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FRIEDRICH WILHELM CHRISTIAN KARL FERDINAND VON HUMBOLDT (German: ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher , linguist , government functionary, diplomat , and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin , which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, a naturalist ).

He is especially remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language and to the theory and practice of education. In particular, he is widely recognized as having been the architect of the Humboldtian education ideal , which was used from the beginning in Prussia
Prussia
as a model for its system of education and eventually in countries such as the US and Japan
Japan
.

His younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, was famous as a geographer, naturalist, and explorer.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography * 2 Philosopher
Philosopher
* 3 Educational reforms * 4 Diplomat
Diplomat
* 5 Linguist

* 6 Bibliography

* 6.1 Collected writings

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

BIOGRAPHY

Humboldt was born in Potsdam
Potsdam
, Margraviate of Brandenburg , and died in Tegel
Tegel
, Province of Brandenburg .

In June 1791, he married Karoline von Dacheröden . They had eight children, of whom five (including Gabriele ) survived to adulthood.

PHILOSOPHER

Humboldt was a philosopher ; he wrote _ The Limits of State Action _ in 1791–1792 (though it was not published until 1850, after Humboldt's death), one of the boldest defences of the liberties of the Enlightenment . It influenced John Stuart Mill\'s essay _ On Liberty _ through which von Humboldt's ideas became known in the English-speaking world. Humboldt outlined an early version of what Mill would later call the "harm principle ". His house in Rome
Rome
became a cultural hub, run by Charlotte Humboldt.

The section dealing with education was published in the December 1792 issue of the _Berlinische Monatsschrift_ under the title "On public state education". With this publication, Humboldt took part in the philosophical debate regarding the direction of national education that was in progress in Germany, as elsewhere, after the French Revolution.

EDUCATIONAL REFORMS

Bust of Wilhelm von Humboldt, by Bertel Thorvaldsen , 1808.

Humboldt had been home schooled and never finished his comparably short university studies at the universities of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(Oder) and Göttingen . Nevertheless, he became one of the most influential officials in German education. Actually, Humboldt had intended to become Minister of education, but failed to attain that position. The Prussian King asked him to leave Rome
Rome
in 1809 and to lead the directorate of education under Friedrich Ferdinand Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten . Humboldt did not reply to the appointment for several weeks and would have preferred to stay on at the embassy in Rome. His wife did not return with him to Prussia; the couple met again when Humboldt stepped down from the educational post and was appointed head of the Embassy in Vienna.

Humboldt installed a standardized system of public instruction, from basic schools till secondary education, and founded Berlin University. He imposed a standardization of state examinations and inspections and created a special department within the ministry to oversee and design curricula, textbooks and learning aids.

Humboldt's plans for reforming the Prussian school system were not published until long after his death, together with his fragment of a treatise on the 'Theory of Human Education', which he had written in about 1793. Here, Humboldt states that 'the ultimate task of our existence is to give the fullest possible content to the concept of humanity in our own person through the impact of actions in our own lives.' This task 'can only be implemented through the links established between ourselves as individuals and the world around us' (GS, I, p. 283).

Humboldt's concept of education does not lend itself solely to individualistic interpretation. It is true that he always recognized the importance of the organization of individual life and the 'development of a wealth of individual forms' (GS, III, p. 358), but he stressed the fact that 'self-education can only be continued in the wider context of development of the world' (GS, VII, p. 33). In other words, the individual is not only entitled, but also obliged, to play his part in shaping the world around him.

Humboldt's educational ideal was entirely coloured by social considerations. He never believed that the 'human race could culminate in the attainment of a general perfection conceived in abstract terms'. In 1789, he wrote in his diary that 'the education of the individual requires his incorporation into society and involves his links with society at large' (GS, XIV, p. 155). In his essay on the 'Theory of Human Education', he answered the question as to the 'demands which must be made of a nation, of an age and of the human race'. 'Education, truth and virtue' must be disseminated to such an extent that the 'concept of mankind' takes on a great and dignified form in each individual (GS, I, p. 284). However, this shall be achieved personally by each individual, who must 'absorb the great mass of material offered to him by the world around him and by his inner existence, using all the possibilities of his receptiveness; he must then reshape that material with all the energies of his own activity and appropriate it to himself so as to create an interaction between his own personality and nature in a most general, active and harmonious form' (GS, II, p. 117).

Humboldt educational model goes beyond vocational training. In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: "There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more importantly, a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People obviously cannot be good craftworkers, merchants, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are easily acquired later on, and a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so often happens in life." The philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, and argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt.

DIPLOMAT

As a successful diplomat between 1802 and 1819, Humboldt was plenipotentiary Prussian minister at Rome
Rome
from 1802, ambassador at Vienna
Vienna
from 1812 during the closing struggles of the Napoleonic Wars , at the congress of Prague
Prague
(1813) where he was instrumental in drawing Austria
Austria
to ally with Prussia
Prussia
and Russia
Russia
against France
France
, a signer of the peace treaty at Paris
Paris
and the treaty between Prussia
Prussia
and defeated Saxony
Saxony
(1815), at Frankfurt
Frankfurt
settling post-Napoleonic Germany
Germany
, and at the congress at Aachen
Aachen
in 1818. However, the increasingly reactionary policy of the Prussian government made him give up political life in 1819; and from that time forward he devoted himself solely to literature and study.

LINGUIST

Statue of Wilhelm von Humboldt outside Humboldt University , Unter den Linden, Berlin.

Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
was an adept linguist and studied the Basque language . He translated Pindar and Aeschylus
Aeschylus
into German.

Humboldt's work as a philologist in Basque has had more extensive impact than his other work. His visit to the Basque country resulted in _Researches into the Early Inhabitants of Spain
Spain
by the help of the Basque language_ (1821). In this work, Humboldt endeavored to show by examining geographical placenames, that at one time a race or races speaking dialects allied to modern Basque extended throughout Spain
Spain
, southern France
France
and the Balearic Islands ; he identified these people with the _ Iberians _ of classical writers, and further surmised that they had been allied with the Berbers of northern Africa
Africa
. Humboldt's pioneering work has been superseded in its details by modern linguistics and archaeology , but is sometimes still uncritically followed even today. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1820, and a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822.

Humboldt died while preparing his greatest work, on the ancient Kawi language of Java , but its introduction was published in 1836 as _The Heterogeneity of Language
Language
and its Influence on the Intellectual Development of Mankind_. His essay on the philosophy of speech

...first clearly laid down that the character and structure of a language expresses the inner life and knowledge of its speakers, and that languages must differ from one another in the same way and to the same degree as those who use them. Sounds do not become words until a meaning has been put into them, and this meaning embodies the thought of a community. What Humboldt terms the inner form of a language is just that mode of denoting the relations between the parts of a sentence which reflects the manner in which a particular body of men regards the world about them. It is the task of the morphology of speech to distinguish the various ways in which languages differ from each other as regards their inner form, and to classify and arrange them accordingly.

He is credited with being the first European linguist to identify human language as a rule-governed system, rather than just a collection of words and phrases paired with meanings. This idea is one of the foundations of Noam Chomsky\'s theory of language . Chomsky frequently quotes Humboldt's description of language as a system which "makes infinite use of finite means", meaning that an infinite number of sentences can be created using a finite number of grammatical rules. Humboldt scholar Tilman Borsche, however, notes profound differences between von Humboldt's view of language and Chomsky's.

More recently, Humboldt has also been credited as an originator of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (more commonly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ), developed by linguists Edward Sapir or Benjamin Whorf a century later.

The reception of Humboldt's work remains problematic in English-speaking countries, despite the work of Langham Brown, Manchester and Underhill (Humboldt, Worldview & Language, 2009), on account of his concept of what he called _Weltansicht_, the linguistic worldview, with _Weltanschauung_ being translated simply as 'worldview' a term associated with ideologies and cultural mindsets in both German and English. The centrality of distinction in understanding Huimbolt's work was set out by one of the leading contemporary German Humboldt scholars, Jürgen Trabant, in his works in both German and French. Polish linguists, at the Lublin School (see Jerzy Bartmiński ) in their research of Humboldt, also stress this distinction between the worldviews of a personal or political kind and the worldview that is implicit in language as a conceptual system.

However, little rigorous research in English has gone into exploring the relationship between the linguistic worldview and the transformation and maintenance of this worldview by individual speakers. One notable exception is the work of Underhill, who explores comparative linguistic studies in both _Creating Worldviews: Language_, _Ideology & Metaphor_ (2011) and in _Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: Truth, Love, Hate the Roman numeral indicates the volume and the Arabic figure the page; the original German spelling has been modernized.)

SEE ALSO

* Liberalism

* Contributions to liberal theory

* Ferdinand de Saussure

NOTES

* ^ Helmut Thielicke, _Modern Faith and Thought_, William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1990, p. 174. * ^ Philip A. Luelsdorff, Jarmila Panevová, Petr Sgall (eds.), _Praguiana, 1945–1990_, John Benjamins Publishing, 1994, p. 150: "Humboldt himself (Humboldt was one of the leading spirits of romantic linguistics; he died in 1834) emphasized that speaking was permanent creation." * ^ David Kenosian: "Fichtean Elements in Wilhelm von Humboldt's Philosophy of Language", in: Daniel Breazeale, Tom Rockmore (ed.), _Fichte, German Idealism, and Early Romanticism_, Rodopi, 2010, p. 357. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jürgen Georg Backhaus (ed.), _The University According to Humboldt: History, Policy, and Future Possibilities_, Springer, 2015, p. 58. * ^ Michael N. Forster, _After Herder: Philosophy of Language
Language
in the German Tradition_, Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 9. * ^ Hermann Klencke, Gustav Schlesier, _Lives of the brothers Humboldt, Alexander and William_ New York, 1853:13. * ^ Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt, "Wilhelm von Humboldt", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy * ^ Thorvaldsens Museum * ^ Manfred Geier: _Die Brüder Humboldt_. Reinbek bei Hamburg 2009, pp. 261 ff. * ^ Clark, Christopher (2006). _Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia_. United States
United States
of America: Penguin Group. p. 332. * ^ As quoted in Profiles of educators: Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835) by Karl-Heinz Günther (1988), doi :10.1007/BF02192965 * ^ Nida-Rümelin, Julian (29 October 2009). "Bologna-Prozess: Die Chance zum Kompromiss ist da". _ Die Zeit _ (in German). Retrieved 29 November 2015. * ^ American Antiquarian Society Members Directory * ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter H" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 7 August 2014. * ^ Muriel Mirak Weissbach (1999). "Wilhelm von Humboldt\'s Study of the Kawi Language: The Proof of the Existence Of the Malayan-Polynesian Language
Language
Culture". _ Fidelio Magazine _. VIII (1). Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. * ^ see Tilman Borsche: _Sprachansichten. Der Begriff der menschlichen Rede in der Sprachphilosophie Wilhelm von Humboldts_, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1981. * ^ The Jurgen Trabant Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Lectures, launched by the Rouen University Ethnolinguistics Project.

FURTHER READING

* Hegel, G. W. F. , 1827. _On The Episode of the Mahabharata Known by the Name Bhagavad-Gita_ (Hegel's review of Wilhelm von Humboldt's lectures on the Bhagavad-Gita). * Sorkin, David. "Wilhelm Von Humboldt: The Theory and Practice of Self-Formation (Bildung), 1791–1810" in: _Journal of the History of Ideas_, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan.–Mar., 1983), pp. 55–73. * Berman, Antoine . _L\'épreuve de l\'étranger. Culture et traduction dans l\'Allemagne romantique: Herder, Goethe, Schlegel, Novalis, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, Hölderlin _, Paris, Gallimard, Essais, 1984. ISBN 978-2-07-070076-9 . * Mitxela, Koldo . "G. de Humboldt et la langue basque" in: _Lengua e historia_. Madrid: Paraninfo, 1985. ISBN 84-283-1379-2 * Tilman Borsche, Tilman. _Wilhelm von Humboldt_, München, Beck, 1990. ISBN 3-406-33218-8 . * Lalatta Costerbosa, Marina _Ragione e tradizione: il pensiero giuridico ed etico-politico di Wilhelm von Humboldt_, Milano, Giuffrè, 2000. ISBN, 88-14-08219-7. * Doerig, Detmar (2008). "Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1767–1835)". In Hamowy, Ronald . _The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism_. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE ; Cato Institute
Cato Institute
. pp. 229–30. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4 . LCCN 2008009151 . OCLC
OCLC
750831024 . doi :10.4135/9781412965811.n141 . * Gorrotxategi, Iñaki Zabaleta. _W. von Humboldts Forschungen über die baskische Nation und Sprache und ihre Bedeutung für seine Anthropologie_. Köln, 1998. (dissertation) * Marra, Realino. _La ragione e il caso. Il processo costituente nel realismo storico di Wilhelm von Humboldt_, «Materiali per una storia della cultura giuridica», XXXII–2, 2002, pp. 453–64. * Stubb, Elsina. _Wilhelm Von Humboldt's Philosophy of Language, Its Sources and Influence_, Edwin Mellen Press, 2002. * Roberts, John. _German Liberalism and Wilhelm Von Humboldt: A Reassessment_, Mosaic Press, 2002 * Azurmendi, Joxe : Ein Denkmal der Achtung und Liebe. Humboldt über die baskische Landschaft, _RIEV_, 48–1: 125–42, Eusko Ikaskuntza, 2003 ISSN 0212-7016 * Azurmendi, Joxe, _Humboldt. Hizkuntza eta pentsamendua_, Bilbo, UEU, 2007. ISBN 978-84-8438-099-3 . * Schultheis, Franz, _Le cauchemar de Humboldt: les réformes de l’enseignement supérieur européen_, Paris, Raisons d’agir éditions, 2008. ISBN 978-2-912107-40-4 . * Trabant (Jürgen), Humboldt ou le sens du language, Mardaga, 1995. * Trabant (Jürgen), « Sprachsinn: le sens du langage, de la linguistique et de la philosophie du langage » in La pensée dans la langue. Humboldt et après, P.U.V., 1995. * Trabant (Jürgen), « Du génie aux gènes des langues » in Et le génie des langues ? Essais et savoirs P.U.V., 2000 * Trabant (Jürgen), Traditions de Humboldt, Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l'homme, Paris, 1999. * Trabant, (Jürgen), « Quand l'Europe oublie Herder : Humboldt et les langues », Revue Germanique Internationale, 2003, 20, 153–65 (mise à jour avril 2005) * Underhill, James W. « Humboldt, Worldview and Language
Language
», Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2009. * Underhill, James W. "Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war", Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012. * Valentin, Jean-Marie _Alexander von Humboldt: 150e anniversaire de sa mort_, Paris, Didier Érudition. 2011. ISBN 978-2-252-03756-0 . * Forster, Michael N. _German Philosophy of Language: From Schlegel to Hegel and Beyond_, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-960481-4 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to WILHELM VON HUMBOLDT

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