis (On the Motion of the
Heart and Blood)
4 Views of the circulation of blood before Harvey
5 On Animal Generation
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
William's father, Thomas Harvey, was a jurat of
Folkestone where he
served the office of mayor in 1600. Records and personal descriptions
delineate him as an overall calm, diligent, and intelligent man whose
"sons... revered, consulted and implicitly trusted in him... (they)
made their father the treasurer of their wealth when they acquired
great estates...(He) kept, employed, and improved their gainings to
their great advantage." Thomas Harvey's portrait can still be seen
in the central panel of a wall of the dining-room at Rolls Park,
Chigwell, in Essex. William was the eldest of nine children, seven
sons and two daughters, of Thomas and his wife Joan Halke. Notable
family connections include Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham, who
married William's niece Elizabeth Harvey, and the diplomat Sir Daniel
Early life and the University of Padua
Harvey's initial education was carried out in Folkestone, where he
learned Latin. He then entered the King's School (Canterbury). Harvey
stayed at the King's School for five years, after which he
Gonville and Caius College in
Cambridge in 1593.
Harvey graduated as a Bachelor of Arts from Caius in 1597. He then
travelled through France and Germany to Italy, where he entered the
University of Padua, in 1599.
During Harvey's years of study there, he developed a relationship with
Fabricius and read Fabricius's De Venarum Ostiolis.
Harvey graduated as a Doctor of Medicine at the age of 24 from the
University of Padua
University of Padua on 25 April 1602. It reports that Harvey had
"conducted himself so wonderfully well in the examination and had
shown such skill, memory and learning that he had far surpassed even
the great hopes which his examiners had formed of him."
The College of Physicians, marriage and Saint Bartholomew's
After graduating from Padua, Harvey immediately returned to England
where he obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the University
Cambridge that same year, and became a fellow of Gonville and Caius
College. Following this, Harvey established himself in London, joining
Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians on 5 October 1604.
A few weeks after his admission, Harvey married Elizabeth Browne,
Lancelot Browne Dr. Physic". They had no children.
Harvey was elected a Fellow of the
Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians on 5
June 1607, which earned him the
Post-nominal letters FRCP, and he then
accepted a position at
St Bartholomew's Hospital
St Bartholomew's Hospital that he was to occupy
for almost all the rest of his life. Succeeding a Dr Wilkinson on 14
October 1609, he became the Physician in charge at
St Bartholomew's Hospital, which enjoined him, "in God's most
holy name" to "endeavor yourself to do the best of your knowledge in
the profession of physic to the poor then present, or any other of the
poor at any time of the week which shall be sent home unto you by the
Hospitaller... You shall not, for favor, lucre or gain, appoint or
write anything for the poor but such good and wholesome things as you
shall think with your best advice will do the poor good, without any
affection or respect to be had to the apothecary. And you shall take
no gift or reward... for your counsel... This you will promise to do
as you shall answer before God... "
Harvey earned around thirty-three pounds a year and lived in a small
house in Ludgate, although two houses in
West Smithfield were attached
as fringe benefits to the post of Physician. At this point, the
physician's function consisted of a simple but thorough analysis of
patients who were brought to the hospital once a week and the
consequent writing of prescriptions.
The next important phase of Harvey's life began with his appointment
to the office of Lumleian lecturer on 4 August 1615. The Lumleian
lectureship, founded by Lord Lumley and a Dr.
Richard Caldwell in
1582, consisted in pronouncing lectures for a period of seven years,
with the purpose of "spreading light" and increasing the general
knowledge of anatomy throughout England.
Harvey began his lectures in April 1616. At this time, at the age of
thirty-seven, he was described as "a man of lowest stature, round
faced; his eyes small, round, very black and full of spirit; his hair
as black as a raven and curling". The notes which he used at the
time are preserved in the British Museum.
At the beginning of his lectures, Harvey laid down the canons for his
"To show as much as may be at a glance, the whole belly for instance,
and afterwards to subdivide the parts according to their positions and
To point out what is peculiar to the actual body which is being
To supply only by speech what cannot be shown on your own credit and
To cut up as much as may be in the sight of the audience.
To enforce the right opinion by remarks drawn far and near, and to
illustrate man by the structure of animals.
Not to praise or dispraise other anatomists, for all did well, and
there was some excuse even for those who are in error.
Not to dispute with others, or attempt to confute them, except by the
most obvious retort.
To state things briefly and plainly, yet not letting anything pass
unmentioned which can be seen.
Not to speak of anything which can be as well explained without the
body or can be read at home.
Not to enter into too much detail, or in too minute dissection, for
the time does not permit.
To serve three courses according to the glass [i.e. allot a definite
time to each part of the body]. In the first day's lectures the
abdomen, nasty yet recompensed by its infinite variety. In the second
the parlour, [i.e. the thorax?]. In the third day's lecture the divine
banquet of the brain."
Physician to James I
Harvey continued to participate in the
Lumleian lectures while also
taking care of his patients at St Bartholomew's Hospital; he thus soon
attained an important and fairly lucrative practice, which climaxed
with his appointment as 'Physician Extraordinary' to King James I on 3
February 1618. He seems to have similarly served various aristocrats,
including Lord Chancellor Bacon. Bacon entirely failed to
impress the more practical minded Harvey, who refused to regard him as
a great philosopher. He said of him "He writes philosophy like a Lord
In 1628 he published in
Frankfurt his completed treatise on the
circulation of the blood, the De Motu Cordis. As a result of negative
comments by other physicians Harvey "fell mightily in his
practice", but continued advancing his career. He was re-elected
'Censor' of the
College of Physicians in 1629, having been elected for
the first time in 1613 and the second time in 1625. Eventually, Harvey
was also elected Treasurer of the College.
Harvey was a prominent sceptic regarding allegations of witchcraft. He
was one of the examiners of four women from Lancashire accused of
witchcraft in 1634, and as a consequence of his report, all of them
were acquitted. Earlier, in 1632, while travelling with the
King to Newmarket, he had been sent to investigate a woman accused of
being a witch. Initially he told her that he was a wizard and had come
to discuss the Craft with her, and asked whether she had a familiar.
She put down a saucer of milk and called to a toad which came out and
drank the milk. He then sent her out to fetch some ale, and killed the
toad and dissected it, concluding that it was a perfectly ordinary
animal and not supernatural in any way. When the woman returned she
was naturally very angry and upset, but Harvey eventually silenced her
by stating that he was the King's Physician, sent to discover whether
she were a witch, and if she were, to have her apprehended.
Excursions abroad, election as physician to Charles I and the English
At the age of fifty-two, Harvey received commands by the king to
Duke of Lennox
Duke of Lennox during his trip abroad. This voyage –
the first after his return from
Padua – lasted three years, taking
Harvey through the countries of France and Spain during the Mantuan
War and Plague. During this journey he wrote to Viscount Dorchester:
"I can complain that by the way we could scarce see a dog, crow, kite,
raven or any other bird, or anything to anatomize, only some few
miserable people, the relics of the war and the plague where famine
had made anatomies before I came. It is scarce credible in so rich,
populous, and plentiful countries as these were that so much misery
and desolation, poverty and famine should in so short a time be, as we
have seen. I interpret it well that it will be a great motive for all
here to have and procure assurance of settled peace. It is time to
leave fighting when there is nothing to eat, nothing to be kept, and
nothing to be gotten".
Having returned to England in 1632, Harvey accompanied King Charles I
wherever he went as 'Physician in Ordinary'. In particular, Charles's
hunting expeditions gave Harvey access to many deer carcasses; it was
upon them that Harvey made many observations and consequent theories.
Harvey returned to Italy in 1636, dining at the English College, Rome,
as a guest of the Jesuits there, in October 1636. It is possible he
met Galileo in Florence en route.
English Civil War
English Civil War a mob of citizen-soldiers against the
King entered Harvey's lodgings, stole his goods, and scattered his
papers. The papers consisted of "the records of a large number of
dissections ... of diseased bodies, with this observations on the
development on insects, and a series of notes on comparative
anatomy." During this period, Harvey maintained his position,
helped the wounded on several occasions and protected the King's
children during the Battle of Edgehill.
The conflicts of the Civil War soon led King Charles to Oxford, with
Harvey attending, where the physician was made "Doctor of Physic" in
1642 and later Warden of
Merton College in 1645. "In
(Harvey) very soon settled down to his accustomed pursuits, unmindful
of the clatter of arms and of the constant marching and
countermarching around him, for the city remained the base of
operations until its surrender... "
Harvey's later years, death and burial
The surrender of
Oxford in 1645 marks the beginning of Harvey's
gradual retirement from public life and duties. Now sixty-eight years
old and childless, Harvey had lost three brothers and his wife by this
time. He thus decided to return to London, and lived with his brothers
Eliab and Daniel at different periods. Having retired from St
Bartholomew's Hospital and his various other aforementioned positions,
he passed most of this time reading general literature. Several
attempts to bring Harvey back into the 'working world' were made,
however; here is an excerpt of one of Harvey's answers:
"Would you be the man who should recommend me to quit the peaceful
haven where I now pass my life and launch again upon the faithless
sea? You know full well what a storm my former lucubrations raised.
Much better is it oftentimes to grow wise at home and in private, than
by publishing what you have amassed with infinite labour, to stir up
tempests that may rob you of peace and quiet for the rest of your
Harvey died at
Roehampton in the house of his brother Eliab on 3 June
1657. Descriptions of the event seem to show that he died of a
cerebral hemorrhage from vessels long injured by gout: it is highly
probable that the left middle cerebral artery malfunctioned, leading
to a gradual accumulation of blood to the brain which eventually
overwhelmed it. There exists a fairly detailed account of what
happened on that day; according to the information at hand, Harvey:
"went to speak and found that he had the dead palsy in his tongue;
then he saw what was to become of him. He knew there were then no
hopes of his recovery, so presently he sends for his young nephews to
come up to him. He then made signs (for seized with the dead palsy in
his tongue he could not speak) to let him blood his tongue, which did
him little or no good, and so ended his days, dying in the evening of
the day on which he was stricken, the palsy giving him an easy
His will distributed his material goods and wealth throughout his
extended family and also left a substantial amount of money to the
Royal College of Physicians.
Harvey was buried in Hempstead, Essex. The funeral procession started
on 26 June 1657, leading Harvey to be placed in the 'Harvey Chapel'
built by Eliab. The conditions of Harvey's burial are also known:
"Harvey was laid in the chapel between the bodies of his two nieces,
and like them he was lapt in lead, coffin less". On St. Luke's
Day, 18 October 1883, Harvey's remains were reinterred, the leaden
case carried from the vault by eight Fellows of the College of
Physicians, and deposited in a sarcophagus containing his works and an
"The body of
William Harvey lapt in lead, simply soldered, was laid
without shell or enclosure of any kind in the Harvey vault of this
Church of Hempstead, Essex, in June 1657. In the course of time the
lead enclosing the remains was, from expose and natural decay, so
seriously damaged as to endanger its preservation, rendering some
repair of it the duty of those interested in the memory of the
illustrious discoverer of the circulation of the Blood. The Royal
College of Physicians, of which corporate body Harvey was a munificent
Benefactor did in the years 1882–1883, by permission of the
Representatives of the Harvey family, undertake this duty. In
accordance with this determination the leaden mortuary chest
containing the remains of Harvey was repaired, and was, as far as
possible, restored to its original state... "
De Motu Cordis
De Motu Cordis (On the Motion of the
Heart and Blood)
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Main article: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in
An experiment from Harvey's de Motu Cordis
Published in 1628 in the city of
Frankfurt (host to an annual book
fair that Harvey knew would allow immediate dispersion of his work),
the 72 page Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in
Animalibus contains the matured account of the circulation of the
blood. Opening with a dedication to King Charles I, the quarto has 17
chapters which give a perfectly clear and connected account of the
action of the heart and the consequent movement of the blood around
the body in a circuit. Having only a tiny lens at his disposal, Harvey
was not able to reach the adequate pictures that were attained through
such microscopes used by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; thus he had to
resort to theory – and not practical evidence – in certain parts
of his book. After the first chapter, which simply outlines past ideas
and accepted rules regarding the heart and lungs, Harvey moves on to a
fundamental premise to his treatise, stating that it was extremely
important to study the heart when it was active in order to truly
comprehend its true movement; a task which even he found of great
difficulty, as he says:
"...I found the task so truly arduous... that I was almost tempted to
think... that the movement of the heart was only to be comprehended by
God. For I could neither rightly perceive at first when the systole
and when the diastole took place by reason of the rapidity of the
This initial thought led Harvey's ambition and assiduousness to a
detailed analysis of the overall structure of the heart (studied with
less hindrances in cold-blooded animals). After this, Harvey goes on
to an analysis of the arteries, showing how their pulsation depends
upon the contraction of the left ventricle, while the contraction of
the right ventricle propels its charge of blood into the pulmonary
artery. Whilst doing this, the physician reiterates the fact that
these two ventricles move together almost simultaneously and not
independently as had been thought previously by his predecessors. This
discovery was made while observing the heart of such animals as the
eel and several other types of fish; indeed, the general study of
countless animals was of utmost importance to the physician: among the
ones already cited, one can add the study of the snail, the invisible
shrimp, the chick before its hatching and even the pigeon. A
digression to an experiment can be made to this note: using the
inactive heart of a dead pigeon and placing upon it a finger wet with
saliva, Harvey was able to witness a transitory and yet
incontrovertible pulsation. He had just witnessed the heart's ability
to recover from fatigue.
As early as the 17th century,
William Harvey had already discerned the
existence of the Ductus Arteriosus and explained its relative
function. Here he says, "...in embryos, whilst the lungs are in a
state of inaction, performing no function, subject to no movement any
more than if they had not been present, Nature uses the two ventricles
of the heart as if they formed but one for the transmission of the
blood." However, the apex of Harvey's work is probably the eighth
chapter, in which he deals with the actual quantity of blood passing
through the heart from the veins to the arteries. Coming into conflict
with Galen's accepted view of the liver as the origin of venous blood,
Harvey estimated the capacity of the heart, how much blood is expelled
through each pump of the heart, and the number of times the heart
beats in a half an hour. All of these estimates were purposefully low,
so that people could see the vast amount of blood Galen's theory
required the liver to produce. He estimated that the capacity of the
heart was 1.5 imperial fluid ounces (43 ml), and that every time
the heart pumps, 1⁄8 of that blood is expelled. This led to
Harvey's estimate that about 1⁄6 imperial fluid ounce (4.7 ml)
of blood went through the hear] every time it pumped. The next
estimate he used was that the heartbeats 1,000 times every half an
hour, which gave 10 pounds 6 ounces of blood in a half an hour, and
when this number was multiplied by 48 half hours in a day he realized
that the liver would have to produce 540 pounds of blood in a
Having this simple but essential mathematical proportion at hand –
which proved the overall impossible aforementioned role of the liver
– Harvey went on to prove how the blood circulated in a circle by
means of countless experiments initially done on serpents and fish:
tying their veins and arteries in separate periods of time, Harvey
noticed the modifications which occurred; indeed, as he tied the
veins, the heart would become empty, while as he did the same to the
arteries, the organ would swell up.
Image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et
Sanguinis in Animalibus
This process was later performed on the human body (in the image on
the right): the physician tied a tight ligature onto the upper arm of
a person. This would cut off blood flow from the arteries and the
veins. When this was done, the arm below the ligature was cool and
pale, while above the ligature it was warm and swollen. The ligature
was loosened slightly, which allowed blood from the arteries to come
into the arm, since arteries are deeper in the flesh than the veins.
When this was done, the opposite effect was seen in the lower arm. It
was now warm and swollen. The veins were also more visible, since now
they were full of blood. Harvey then noticed little bumps in the
veins, which he realized were the valves of the veins discovered by
his teacher, Hieronymus Fabricius. Harvey tried to push blood in the
vein down the arm, but to no avail. When he tried to push it up the
arm, it moved quite easily. The same effect was seen in other veins of
the body, except the veins in the neck. Those veins were different
from the others – they did not allow blood to flow up, but only
down. This led Harvey to believe that the veins allowed blood to flow
to the heart, and the valves maintained the one way flow.
Contrary to a popular misconception, Harvey did not predict the
existence of capillaries. His observations convinced him that direct
connection between veins and arteries are unnecessary; he wrote "blood
permeates the pores" in the flesh and it is "absorbed and imbibed from
every part" by the veins.
Views of the circulation of blood before Harvey
At the time of Harvey's publication,
Galen had been an influential
medical authority for several centuries.
Galen believed that blood
passed between the ventricles by means of invisible pores. According
to Galen's views, the venous system was quite separate from the
arterial system, except when they came in contact through the unseen
pores. Arabic scholar
Ibn al-Nafis had disputed aspects of Galen's
views, providing a model that seems to imply a form of pulmonary
circulation in his Commentary on
Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon (1242).
Al-Nafis stated that blood moved from the heart to the lungs, where it
mixed with air, and then back to the heart, from which it spread to
the rest of the body. Harvey's discoveries inevitably and
historically came into conflict with Galen's teachings and the
publication of his treatise
De Motu Cordis
De Motu Cordis incited considerable
controversy within the medical community. Some doctors affirmed they
would "rather err with
Galen than proclaim the truth with
Galen incompletely perceived the function of the
heart, believing it a "productor of heat", while the function of its
affluents, the arteries, was that of cooling the blood as the lungs
"...fanned and cooled the heart itself".
Galen thought that during
dilation the arteries sucked in air, while during their contraction
they discharged vapours through pores in the flesh and skin.
Until the 17th century, two separate systems were thought to be
involved in blood circulation: the natural system, containing venous
blood which had its origin in the liver, and the vital system,
containing arterial blood and the 'spirits' which flowed from the
heart, distributing heat and life to all parts. Like bellows, the
lungs fanned and cooled this vital blood.
Independently of Ibn Al-Nafis,
Michael Servetus identified pulmonary
circulation, but this discovery did not reach the public because it
was written down for the first time in the Manuscript of Paris in
1546. It was later published in the theological work which caused
his execution in 1553, almost all copies of which were destroyed. In:
Christianismi Restitutio, Book V, the Aragonese
Miguel Servet (Michel
de Villeneuve, 1509?–1553) wrote: 'The blood is passed through the
pulmonary artery to the pulmonary vein for a lengthy pass through the
lungs, during which it becomes red, and gets rid of the sooty fumes by
the act of exhalation'.
Pulmonary circulation was described by Renaldus Columbus, Andrea
Cesalpino and Vesalius, before Harvey would provide a refined and
complete description of the circulatory system.
On Animal Generation
Harvey's other major work was Exercitationes de generatione animalium
(On Animal Generation_, published in 1651. He had been working on it
for many years but might never have finished it without the
encouragement of his friend George Ent.
The book starts with a description of development of the hen's egg.
The major part is theoretical, dealing with Aristotle's theories and
the work of the physicians following
Galen and up to Fabricius.
Finally he deals with embryogenesis in viviparous animals especially
hinds and does. The treatment is generally Aristotelian and limited by
use of a simple magnifying lens.
Needham claims the following achievements for this work.
His doctrine of omne vivum ex ovo (all life comes from the egg) was
the first definite statement against the idea of spontaneous
generation. He denied the possibility of generation from excrement and
from mud, and pointed out that even worms have eggs.
He identified the citricula as the point in the yolk from which the
embryo develops and the blastoderm surrounding the embryo.
He destroyed once and for all the Aristotelian (semen-blood) and
Epicurean (semen-semen) theories of early embryogeny.
He settled the long controversy about which parts of the egg were
nutritive and which was formative, by demonstrating the unreality of
William Harvey on a 1957
Soviet postage stamp
A final allusion to the rules established and followed by the
physician throughout his life can be made:
"That none be taken into the Hospital but such as be curable, or but a
certain number of such as are curable.
That none lurk here for relief only or for slight causes.
That the Chirurgions, in all difficult cases or where inward physic
may be necessary, shall consult with the Doctor, at the times he
sitteth once in the week and then the Surgeon himself relate to the
Doctor what he conceiveth of the cure and what he hath done therein.
That no Chirurgion or his man do trepan the head, pierce the body,
dismember, or do any great operation on the body of any but with the
approbation and the direction of the Doctor..."
Arthur Schlesinger Jr. included
William Harvey in a list of "The Ten
Most Influential People of the Second Millennium" in the World Almanac
& Book of Facts.
The main lecture theatre of the School of Clinical Medicine,
Cambridge is named after William Harvey, who was an
alumnus of the institute.
William Harvey Research Institute at Barts and The
London School of
Medicine and Dentistry is a research facility focussing on biochemical
pharmacology, orthopaedic diseases, endocrinology, genomics, clinical
pharmacology and translational medicine and therapeutics.
Harvey's whalebone demonstration rod, tipped with silver, resides in
the silver room of the museum of the Royal College of Physicians. He
used it to point to objects during his lectures.
In terms of his personality, information shows that
William Harvey was
seen as a "...humorous but extremely precise man...", how he was
often so immersed in his own thoughts that he would often suffer from
insomnia (cured with a simple walk through the house), and how he was
always ready for an open and direct conversation. He also loved the
darkness, for it is said that it was there where "...he could best
contemplate", thus sometimes hiding out in caves. A heavy drinker of
coffee, Harvey would walk out combing his hair every morning full of
energy and enthusiastic spirit through the fields. We have also come
to understand Harvey's somewhat unorthodox method of dealing with his
gout, here cited completely: "...his [Harvey's] cure was thus: he
would sit with his legs bare...put them into a pail of water till he
was almost dead with cold, then betake himself to his stove, and so
'twas gone". Apart from the already mentioned love of literature,
Harvey was also an intense and dedicated observer of birds during his
free time: several long and detailed passages of citations could be
written delineating his observations in such places as the "Pile of
Boulders" (a small island in Lancashire) and 'Bass Rock' (island off
the East Coast of Scotland).
William Harvey, after a painting by Cornelius Jansen
Harvey, William (1889). On the Motion of the
Heart and Blood in
Animals. London: George Bell and Sons.
Harvey, William; Franklin, Kenneth J. (translator); Wear, Andrew
(introduction) (1993). The Circulation of the Blood and Other
Writings. London: Everyman: Orion Publishing Group.
The Works of William Harvey. Robert Willis (translator). London:
Sydenham Society. 1847. Includes:
An anatomical disquisition on the motion of the heart and blood in
2 disquisitions addressed to John Riolan, including refutations to
objections to the circulation of the blood
Anatomical exercises on the generation of animals. To which are added:
On the uterine membranes and humours
Anatomical examination of the body of Thomas Parr
Amato Lusitano – Portuguese 16th century physician, also credited
with the discovery of the circulation of the blood
List of multiple discoveries
^ H. Ben-Yami, Descartes' Philosophical Revolution: A Reassessment,
Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 76.
^ a b French, Roger. "William Harvey".
Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography (online ed.).
Oxford University Press.
doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12531. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
^ "There's a reasonable basis to assume that it was Dr. Amatus who
first discovered the "Blood circulation" phenomena". Archived from the
original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
^ Wilson and Aubrey (1962). "Malter Warner". Aubrey's Brief Lives.
Michigan U. Press. p. 315. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
^ Power, pp. 4.
^ "Harvie, William (HRVY593W)". A
Cambridge Alumni Database.
University of Cambridge.
^ Power, pp. 26–27.
^ Power, pp. 29.
^ Power, pp. 35–36.
^ Power, pp. 52.
^ Power, pp. 62–64.
^ Gregory, Andrew. "William Harvey, English physician". Encyclopædia
^ Power, pp. 71.
^ Power, pp. 72.
^ Power, pp. 74.
^ Power, d'Arcey. Life of Harvey. Longmans, Green, & co.
^ BMJ 18 September 1926
^ Selected Writings of
Joseph Needham ed Mansell Davies
^ Power, pp. 85–86.
^ Edward Chaney, The Grand Tour and the Great Rebellion: Richard
Lassels and 'The Voyage of Italy' in the Seventeenth Century
(Geneva-Turin, 1985), pp. 291–93.
^ Power, pp. 125.
^ Power, pp. 130.
^ Power, pp. 150–151.
^ Power, pp. 166–167.
^ Power, pp. 169.
^ Power, pp. 174–175.
^ Power, pp. 193.
^ Power, pp. 202–203.
^ As cited in: Douglas Allchin, "Pseudohistory and Pseudoscience",
Science & Education 13: 179–195, 2004
^ Haddad SI, Khairallah AA (1936). "A FORGOTTEN CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY
OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD". Ann. Surg. 104: 1–8.
doi:10.1097/00000658-193607000-00001. PMC 1390327 .
^ Regina Bailey. "
William Harvey – Father of Cardiovascular
Medicine". about.com. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
^ National Anti-Vivisection Society (Great Britain) (1894). The
Animal's defender and zoophilist, Volume 13. 20, Victoria Street,
London, S.W.: The Victoria Street Society for the Protection of
Animals from Vivisection. p. 297.
^ William Osler, The
Evolution of Modern Medicine, Kaplan Publishing,
2009 ISBN 1607140535
Michael Servetus Research Website with graphical study on the
Manuscript of Paris by Servetus
^ Needham, Joseph (1934). A History of Embryology.
^ Power, pp. 99–103.
^ Munk, William. "William Harvey". Royal Society of Physicians, Lives
of the Fellows, Volume I. p. 124.
^ Power, pp. 145.
^ Power, pp. 144.
Butterfield, Herbert (1957). The Origins of Modern Science (revised
ed.). New York: The Free Press.
Power, D'Arcy (1897). William Harvey: Masters of Medicine. T. Fisher
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Gregory, Andrew (2001). Harvey's Heart, The Discovery of Blood
Circulation. Cambridge, England: Icon Books.
Harris, Paul (2007). William Harvey, Folkestone's Most Famous Son.
Folkestone: Lilburne Press.
Kearney, Hugh (1971). Science and Change 1500 – 1700. New York:
Mitchell, Silas Weir (1907). Some Memoranda in Regard to William
Munk, William (1878). The Roll of the
Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians of
London, Vol. I (2nd ed.). London. pp. 124–146.
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Wright, Thomas (2012). Circulation: William Harvey's Revolutionary
Idea. London: Chatto.
Royal Society of Medicine (Great Britain) (1913). Portraits of Dr.
William Harvey. London: Humphrey Milford,
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