William Erwin "Will" Eisner (/ˈaɪznər/; March 6, 1917 –
January 3, 2005) was an American cartoonist, writer, and entrepreneur.
He was one of the earliest cartoonists to work in the American comic
book industry, and his series
The Spirit (1940–1952) was noted for
its experiments in content and form. In 1978, he popularized the term
"graphic novel" with the publication of his book A Contract with God.
He was an early contributor to formal comics studies with his book
Comics and Sequential Art
Comics and Sequential Art (1985). The
Eisner Award was named in his
honor, and is given to recognize achievements each year in the comics
medium; he was one of the three inaugural inductees to the Will Eisner
Comic Book Hall of Fame.
1.1 Family background
1.2 Early life
2 Eisner & Iger
3 The Spirit
World War II
World War II and Joe Dope
5 Post-war comics
6 American Visuals Corporation
7 Graphic novels
10 Awards and honors
11 Original books
12.1 Works cited
13 Further reading
14 External links
Eisner's father Shmuel "Samuel" Eisner was born March 6, 1886, in
Kolomyia, Austria-Hungary, and was one of eleven children. He aspired
to be an artist, and as a teenager painted murals for rich patrons and
Catholic churches in Vienna. To avoid conscription in the army, he
moved to New York before the outbreak of World War I. There he
found getting work difficult as his English skills were poor. He
made what living he could painting backdrops for vaudeville and the
Eisner's mother, Fannie Ingber, was born to Jewish parents from
Romania April 25, 1891, on a ship bound for the US. Her mother died on
her tenth birthday, and was quickly followed by her father. An older
stepsister thereafter raised her and kept her so busy with chores that
she had little time for socializing or schooling; she did what she
could later in life to keep knowledge of her illiteracy from her
Family introduced Shmuel and Fannie, who were distant relatives.
They had three children: son Will Erwin, born on his father's birthday
in 1917; son Julian, born February 3, 1921; and daughter Rhoda, born
November 2, 1929.
Wow, What a Magazine! No. 3 (Sept. 1936): Cover art by a teenage
Eisner was born in Brooklyn, New York City. He grew up poor, and the
family moved frequently. Young Eisner often got into physical
confrontations when subjected to antisemitism from his schoolmates.
His family were not orthodox followers of Judaism; Eisner himself,
while he prided his cultural background, turned against the religion
when his family was denied entry to a synagogue over lack of money for
Young Eisner was tall and of sturdy build, but lacked athletic
skills. He was a voracious consumer of pulp magazines and film,
including avant-garde films such as those by Man Ray. To his
mother's disappointment, Eisner had his father's interest in art, and
his father encouraged him by buying him art supplies.
Eisner's mother frequently berated his father for not providing the
family a better income, as he went from one job to another. Without
success he also tried his hand at such ventures as a furniture
retailer and a coat factory. The family situation was especially
dire following the
Wall Street Crash of 1929
Wall Street Crash of 1929 that marked the beginning
of the Great Depression. In 1930, the situation was so desperate
that Eisner's mother demanded that he, at thirteen, find some way to
contribute to the family's income. He entered working life selling
newspapers on street corners, a competitive job where the toughest
boys fought for the best locations.
Eisner attended DeWitt Clinton High School. With influences that
included the early 20th-century commercial artist J. C.
Leyendecker, he drew for the school newspaper (The Clintonian),
the literary magazine (The Magpie) and the yearbook, and did stage
design, leading him to consider doing that kind of work for theater.
Upon graduation, he studied under Canadian artist George Brandt
Bridgman (1864–1943) for a year at the Art Students League of New
York. Contacts made there led to a position as an advertising
writer-cartoonist for the
New York American
New York American newspaper. Eisner also
drew $10-a-page illustrations for pulp magazines, including Western
Sheriffs and Outlaws.
In 1936, high-school friend and fellow cartoonist Bob Kane, of future
Batman fame, suggested that the 19-year-old Eisner try selling
cartoons to the new comic book Wow, What A Magazine! "Comic books" at
the time were tabloid-sized collections of comic strip reprints in
color. By 1935, they had begun to include occasional new comic
strip-like material. Wow editor
Jerry Iger bought an Eisner adventure
strip called Captain Scott Dalton, an H. Rider Haggard-styled hero who
traveled the world after rare artifacts. Eisner subsequently wrote and
drew the pirate strip "The Flame" and the secret agent strip "Harry
Karry" for Wow as well.
Eisner said that on one occasion a man who Eisner described as "a Mob
type straight out of Damon Runyon, complete with pinkie ring, broken
nose, black shirt, and white tie, who claimed to have "exclusive
distribution rights for all Brooklyn" asked Eisner to draw Tijuana
bibles for $3 a page. Eisner said that he declined the offer; he
described the decision as "one of the most difficult moral decisions
of my life".
Eisner & Iger
Main article: Eisner & Iger
Wow lasted four issues (cover-dated July–September and November
1936). After it ended, Eisner and Iger worked together producing and
selling original comics material, anticipating that the well of
available reprints would soon run dry, though their accounts of how
their partnership was founded differ. One of the first such comic-book
"packagers", their partnership was an immediate success, and the two
soon had a stable of comics creators supplying work to Fox Comics,
Quality Comics (for whom Eisner co-created such
Doll Man and Blackhawk), and others. Turning a profit of
$1.50 a page, Eisner claimed that he "got very rich before I was
22," later detailing that in Depression-era 1939 alone, he and
Iger "had split $25,000 between us", a considerable amount for the
Among the studio's products was a self-syndicated Sunday comic strip,
Hawks of the Sea, that initially reprinted Eisner's old strip Wow,
What A Magazine! feature "The Flame" and then continued it with new
material. Eisner's original work even crossed the Atlantic, with
Eisner drawing the new cover of the October 16, 1937 issue of Boardman
Books' comic-strip reprint tabloid Okay Comics Weekly.[citation
In 1939, Eisner was commissioned to create Wonder Man for Victor Fox,
an accountant who had previously worked at
DC Comics and was becoming
a comic book publisher himself. Following Fox's instructions to create
a Superman-type character, and using the pen name Willis, Eisner wrote
and drew the first issue of Wonder Comics. Eisner said in interviews
throughout his later life that he had protested the derivative nature
of the character and story, and that when subpoenaed after National
Periodical Publications, the company that would evolve into DC Comics,
sued Fox, alleging Wonder Man was an illegal copy of Superman, Eisner
testified that this was so, undermining Fox's case; Eisner even
depicts himself doing so in his semi-autobiographical graphic novel
The Dreamer. However, a transcript of the proceeding, uncovered by
comics historian Ken Quattro in 2010, indicates Eisner in fact
supported Fox and claimed Wonder Man as an original Eisner
Main article: The Spirit
Eisner's cover for The Spirit, Oct 6, 1946.
In "late '39, just before Christmas time," Eisner recalled in
Quality Comics publisher
Everett M. "Busy" Arnold
Everett M. "Busy" Arnold "came to
me and said that the Sunday newspapers were looking for a way of
getting into this comic book boom," In a 2004 interview, he
elaborated on that meeting:
"Busy" invited me up for lunch one day and introduced me to Henry
Martin [sales manager of
The Des Moines Register
The Des Moines Register and Tribune
Syndicate, who] said, "The newspapers in this country, particularly
the Sunday papers, are looking to compete with comics books, and they
would like to get a comic-book insert into the newspapers." ... Martin
asked if I could do it. ... It meant that I'd have to leave Eisner
& Iger [which] was making money; we were very profitable at that
time and things were going very well. A hard decision. Anyway, I
agreed to do the Sunday comic book and we started discussing the deal
[which] was that we'd be partners in the 'Comic Book Section,' as they
called it at that time. And also, I would produce two other magazines
in partnership with Arnold.
Eisner negotiated an agreement with the syndicate in which Arnold
would copyright The Spirit, but, "Written down in the contract I had
with 'Busy' Arnold — and this contract exists today as the
basis for my copyright ownership — Arnold agreed that it was my
property. They agreed that if we had a split-up in any way, the
property would revert to me on that day that happened. My attorney
went to 'Busy' Arnold and his family, and they all signed a release
agreeing that they would not pursue the question of ownership".
This would include the eventual backup features "Mr. Mystic" and "Lady
Selling his share of their firm to Iger, who would continue to package
comics as the S. M. Iger Studio and as Phoenix Features through 1955,
for $20,000, Eisner left to create The Spirit. "They gave me an
adult audience", Eisner said in 1997, "and I wanted to write better
things than superheroes. Comic books were a ghetto. I sold my part of
the enterprise to my associate and then began The Spirit. They wanted
an heroic character, a costumed character. They asked me if he'd have
a costume. And I put a mask on him and said, 'Yes, he has a
The Spirit, an initially eight- and later seven-page
urban-crimefighter series, ran with the initial backup features "Mr.
Mystic" and "Lady Luck" in a 16-page Sunday supplement (colloquially
The Spirit Section") that was eventually distributed in 20
newspapers with a combined circulation of as many as five million
copies. It premiered June 2, 1940, and continued through 1952.
Eisner has cited the Spirit story "Gerhard Shnobble" as a particular
favorite, as it was one of his first attempts at injecting his
personal point of view into the series.
World War II
World War II and Joe Dope
Premiere issue of the
U.S. Army publication PS (June 1951), designed
to be a "postscript" to related publications. Art by Eisner.
Eisner was drafted into the
U.S. Army in "late '41, early '42" and
then "had about another half-year which the government gave me to
clean up my affairs before going off" to fight in World War II. He
was assigned to the camp newspaper at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where
"there was also a big training program there, so I got involved in the
use of comics for training. ... I finally became a warrant officer,
which involved taking a test – that way you didn't have to go
through Officer Candidate School."
En route to Washington, D.C., he stopped at the Holabird Ordnance
Depot in Baltimore, Maryland, where a mimeographed publication titled
Army Motors was put together. "Together with the people there ... I
helped develop its format. I began doing cartoons – and we began
fashioning a magazine that had the ability to talk to the G.I.s in
their language. So I began to use comics as a teaching tool, and when
I got to Washington, they assigned me to the business of teaching –
or selling – preventive maintenance."
Eisner then created the educational comic strip and titular character
Joe Dope for Army Motors, and spent four years working in The Pentagon
editing the ordnance magazine Firepower and doing "all the general
illustrations – that is, cartoons" for Army Motors. He continued to
work on that and its 1950 successor magazine, PS, The Preventive
Maintenance Monthly until 1971. Eisner also illustrated an
official Army pamphlet in 1968 and 1969 called The M16A1 Rifle
specifically for troops in Vietnam to help minimize the M-16 rifle's
notorious early reliability problems with proper maintenance. Eisner's
style helped to popularize these officially-distributed works in order
to better educate soldiers on equipment maintenance.
While Eisner's later graphic novels were entirely his own work, he had
a studio working under his supervision on The Spirit. In particular,
letterer Abe Kanegson came up with the distinctive lettering style
which Eisner himself would later imitate in his book-length works, and
Kanegson would often rewrite Eisner's dialogue.
Eisner's most trusted assistant on The Spirit, however, was Jules
Feiffer, later a renowned cartoonist, playwright and screenwriter in
his own right. Eisner later said of their working methods "You should
hear me and
Jules Feiffer going at it in a room. 'No, you designed the
splash page for this one, then you wrote the ending — I came up
with the idea for the story, and you did it up to this point, then I
did the next page and this sequence here and...' And I'll be swearing
up and down that 'he' wrote the ending on that one. We never
So trusted were Eisner's assistants that Eisner allowed them to
The Spirit from the time that he was drafted into the U.S.
Army in 1942 until his return to civilian life in 1945. The primary
wartime artists were the uncredited
Lou Fine and Jack Cole, with
future Kid Colt, Outlaw artist Jack Keller drawing backgrounds. Ghost
Manly Wade Wellman
Manly Wade Wellman and William Woolfolk. The wartime
ghosted stories have been reprinted in DC Comics' hardcover
The Spirit Archives Vols. 5 to 11 (2001–2003), spanning
July 1942 – December 1944.
On Eisner's return from service and resumption of his role in the
studio, he created the bulk of the Spirit stories on which his
reputation was solidified. The post-war years also saw him attempt to
launch the comic-strip/comic-book series Baseball, John Law, Kewpies,
and Nubbin the Shoeshine Boy; none succeeded, but some material was
recycled into The Spirit.
The Spirit ceased publishing in 1952. During the 1960s and 1970s,
various publishers reprinted the adventures often with covers by
Eisner and with a few new stories from him.
American Visuals Corporation
World War II
World War II military service, Eisner had introduced the
use of comics for training personnel in the publication Army Motors,
for which he created the cautionary bumbling soldier Joe Dope, who
illustrated various methods of preventive maintenance of various
military equipment and weapons. In 1948, while continuing to do The
Spirit and seeing television and other post-war trends eat at the
readership base of newspapers, he formed the American Visuals
Corporation in order to produce instructional materials for the
government, related agencies, and businesses.
One of his longest-running jobs was PS, The Preventive Maintenance
Monthly, a digest sized magazine with comic book elements that he
started for the Army in 1951 and continued to work on until the 1970s
with Klaus Nordling, Mike Ploog, and other artists. In addition,
Eisner produced other military publications such as the graphic manual
in 1969, The M-16A1 Rifle: Operation and Preventative Maintenance,
which was distributed along with cleaning kits to address serious
reliability concerns with the
M16 Rifle during the Vietnam War.
Other clients of his Connecticut-based company included RCA Records,
the Baltimore Colts
NFL football team, and New York Telephone.
Trade paperback edition of A Contract with God; the concurrent
1,500-copy hardcover release did not use the term "graphic novel" on
In the late 1970s, Eisner turned his attention to longer storytelling
A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories
A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (Baronet Books,
October 1978) is an early example of an American graphic novel,
combining thematically linked short stories into a single square-bound
volume. Eisner continued with a string of graphic novels that tell the
history of New York's immigrant communities, particularly Jews,
including The Building, A Life Force,
Dropsie Avenue and To the Heart
of the Storm. He continued producing new books into his seventies and
eighties, at an average rate of nearly one a year. Each of these books
was done twice — once as a rough version to show editor Dave
Schreiner, then as a second, finished version incorporating suggested
Some of his last work was the retelling in sequential art of novels
and myths, including Moby-Dick. In 2002, at the age of 85, he
published Sundiata, based on the part-historical, part-mythical
stories of a West African king, "The Lion of Mali". Fagin the
an account of the life of Dickens' character Fagin, in which Eisner
tries to get past the stereotyped portrait of Fagin in Oliver Twist.
His last graphic novel, The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of
the Elders of Zion, an account of the making, and refutation, of the
anti-semitic hoax The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, was
completed shortly before his death and published in 2005.
In 2008, Will Eisner's The Spirit: A Pop-Up Graphic Novel was
Bruce Foster as paper engineer.
In his later years especially, Eisner was a frequent lecturer about
the craft and uses of sequential art. He taught at the School of
Visual Arts in New York City, where he published Will Eisner's
Gallery, a collection of work by his students and wrote two books
based on these lectures,
Comics and Sequential Art
Comics and Sequential Art and Graphic
Storytelling and Visual Narrative, which are widely used by students
of cartooning. In 2002, Eisner participated in the Will Eisner
Symposium of the 2002
University of Florida
University of Florida Conference on Comics and
Eisner died January 3, 2005, in Lauderdale Lakes, Florida, of
complications from a quadruple bypass surgery performed December 22,
DC Comics held a memorial service in Manhattan's Lower
East Side, a neighborhood Eisner often visited in his work, at the
Angel Orensanz Foundation on Norfolk Street.
Eisner was survived by his wife, Ann Weingarten Eisner, and their son,
John. In the introduction to the 2001 reissue of A
Contract with God, Eisner revealed that the inspiration for the title
story grew out of the 1970 death of his leukemia-stricken teenaged
daughter, Alice, next to whom he is buried. Until then, only Eisner's
closest friends were aware of his daughter's life and death.
Awards and honors
Eisner has been recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists
Society Comic Book Award for 1967, 1968, 1969, 1987 and 1988, as well
as its Story Comic Book Award in 1979, and its
Reuben Award in
He was inducted into the
Academy of Comic Book Arts
Academy of Comic Book Arts Hall of Fame in
1971, and the
Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1987. The following year, the
Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards were established in his honor.
in 1975, he received the second Grand Prix de la ville d'Angoulême.
With Jack Kirby, Robert Crumb, Harvey Kurtzman, Gary Panter, and Chris
Ware, Eisner was among the artists honored in the exhibition "Masters
of American Comics" at the Jewish Museum in New York City, from
September 16, 2006 to January 28, 2007.
On the 94th anniversary of Eisner's birth, in 2011,
Google used an
image featuring the Spirit as its logo.
Will Eisner are archived in the James Branch Cabell Library
of Virginia Commonwealth University. VCU's James Branch Cabell
Library has served as the repository for the
Will Eisner Comic
Industry Awards since 2005. Each year following Comic-Con, nominated
and award-winning titles are donated to the library's Special
Collections and Archives and made available to researchers and
visitors. Approximately 1,000 comic books, graphic novels, archival
editions, scholarly titles, and journals are included in the VCU
library's expansive Comic Arts Collection.
Odd Facts. Tempo Star Books. 1975. ISBN 0-441-60918-X.
A Contract with God. Baronet Books. 1978.
DC Comics reissue ISBN 1-56389-674-5
Life on Another Planet. 1983. ISBN 0-87816-370-0.
Comics and Sequential Art. 1985. ISBN 0-9614728-0-4.
New York: The Big City (softcover ed.). 1986.
Hardcover reprint 2000 ISBN 1-56389-682-6
The Dreamer. 1986. ISBN 1-56389-678-8.
The Building. 1987. ISBN 0-87816-024-8.
A Life Force. 1988. ISBN 0-87816-038-8.
Will Eisner (2nd ed.). Kitchen Sink. 1989.
To the Heart of the Storm. 1991. ISBN 1-56389-679-6.
Will Eisner Reader. 1991. ISBN 0-87816-129-5.
Invisible People. 1993. ISBN 0-87816-208-9.
Dropsie Avenue. 1995. ISBN 0-87816-348-4.
Will Eisner Sketchbook (softcover ed.). Kitchen Sink. 1995.
Hardcover edition ISBN 0-87816-400-6
Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative. 1996.
The Princess and the Frog. 1996. ISBN 1-56163-244-9.
A Family Matter. 1998. ISBN 0-87816-621-1.
Last Day in Vietnam. 2000. ISBN 1-56971-500-9.
The Last Knight. 2000. ISBN 1-56163-251-1.
Minor Miracles. 2000. ISBN 1-56389-751-2.
Will Eisner's Shop Talk. Dark Horse Comics. 2001.
Fagin the Jew. 2003. ISBN 0-385-51009-8.
The Name of the Game. 2003. ISBN 1-56389-869-1.
Will Eisner's John Law: Dead Man Walking (softcover ed.). IDW. 2004.
Hardcover edition ISBN 1-932382-83-6
The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. WW
Norton. 2005. ISBN 0-393-06045-4.
^ As co-creator of Doll Man.
^ Schumacher 2010, p. 2.
^ Schumacher 2010, pp. 2–3.
^ a b Schumacher 2010, p. 3.
^ Schumacher 2010, pp. 3–4.
^ a b Schumacher 2010, p. 4.
^ Schumacher 2010, p. 6.
^ Schumacher 2010, pp. 7–8.
^ a b Schumacher 2010, p. 10.
^ Schumacher 2010, pp. 8–9.
^ Schumacher 2010, p. 5.
^ Schumacher 2010, p. 11.
^ Schumacher 2010, p. 12.
^ Lovece, Frank (1974). Maple Leaf Publications, Paul Kowtiuk, ed.
"Cons: New York 1974!". The Journal Summer Special. Box 1286, Essex,
ON, CA N0R 1E0).
^ Spiegelman, Art. "Tijuana Bibles", Salon.com, August 19, 1997. p. 2.
WebCitation archive, main page and p. 2. Retrieved on February 24,
^ Mercer, Marilyn, "The Only Real Middle-Class Crimefighter," New York
(Sunday supplement, New York Herald Tribune), January 9, 1966;
reprinted Alter Ego No. 48, May 2005
^ Heintjes, Tom, The Spirit: The Origin Years #3 (Kitchen Sink Press,
^ Hawks of the Sea at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the
original on March 15, 2012.
^ Andelman, Bob. Will Eisner: A Spirited Life (M Press: Milwaukie,
Oregon, 2005) ISBN 978-1-59582-011-2, pp. 44–45
^ The Dreamer: A Graphic Novella Set During the Dawn of Comic Books
(DC Comics : New York City, 1986 edition)
ISBN 978-1-56389-678-1. Reissued by W. W. Norton &
Company : New York City, London, 2008.
ISBN 978-0-393-32808-0, p. 42
^ Quattro, Ken. "DC vs. Victor Fox: The Testimony of Will Eisner", The
Comics Detective, July 1, 2010. WebCitation archive.
^ "Art & Commerce: An Oral Reminiscence by Will Eisner." Panels #1
(Summer 1979), pp. 5–21, quoted in Quattro, Ken (2003). "Rare
Eisner: Making of a Genius". Comicartville Library. Archived from the
original on December 20, 2009.
^ a b
Will Eisner interview, Alter Ego No. 48 (May 2005), p. 10
^ Kitchen, Denis. "Annotations to The Dreamer, in Eisner, Will, The
Dreamer (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2008), p. 52.
Will Eisner interview,
Jack Kirby Collector #16 (June 1997)
^ Eisner, The Dreamer, "About the Author", p. 55
^ "GCD :: Series :: The Spirit".
^ "Eisner Wide Open". Hogan's Alley.
^ a b "
Will Eisner Interview",
The Comics Journal
The Comics Journal No. 46 (May 1979),
p. 45. Interview conducted October 13 and 17, 1978
^ Eisner interview,
The Comics Journal
The Comics Journal No. 46, p. 37
^ a b Eisner interview,
The Comics Journal
The Comics Journal No. 46, pp. 45–46
^ United States Department of the Army; Robert A. Sadowski (2013). The
M16A1 Rifle: Operation and Preventive Maintenance. Skyhorse
Publishing. ISBN 9781616088644. Retrieved 2014-07-13.
^ Mertes, Micah (November 5, 2011). "UNL professor's new book explores
the weird world of government comics". Lincoln Journal Star. Will
Eisner should be credited for using sequences of cartoon images to
teach people how to do things, rather than merely as a way to
dramatize a story or illustrate text. One of the last military
projects he worked on dealt with the use and care of the problematic
M16 rifle. The weapon was issued in the mid-'60s to great fanfare but
soon developed a reputation for unreliability. Full of double
entendres, Operation and Preventive Maintenance The M16A1 Rifle is a
classic example of Eisner's incredible ability to combine effectively
informational/instructional design with graphic design.
^ a b Sim, Dave, "My Dinner With Will & Other Stories," Following
Cerebus No. 4 (May 2005)
^ a b Schumacher 2010.
^ Sim, Dave, "Advice & Consent: The Editing of Graphic Novels"
(panel discussion with Eisner and Chester Brown) and Frank Miller
interview, both Following Cerebus No. 5 (August 2005).
^ MacDonald, Heidi (Oct 20, 2008). "When the Gift is a Graphic Novel".
PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
^ Levitz, Paul (2015). Will Eisner : champion of the graphic
novel. New York: Abrams. ISBN 9781613128640.
^ Eisner, Will. "Keynote Address from the 2002 'Will Eisner
Symposium'", ImageTexT, vol. 1, No. 1 (2004). University of Florida
Department of English. Retrieved 2011-02-02. WebCitation archive.
^ "Gemstone Publishing: ''Industry News'' (January 7, 2005): "In
Memoriam: Will Eisner"". Scoop.diamondgalleries.com. Retrieved
February 2, 2011.
Will Eisner (1917–2005)", SF&F Publishing News, Science
Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, January 4, 2005. Retrieved
2011-02-02 WebCitation archive.
DC Comics Celebrates Will Eisner", "Scoop" (column), Gemstone
Publishing, Inc. / Diamond International Galleries, March 19, 2005.
Retrieved 2011-02-02. WebCitation archive.
^ Gravett, Paul. "Obituary: Will Eisner: He pioneered American comic
books, and established the graphic novel as a literary genre", The
Guardian, January 8, 2005. WebCitation archive.
^ Boxer, Sarah. "Will Eisner, a Pioneer of Comic Books, Dies at 87",
The New York Times, January 5, 2005. WebCitation archive.
^ Obituaries: Will Eisner, The Daily Telegraph, January 6, 2005.
^ "Division Awards Comic Books". National Cartoonists Society. 2013.
Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December
^ "Exhibitions: Masters of American Comics". The Jewish Museum.
Retrieved August 10, 2010. . WebCitation archive.
^ Kimmelman, Michael. "See You in the Funny Papers" (art review), The
New York Times, October 13, 2006.WebCitation archive.
^ Seifert, Mark. "
Google Celebrates Will Eisner's 94th Birthday with
Google Logo", BleedingCool.com, March 6, 2011. WebCitation
^ Archive of
Google March 6, 2011, main page
^ "2017 News
Will Eisner Week". VCU Libraries. Retrieved 29 March
^ "The Eisner Awards: the Oscars of the Comics Industry · VCU
Libraries Gallery". gallery.library.vcu.edu. Retrieved 29 March
Schumacher, Michael (2010). Will Eisner: A Dreamer's Life in Comics.
Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60819-524-4.
Feiffer, Jules, The Great Comic-Book Heroes, ISBN 1-56097-501-6.
Jones, Gerard, Men of Tomorrow ISBN 0-434-01402-8.
Steranko, Jim, The Steranko History of Comics 2 (Supergraphics, 1972).
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Will Eisner.
Will Eisner at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Will Eisner on IMDb
The Spirit at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original
on August 8, 2017.
Fitzgerald, Paul E. "Every Picture Tells A Story: His Pen and Wit
Sharper Than Ever, Graphic Novelist
Will Eisner Takes On Religious
Intolerance", The Washington Post, June 3, 2004. WebCitation archive.
Robinson, Tasha. "Interview: Will Eisner",
The A.V. Club / The Onion,
September 27, 2000. WebCitation archive.
Will Eisner at the Comic Book DB
Jacks, Brian. "Veterans Day Exclusive: 'The Spirit' Creator Will
Eisner's Wartime Memories", MTV.com, November 11, 2000. WebCitation
The Ohio State University Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum:
Will Eisner Collection Guide (primary source material)
Benton, John (May 2005). "Will Eisner: Having Something to Say". The
Comics Journal (267). Archived from the original on March 19,
2011. Archive of material trimmed from print-magazine interview
Wayback Machine (archived April 29, 2008). Interview conducted
September 10, 1968; originally published in
Witzend No. 6 (Spring
"Interview with Jerry Iger", Cubic Zirconia Reader, 1985. WebCitation
Vaughn, Susan (January 7, 2001). "Making It: A Pioneering Spirit in
Pen and Ink – Graphic Novel's Father Has Been Innovator in Comics
Since the '30s". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on
October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
Villain Paper "
Fiction House The Spirit"
A Contract with God
A Contract with God (1978)
Life on Another Planet
Life on Another Planet (1983)
The Dreamer (1985)
New York: The Big City (1986)
The Dreamer (1986)
The Building 1987
A Life Force (1988)
To the Heart of the Storm (1991)
Invisible People (1993)
Dropsie Avenue (1995)
A Family Matter (1998)
Last Day in Vietnam (2000)
The Name of the Game (2003)
Comics and Sequential Art
Comics and Sequential Art (1985)
Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative
Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative (1996)
The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Sheena, Queen of the Jungle
PS, The Preventive Maintenance Monthly
The Spirit (film)
First Wave (comics)
ISNI: 0000 0000 8348 918X
BNF: cb11901621q (data)