William Farish (professor)
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William Farish (1759–1837) was a British scientist who was a
professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, highe ...

professor
of
Chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a with other . ...

Chemistry
and
Natural Philosophy Image:Planisphæri cœleste.jpg, 280px, A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin ''philosophia naturalis'') was the philosophy, philosophical study of ...
at the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
, known for the development of the method of
isometric projection Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawing An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing that is used to convey information about an obj ...

isometric projection
and development of the first written university
examination Examination may refer to: * Physical examination, a medical procedure * Questioning and more specific forms thereof, for example in law: ** Cross-examination ** Direct examination * Test (assessment), informally "exam", "exams", "evaluation" ** Civ ...
.


Biography

Farish was probably born around mid-April, as he was baptized on 21 April 1759. Farish's father was the Reverend James Farish (1714–1783), vicar of Stanwix near Carlisle. Farish himself was educated at Carlisle
Grammar School A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically oriented secondary school, ...
, entered
Magdalene College, Cambridge Magdalene College ( ) is a of the . The college was founded in 1428 as a hostel, in time coming to be known as , before being refounded in 1542 as the College of St . Magdalene counted some of the greatest men in the realm among its benefacto ...
, as a
sizar At Trinity College Dublin, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin and the University of Cambridge, a sizar is an Undergraduate education, undergraduate who receives some form of assistance such as meals, lower fees or lodging during his o ...
in 1774, and graduated
Senior Wrangler 300px, 2013 in the same room: the examiner announces the results of the same examinations. In keeping with recent tradition, he raises his academic cap to identify the Senior Wrangler (here Arran Fernandez); at the end he follows the older tradit ...
and first in
Smith's Prize The Smith's Prize was the name of each of two prizes awarded annually to two research students in mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and s ...
in 1778. As
tutor Tutoring is private academic support, usually provided by an expert teacher; someone with deep knowledge or defined expertise in a particular subject or set of subjects. 300px, Modern tutor A tutor, formally also called an academic tutor, is a p ...

tutor
in 1792, Farish developed the
concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the bod ...

concept
of grading
student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most c ...

student
s' work quantitatively. He was
Professor of Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a Ch ...
at Cambridge from 1794 to 1813, lecturing on chemistry's practical application. Farish's lectures as professor of chemistry, which were oriented towards
natural philosophy Image:Planisphæri cœleste.jpg, 280px, A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin ''philosophia naturalis'') was the philosophy, philosophical study of ...
while the professor of natural and experimental philosophy F. J. H. Wollaston (1762–1828) gave very chemically oriented lectures. From 1813 to 1837 Farish was Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy. In 1819 Professor Farish became the first president of the
Cambridge Philosophical Society The Cambridge Philosophical Society (CPS) is a scientific society at the University of Cambridge. It was founded in 1819. The name derives from the medieval use of the word philosophy to denote any research undertaken outside the fields of law ...
. Farish was also Vicar of
St Giles'
St Giles'
and
St Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros; cop, Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, Petros; lat, Petrus; ar, شمعون الصفـا, Sham' ...

St Peter
from 1800 to 1837. He extensively remodelled
St Giles' Church, Cambridge The Church of St Giles is a Grade II*-listed church in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011 ...

St Giles' Church, Cambridge
, increasing the accommodation from 100 to 600 seats.


Work

At
Cambridge University , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
, according to Hilkens (1967), Farish was "the first man to teach the construction of machines as a subject in its own right instead of merely using mechanisms as examples to illustrate the principles of theoretical physics or applied mathematics." He further became "famous for his work in applying chemistry and mechanical science to arts and manufactures".


Isometric projection

In his lectures on the mechanical principles of machinery used in
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
industries, Farish often used models to illustrated particular principles. This models were often especially assembled for these lectures and disassembled for storage afterwards. In order to explain how these models were to be assembled he had developed a
drawing technique
drawing technique
, which he called "Isometrical Perspective". Although the concept of an isometric had existed in a rough way for centuries, William Farish is generally regarded as the first to provide rules for isometric drawing.Barclay G. Jones (1986). ''Protecting historic architecture and museum collections from natural disasters''. University of Michigan. . p.243. In the 1822 paper "On Isometrical Perspective" Farish recognized the "need for accurate technical working drawings free of optical distortion. This would lead him to formulate isometry. Isometry means "equal measures" because the same scale is used for height, width, and depth".J. Krikke (1996).
A Chinese perspective for cyberspace?
. In: ''International Institute for Asian Studies Newsletter'', 9, Summer 1996.
From the middle of the 19th century, according to Jan Krikke (2006) isometry became an "invaluable tool for engineers, and soon thereafter axonometry and isometry were incorporated in the curriculum of architectural training courses in Europe and the U.S. The popular acceptance of axonometry came in the 1920s, when modernist architects from the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German anc ...

Bauhaus
and
De Stijl ''De Stijl'' (; ), Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Cast ...
embraced it". De Stijl architects like
Theo van Doesburg Theo van Doesburg (, 30 August 1883 – 7 March 1931) was a Dutch artist, who practiced painting, writing, poetry and architecture. He is best known as the founder and leader of De Stijl. He was married to artist, pianist and choreographer Nelly va ...
used "axonometry for their architectural designs, which caused a sensation when exhibited in Paris in 1923".


Works

* 1796. ''A plan of a course of lectures on arts and manufactures : more particularly such as relate to chemistry''. * 1822. "On Isometrical Perspective". In: ''Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society'', 1 * 1849. ''Professor Farish on Isometrical Drawing''. J.P. Pirsson.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Farish, William 1759 births 1837 deaths People educated at Carlisle Grammar School Academics of the University of Cambridge Alumni of Magdalene College, Cambridge Examinations Fellows of Magdalene College, Cambridge English chemists Senior Wranglers Information visualization experts