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" Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
van Nassouwe", usually known just as the "Wilhelmus" (Dutch: Het Wilhelmus; pronounced [ɦɛt ʋɪlˈɦɛlmɵs] ( listen); English translation: "The William"), is the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It dates back to at least 1572, making it the oldest known national anthem in the world (though the melody was only added in the late 19th century).[2] Although the "Wilhelmus" was not recognized as the official national anthem until 1932, it has always been popular with parts of the Dutch population and resurfaced on several occasions in the course of Dutch history before gaining its present status.[3] It was also the anthem of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles from 1954 to 1964.

Protestant confessions in Europe in the 16th century. Calvinism (cyan) was adopted by a majority of the population in the Netherlands.

The "Wilhelmus" originated in the Dutch Revolt, the nation's struggle to achieve independence from the Spanish Empire. It tells of the Father of the Nation William of Orange who was stadholder in the Netherlands
Netherlands
under the King of Spain. In the first person, as if quoting himself, William speaks to the Dutch people
Dutch people
about both the revolt and his own, personal struggle: to be faithful to the king,[4] without being unfaithful to his conscience: to serve God and the Dutch people. In the lyrics William compares himself with the biblical David who serves under the tyrannic king Saul. As the merciful David
David
defeats the unjust Saul
Saul
and is rewarded by God with the kingdom of Israel, so too William hopes to be rewarded a kingdom. Both the "Wilhelmus" and the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
should be seen in the light of the 16th century Reformation
Reformation
in Europe and the resulting persecution of Protestants by the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
in the Low Countries. Militant music proved very useful not only in lampooning Roman clerks and repressive monarchs but also in generating class transcending social cohesion. In successfully combining a psalmic character with political relevancy, the "Wilhelmus" stands as the pre-eminent example of the genre.[5]

Contents

1 Inception

1.1 Origins of melody 1.2 Origins of lyrics

2 Structure and interpretation 3 Performance

3.1 History 3.2 Current

4 Variations 5 Lyrics 6 Notes and references 7 External links

Inception[edit] Origins of melody[edit] The melody of the Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
was borrowed from a well known Roman Catholic French song titled "Autre chanson de la ville de Chartres assiégée par le prince de Condé"[6] or in short: "Chartres". This song ridiculed the failed Siege of Chartres in 1568 by the Huguenot (Protestant) Prince de Condé during the French Wars of Religion. However, the triumphant contents of the "Wilhelmus" is the opposite of the content of the original song, making it subversive at several levels. Thus, the Dutch Protestants had taken over an anti-Protestant song, and adapted it into propaganda for their own agenda. In that way, the "Wilhelmus" was typical for its time, since It was common practice in the 16th century for warring groups to steal each other's songs in order to rewrite them.[7] Even though the melody stems from 1568, the first known written down version of it comes from 1574, in the time the anthem was sung in a much quicker pace.[8] Dutch composer Adriaen Valerius
Adriaen Valerius
recorded the current melody of the "Wilhelmus" in his "Nederlantsche Gedenck-clanck" in 1626, slowing down the melody's pace, probably to allow it to be sung in churches. The current official version is the 1932 arrangement by Walther Boer.

Philips of Marnix presents the Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
to William the Silent, by Jacob Spoel (ca 1850).

Origins of lyrics[edit] The origins of the lyrics are uncertain. The "Wilhelmus" was first written some time between the start of the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
in April 1568 and the Capture of Brielle
Capture of Brielle
on 1 April 1572,[9] making it at least 445–446 years old. Soon after the anthem was finished it was said that either Philips of Marnix, a writer, statesman and former mayor of Antwerp, or Dirck Coornhert, a politician and theologian, wrote the lyrics. However, this is disputed as both Marnix and Coornhert never mentioned that they wrote the lyrics. This is strange since the song was immensely popular in their time. The "Wilhelmus" also has some odd rhymes in it. In some cases the vowels of certain words were altered to allow them to rhyme with other words. Some see this as evidence that neither Marnix or Coornhert wrote the anthem as they were both experienced poets when the "Wilhelmus" was written and they would not have taken these small liberties. Hence some believe that the lyrics of the Dutch national anthem were the creation of someone who just wrote one poem for the occasion and then disappeared from history. A French translation of the "Wilhelmus" appeared around 1582.[10] Recent stylometric research mentioned Petrus Dathenus as a possible author of the text of the Dutch national anthem.[11] Dutch and Flemish researchers (Meertens Institute, Utrecht University
Utrecht University
and University of Antwerp) discovered by chance a striking number of similarities between his style and the style of the national anthem.[12][13] Structure and interpretation[edit] See also: Theodiscus and Terminology of the Low Countries The complete text comprises fifteen stanzas. The anthem is an acrostic: the first letters of the fifteen stanzas formed the name 'Willem van Nassov' (Nassov was a contemporary orthographic variant of Nassau). In the current Dutch spelling the first words of the 12th and 13th stanzas begin with Z instead of S. Like many of the songs of the period, it has a complex structure, composed around a thematic chiasmus: the text is symmetrical, in that verses one and 15 resemble one another in meaning, as do verses two and 14, three and 13, etc., until they converge in the 8th verse, the heart of the song: "Oh David, thou soughtest shelter from King Saul's tyranny. Even so I fled this welter", where the comparison is made between not only the biblical David
David
and William of Orange as merciful and just leader of the Dutch Revolt, but also between the tyran King Saul
Saul
and the Spanish crown, and between the promised land of Israel granted by God to David, and a kingdom granted by God to William.[14] In the first person, as if quoting himself, William speaks about how his disagreement with his king troubles him; he tries to be faithful to his king,[4] but he is above all faithful to his conscience: to serve God and the Dutch people. Therefore, the last two lines of the first stanza, indicate that the leader of the Dutch civil war against the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
of which they were part, had no specific quarrel with king Philip II of Spain, but rather with his emissaries in the Low Countries, like Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba. This may have been because at the time (late 16th century) it was uncommon to publicly doubt the Divine Right of Kings, who was accountable to God alone.[15] In 1581 the Netherlands
Netherlands
nevertheless rejected the legitimacy of the king of Spain's rule over it in the Act of Abjuration. "Duytschen" (in English generally translated as "Dutch", "native" or Germanic) in the first stanza as a reference to William's roots, whose modern Dutch equivalent, "Duits", exclusively means "German", may refer to William's ancestral house (Nassau, Germany) or to the lands of the Holy Roman Empire, including the Netherlands.[16][17] But most probably it is simply a reference to the broader meaning of the word, which points out William as a ''native'' of the fatherland, as opposed to the king of Spain, who was seldom or not in the Netherlands. The prince thus states that his roots are Germanic rather than Romance – in spite of his being Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
as well.[18] Performance[edit]

William the Silent
William the Silent
(William I), leader and icon of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish.

History[edit] Though only proclaimed the national anthem in 1932, the "Wilhelmus" already had a centuries-old prior history. It had been sung on many official occasions and at many important events since the outbreak of the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
in 1568, such as the siege of Haarlem in 1573 and the ceremonial entry of the Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
into Brussels
Brussels
on 18 September 1578. It has been claimed that during the gruesome torture of Balthasar Gérard (the assassin of William of Orange) in 1584, the song was sung by the guards who sought to overpower Gérard's screams when boiling pigs' fat was poured over him. Gérard allegedly responded "Sing! Dutch sinners! Sing! But know that soon I shall be sung of!".[19] Another legend claims that following the Navigation Acts (a 1651 ordinance by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
requiring all foreign fleets in the North Sea or the Channel to dip their flag in salute) the "Wilhelmus" was sung (or rather, shouted) by the sailors on the Dutch flagship Brederode in response to the first warning shot fired by an English fleet under Robert Blake, when their captain Maarten Tromp
Maarten Tromp
refused to lower his flag. At the end of the song, which coincided with the third (i.e. last) English warning shot, Tromp fired a full broadside thereby beginning the Battle of Goodwin Sands
Battle of Goodwin Sands
and the First Anglo-Dutch War.[19] During the Dutch Golden Age, it was conceived essentially as the anthem of the House of Orange-Nassau
House of Orange-Nassau
and its supporters – which meant, in the politics of the time, the anthem of a specific political faction which was involved in a prolonged struggle with opposing factions (which sometimes became violent, verging on civil war). Therefore, the fortunes of the song paralleled those of the Orangist faction. Trumpets played the "Wilhelmus" when Prince Maurits visited Breda, and again when he was received in state in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in May 1618. When William V arrived in Schoonhoven
Schoonhoven
in 1787, after the authority of the stadholders had been restored, the church bells are said to have played the "Wilhelmus" continuously. After the Batavian Revolution, inspired by the French Revolution, it had come to be called the "Princes' March" as it was banned during the rule of the Patriots, who did not support the House of Orange-Nassau. However, at the foundation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1813, the "Wilhelmus" had fallen out of favour. Having become monarchs with a claim to represent the entire nation and stand above factions, the House of Orange decided to break with the song which served them as heads of a faction, and the "Wilhelmus" was hence replaced by Hendrik Tollens' song Wien Neêrlands bloed door d'aderen vloeit, which was the official Dutch anthem from 1815 till 1932. However, the "Wilhelmus" remained popular and lost its identification as a factional song, and on 10 May 1932, it was decreed that on all official occasions requiring the performance of the national anthem, the "Wilhelmus: was to be played – thereby replacing Tollens' song. During the German occupation of the Netherlands, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, the Nazi Reichskommissar, banned all the emblems of the Dutch royal family, including the Wilhelmus. This was then taken up by all factions of the Dutch resistance, even those socialists who had previously taken an anti-monarchist stance. The pro-German Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB), who had sung the Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
at their meetings before the occupation, replaced it with Alle Man van Neerlands Stam ("All Men of Dutch Origin").[20] The anthem was drawn to the attention of the English-speaking world by the 1942 British war film, One of Our Aircraft Is Missing. The film concerns a Royal Air Force bomber crew who are shot down over the occupied Netherlands
Netherlands
and are helped to escape by the local inhabitants. The melody is heard during the film as part of the campaign of passive resistance by the population, and it finishes with the coat of arms of the Netherlands on screen while the Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
is played.[21] Current[edit]

First stanza of the Wilhelmus

The Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
is played only once at a ceremony or whatever other event and, if possible, it is to be the last piece of music to be played. When receiving a foreign head of state or emissary, the Dutch anthem may not be played unless a member of the Dutch Royal House
Dutch Royal House
is present. This is virtually unique in the world as most countries play the anthem of the foreign relation followed by their own anthem. During international sport events, such as the World Cup, UEFA European Football Championship and the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
the Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
is also played. In nearly every case the 1st and 6th stanza (or repeating the last lines), or the 1st stanza alone, are sung/played rather than the entire song, which would result in about 15 minutes of music.[22] The "Wilhelmus" is also widely used in Flemish nationalist gatherings as a symbol of cultural unity with the Netherlands. Yearly rallies like the "IJzerbedevaart" and the "Vlaams Nationaal Zangfeest" close with singing the 6th stanza, after which the Flemish national anthem "De Vlaamse Leeuw" is sung. Variations[edit] An important set of variations on the melody of Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
van Nassouwe is that by the blind carillon-player Jacob Van Eyck
Jacob Van Eyck
in his mid-17th century collection of variations Der Fluyten Lust-hof.[23] The royal anthem of Luxembourg, called de Wilhelmus, has a shared origin with the Dutch anthem het Wilhelmus. It is in official use since 1919, and was first used in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(at the time in personal union with the Kingdom of the United Netherlands) on the occasion of the visit of the Dutch King and Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
William III in 1883. Later, the anthem was played for Grand Duke Adolph of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
along with the national anthem. The melody is very similar, but not identical to that of the Wilhelmus, since the melody of the latter has been adapted considerably in history. The melody is used, with rewritten English lyrics, as the alma mater of Northwestern College in Orange City, Iowa, USA.[citation needed] Northwestern College is associated with the historically Dutch Christian denomination the Reformed Church in America. Orange City, the college's location, is named for the House of Orange. Small local governmental districts, townships, are named Nassau, Holland and East Orange. The melody is used in the Swedish folksong Ack, Göta konungarike (Alas, Gothic kingdom), written down in 1626. The song deals with the liberation struggle of Sweden under Gustav Vasa
Gustav Vasa
in the 16th century. Lyrics[edit]

The Wilhelmus

A choir accompanied by an organ sings the first and sixth stanza.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
was first printed in a geuzenliedboek, literally "Beggars' songbook" in 1581. It used the following text as an introduction to the Wilhelmus:

Een nieuw Christelick Liedt gemaect ter eeren des Doorluchtichsten Heeren, Heere Wilhelm Prince van Oraengien, Grave van Nassou, Patris Patriae, mijnen Genaedigen Forsten ende Heeren. Waer van deerste Capitael letteren van elck veers syner Genaedigen Forstens name metbrengen. Na de wijse van Chartres.

A new Christian song made in the honour of the most noble lord, lord William Prince of Orange, count of Nassau, Pater Patriae
Pater Patriae
(Father of the Nation), my merciful prince and lord. [A song] of which the first capital letter of each stanza form the name of his merciful prince. To the melody of Chartres.

Original Dutch lyrics (1568) Contemporary Dutch lyrics Melodic English lyrics[24] Non-melodic English translation

First stanza

Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
van Nassouwe Ben ick van Duytschen bloet Den Vaderlant getrouwe Blyf ick tot in den doet: Een Prince van Oraengien Ben ick vrij onverveert, Den Coninck van Hispaengien Heb ick altijt gheeert.

Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
van Nassouwe ben ik, van Duitsen bloed, den vaderland getrouwe blijf ik tot in den dood. Een Prinse van Oranje ben ik, vrij onverveerd, den Koning van Hispanje heb ik altijd geëerd.

William of Nassau, scion Of a German and ancient line, I dedicate undying Faith to this land of mine. A prince am I undaunted, Of Orange, very fearless, To the king of Spain
Spain
I've granted A lifelong loyalty.

William of Nassau am I, of native blood. Loyal to the fatherland I will remain until I die. A prince of Orange am I, quite fearless. The king of Spain I have always honoured.

Second stanza

In Godes vrees te leven Heb ick altyt betracht, Daerom ben ick verdreven Om Landt om Luyd ghebracht: Maer God sal mij regeren Als een goet Instrument, Dat ick zal wederkeeren In mijnen Regiment.

In Godes vrees te leven heb ik altijd betracht, daarom ben ik verdreven, om land, om luid gebracht. Maar God zal mij regeren als een goed instrument, dat ik zal wederkeren in mijnen regiment.

I've ever tried to live in The fear of God's command And therefore I've been driven, From people, home, and land, But God, I trust, will rate me His willing instrument And one day reinstate me Into my government.

To live in fear of God I have always attempted. Because of this I was ousted bereft of my land and my people. But God will direct me like a good instrument. So that I may return to my domain.

Third stanza

Lydt u myn Ondersaten Die oprecht zyn van aert, Godt sal u niet verlaten Al zijt ghy nu beswaert: Die vroom begheert te leven Bidt Godt nacht ende dach, Dat hy my cracht wil gheven Dat ick u helpen mach.

Lijdt u, mijn onderzaten die oprecht zijt van aard, God zal u niet verlaten, al zijt gij nu bezwaard. Die vroom begeert te leven, bidt God nacht ende dag, dat Hij mij kracht zal geven, dat ik u helpen mag.

Let no despair betray you, My subjects true and good. The Lord will surely stay you Though now you are pursued. He who would live devoutly Must pray God day and night To throw His power about me As champion of your right.

Hold on my subjects, who are honest by nature. God will not abandon you even though you now are in despair. He who tries to live piously, must pray to God day and night, that He will give me strength that I may help you.

Fourth stanza

Lyf en goet al te samen Heb ick u niet verschoont, Mijn broeders hooch van Namen Hebbent u oock vertoont: Graef Adolff is ghebleven In Vriesland in den slaech, Syn Siel int ewich Leven Verwacht den Jongsten dach.

Lijf en goed al te samen heb ik u niet verschoond, mijn broeders hoog van namen hebben 't u ook vertoond: Graaf Adolf is gebleven in Friesland in de slag, zijn ziel in 't eeuwig leven verwacht de jongste dag.

Life and my all for others I sacrificed, for you! And my illustrious brothers Proved their devotion too. Count Adolf, more's the pity, Fell in the Frisian fray, And in the eternal city Awaits the judgement day.

My life and fortune altogether I have not spared you. My brothers high in rank have shown you this as well: Count Adolf died in battle in Frisia His soul in eternal life awaits the final judgement.

Fifth stanza

Edel en Hooch gheboren Van Keyserlicken Stam: Een Vorst des Rijcks vercoren Als een vroom Christen man, Voor Godes Woort ghepreesen Heb ick vrij onversaecht, Als een Helt sonder vreesen Mijn edel bloet ghewaecht.

Edel en hooggeboren, van keizerlijke stam, een vorst des rijks verkoren, als een vroom christenman, voor Godes woord geprezen, heb ik, vrij onversaagd, als een held zonder vreze mijn edel bloed gewaagd.

I, nobly born, descended From an imperial stock. An empire's prince, defended (Braving the battle's shock Heroically and fearless As pious Christian ought) With my life's blood the peerless Gospel of God our Lord.

Noble and high-born, of imperial descent, Chosen a prince of the empire, Like a pious Christian, for the honoured word of God, I have without hesitation like a fearless hero, ventured my own noble blood.

Sixth stanza

Mijn Schilt ende betrouwen Sijt ghy, o Godt mijn Heer, Op u soo wil ick bouwen Verlaet mij nimmermeer: Dat ick doch vroom mach blijven V dienaer taller stondt, Die Tyranny verdrijven, Die my mijn hert doorwondt.

Mijn schild ende betrouwen zijt Gij, o God mijn Heer, op U zo wil ik bouwen, Verlaat mij nimmermeer. Dat ik doch vroom mag blijven, uw dienaar t'aller stond, en de tirannie verdrijven die mijn hart doorwondt.

A shield and my reliance, O God, Thou ever wert. I'll trust unto Thy guidance. O leave me not ungirt. That I may stay a pious Servant of Thine for aye And drive the plagues that try us And tyranny away.

My shield and reliance are you, o God my Lord. It is you on whom I want to rely, never leave me again. [Grant] that I may remain brave, your servant for always, and [may] defeat the tyranny, which pierces my heart.

Seventh stanza

Van al die my beswaren, End mijn Vervolghers zijn, Mijn Godt wilt doch bewaren Den trouwen dienaer dijn: Dat sy my niet verrasschen In haren boosen moet, Haer handen niet en wasschen In mijn onschuldich bloet.

Van al die mij bezwaren en mijn vervolgers zijn, mijn God, wil doch bewaren de trouwe dienaar dijn, dat zij mij niet verrassen in hunne boze moed, hun handen niet en wassen in mijn onschuldig bloed.

My God, I pray thee, save me From all who do pursue And threaten to enslave me, Thy trusted servant true. O Father, do not sanction Their wicked, foul design, Don't let them wash their hands in This guiltless blood of mine.

From all those that burden me and are my pursuers, my God, do save your loyal servant. That they may not surprise me with their wicked plans nor wash their hands in my innocent blood.

Eighth stanza

Als David
David
moeste vluchten Voor Saul
Saul
den Tyran: Soo heb ick moeten suchten Met menich Edelman: Maer Godt heeft hem verheven Verlost uit alder noot, Een Coninckrijk ghegheven In Israel seer groot.

Als David
David
moeste vluchten voor Sauel den tiran, zo heb ik moeten zuchten als menig edelman. Maar God heeft hem verheven, verlost uit alder nood, een koninkrijk gegeven in Israël zeer groot.

O David, thou soughtest shelter From King Saul's tyranny. Even so I fled this welter And many a lord with me. But God the Lord did save him From exile and its hell And, in His mercy, gave him A realm in Israel.

Like David, who was forced to flee from Saul, the tyrant. I had to sigh, as did many other nobles. But God raised him, relieving him of despair, and gave him a kingdom very great in Israel.

Ninth stanza

Na tsuer sal ick ontfanghen Van Godt mijn Heer dat soet, Daer na so doet verlanghen Mijn Vorstelick ghemoet: Dat is dat ick mach sterven Met eeren in dat Velt, Een eewich Rijck verwerven Als een ghetrouwe Helt.

Na 't zuur zal ik ontvangen van God mijn Heer het zoet, daarnaar zo doet verlangen mijn vorstelijk gemoed: dat is, dat ik mag sterven met ere in dat veld, een eeuwig rijk verwerven als een getrouwe held.

Fear not 't will rain sans ceasing The clouds are bound to part. I bide that sight so pleasing Unto my princely heart, Which is that I with honor Encounter death in war, And meet in heaven my Donor, His faithful warrior.

After this sourness I will receive from God my Lord the sweetness For that longs so much my noble mind which is that I may die with honour in the fields, and gain an eternal realm as a faithful hero.

Tenth stanza

Niet doet my meer erbarmen In mijnen wederspoet, Dan dat men siet verarmen Des Conincks Landen goet, Dat van de Spaengiaerts crencken O Edel Neerlandt soet, Als ick daer aen ghedencke Mijn Edel hert dat bloet.

Niets doet mij meer erbarmen in mijne wederspoed dan dat men ziet verarmen des Konings landen goed. Dat u de Spanjaards krenken, o edel Neerland zoet, als ik daaraan gedenke, mijn edel hart dat bloedt.

Nothing so moves my pity As seeing through these lands, Field, village, town and city Pillaged by roving hands. O that the Spaniards rape thee, My Netherlands
Netherlands
so sweet, The thought of that does grip me Causing my heart to bleed.

Nothing makes me pity so much in my adversity, then that are seen to be impoverishing the good lands of the King That you are molested by the Spaniards, O Noble Netherlands
Netherlands
sweet, when I think of that, my noble heart bleeds.

Eleventh stanza

Als een Prins op gheseten Met mijner Heyres cracht, Van den Tyran vermeten Heb ick den Slach verwacht, Die by Maestricht begraven Bevreesden mijn ghewelt, Mijn ruyters sach men draven. Seer moedich door dat Velt.

Als een prins opgezeten met mijner heireskracht, van de tiran vermeten heb ik de slag verwacht, die, bij Maastricht begraven, bevreesden mijn geweld; mijn ruiters zag men draven zeer moedig door dat veld.

Astride on steed of mettle I've waited with my host The tyrant's call to battle, Who durst not do his boast. For, near Maastricht ensconced, He feared the force I wield. My horsemen saw one bounce it Bravely across the field.

Seated [on horseback] like a prince, with my armed forces, Defied by the tyrant, I awaited the battle. Those dug in at Maastricht were afraid of my might People saw my horsemen ride bravely through the fields.

Twelfth stanza

Soo het den wille des Heeren Op die tyt had gheweest, Had ick gheern willen keeren Van v dit swear tempeest: Maer de Heer van hier boven Die alle dinck regeert. Diemen altijd moet loven En heeftet niet begheert.

Zo het de wil des Heren op die tijd was geweest, had ik geern willen keren van u dit zwaar tempeest. Maar de Heer van hierboven, die alle ding regeert, die men altijd moet loven, Hij heeft het niet begeerd.

Surely, if God had willed it, When that fierce tempest blew, My power would have stilled it, Or turned its blast from you But He who dwells in heaven, Whence all our blessings flow, For which aye praise be given, Did not desire it so.

If it had been the Lord's will, at the time, I would have gladly relieved you of this heavy tempest. But the Lord above, who rules all, He who we should always praise, did not desire so.

Thirteenth stanza

Seer Prinslick was ghedreven Mijn Princelick ghemoet, Stantvastich is ghebleven Mijn hert in teghenspoet, Den Heer heb ick ghebeden Van mijnes herten gront, Dat hy mijn saeck wil reden, Mijn onschult doen bekant.

Zeer christlijk was gedreven mijn prinselijk gemoed, standvastig is gebleven mijn hart in tegenspoed. De Heer heb ik gebeden uit mijnes harten grond, dat Hij mijn zaak wil redden, mijn onschuld maken kond.

Steadfast my heart remaineth In my adversity My princely courage straineth All nerves to live and be. I've prayed the Lord my Master With fervid heart and tense To save me from disaster And prove my innocence.

By a Christian mood was driven My princely heart Steadfast remained my heart in adversity To the Lord I prayed, from the bottom of my heart, that He may save my cause, and proclaim my innocence.

Fourteenth stanza

Oorlof mijn arme Schapen Die zijt in grooten noot, V Herder sal niet slapen Al zijt ghy nu verstroyt: Tot Godt wilt v begheven, Syn heylsaem Woort neemt aen, Als vrome Christen leven, Tsal hier haest zijn ghedaen.

Oorlof, mijn arme schapen die zijt in grote nood, uw herder zal niet slapen, al zijt gij nu verstrooid. Tot God wilt u begeven, zijn heilzaam woord neemt aan, als vrome christen leven,- 't zal hier haast zijn gedaan.

Alas! my flock. To sever Is hard on us. Farewell. Your Shepherd wakes, wherever Dispersed you may dwell, Pray God that He may ease you. His Gospel be your cure. Walk in the steps of Jesus This life will not endure.

Farewell, my poor sheep, who are in deep despair. Your shepherd will not sleep, even though you are now dispersed. Turn to God, accept his curing word. Live as a good Christian; soon, it will be finished here .

Fifteenth stanza

Voor Godt wil ick belijden End zijner grooter Macht, Dat ick tot gheenen tijden Den Coninck heb veracht: Dan dat ick Godt den Heere Der hoochster Maiesteyt, Heb moeten obedieren, Inder gherechticheyt.

Voor God wil ik belijden en zijne grote macht, dat ik tot gene tijden de Koning heb veracht, dan dat ik God de Here, de hoogste Majesteit, heb moeten obediëren in de gerechtigheid.

Unto the Lord His power I do confession make That ne'er at any hour Ill of the King I spake. But unto God, the greatest Of Majesties I owe Obedience first and latest, For Justice wills it so.

I want to confess to God, and to his great power that I have never despised the King. except that to God the Lord, the highest Majesty I've been obedient in justice.

Acrostic

WILLEM VAN NASSOV

WILLEM VAN NAZZOV

WILLIAM OF NASSAU

(n/a)

Notes and references[edit]

^ M. de Bruin, "Het Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
tijdens de Republiek", in: L.P. Grijp (ed.), Nationale hymnen. Het Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
en zijn buren. Volkskundig bulletin 24 (1998), p. 16-42, 199–200; esp. p. 28 n. 65. ^ "national-anthems.org - facts". www.national-anthems.org.  ^ " Netherlands
Netherlands
– Het Wilhelmus". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 21 November 2011.  ^ a b "Geuzenliedboek". cf.hum.uva.nl.  ^ DeLapp, Nevada Levi (2014-08-28). The Reformed David(s) and the Question of Resistance to Tyranny: Reading the Bible in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 9780567655493.  ^ BogaertVanderauderaa (28 September 2010). ""O la folle entreprise du Prince de Condé" ( Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
van Nassau ), c. 1568" – via YouTube.  ^ "Geuzenliedboek". cf.hum.uva.nl. Retrieved 2016-08-14.  ^ Patu (12 December 2010). "Het Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
(reconstruction)" – via YouTube.  ^ "Louis Peter Grijp-lezing 10 mei 2016". Vimeo. Retrieved 2016-08-13.  ^ J. te Winkel, De ontwikkelingsgang der Nederlandsche letterkunde. Deel 2: Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche letterkunde van Middeleeuwen en Rederijkerstijd (Haarlem 1922), p. 491 n. 1.DBNL.org ^ "'Schrijver Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
is te ontdekken met computeralgoritme'" (in Dutch). Retrieved 2016-08-13.  ^ "Toevallig op Petrus Datheen stuiten" (in Dutch). 2016-05-11. Retrieved 2016-08-13.  ^ "Louis Peter Grijp-lezing online" (in Dutch). 2016-05-22. Retrieved 2016-08-13.  ^ DeLapp, Nevada Levi (2014-08-28). The Reformed David(s) and the Question of Resistance to Tyranny: Reading the Bible in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 88–90. ISBN 9780567655493.  ^ DeLapp, Nevada Levi (2014-08-28). The Reformed David(s) and the Question of Resistance to Tyranny: Reading the Bible in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 9780567655493.  ^ Maria A. Schenkeveld, Dutch literature
Dutch literature
in the age of Rembrandt: themes and ideas (1991), 6 ^ Leerssen, J. (1999). Nationaal denken in Europa: een cultuurhistorische schets. p. 29.  ^ DeGrauwe, Luc (2002). Emerging Mother-Tongue Awareness: The special case of Dutch and German in the Middle Ages and the early Modern Period, in: Standardisation: studies from the Germanic languages. pp. 99–116.  ^ a b van Doorn, T. H. "Het Wilhelmus, analyse van de inhoud, de structuur en de boodschap". www.cubra.nl. Retrieved 2016-08-14.  ^ Dewulf, Jeroen (2010), Spirit of Resistance: Dutch Clandestine Literature During the Nazi Occupation, Camden House, New York ISBN 978-1-57113-493-6 (p. 115) ^ Furhammar, Leif and Isaksson, Folke (1971), Politics and film, Praeger Publishers, New York (p. 81) ^ Each of the 15 stanzas lasts 56 seconds, and the last stanza has a Ritenuto. ^ Michel, Winfried and Hermien Teske (eds.) (1984). Jacob van Eyck (ca. 1590–1657): Der Fluyten Lust-hof. Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag – Bernhard Päuler. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "The Dutch National Anthem". MinBuZa.nl. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 

External links[edit]

English Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Het Wilhelmus

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wilhelmus.

Streaming audio, lyrics and information for the Wilhelmus Sheet music of the Wilhelmus "The Wilhelmus", vocal version of the first and sixth verse at the Himnuszok website O la folle entreprise du prince de Condé, performance of Autre chanson de la ville de Chartres assiégée par le prince de Condé, the song that has the original version of the melody used for the Wilhelmus Het Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
(reconstruction), in the pace of the 16th century version

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