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Wilhelm Eduard Weber (/ˈveɪbər/;[1] German: [ˈveːbɐ]; 24 October 1804 – 23 June 1891) was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.

Contents

1 Biography of Wilhelm

1.1 Early years 1.2 Career

2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

Biography of Wilhelm[edit] Early years[edit] Weber was born in Wittenberg, where his father, Michael Weber, was professor of theology. Wilhelm was the second of three brothers, all of whom were distinguished by an aptitude for science. After the dissolution of the University of Wittenberg
Wittenberg
his father was transferred to Halle in 1815. Wilhelm had received his first lessons from his father, but was now sent to the Orphan Asylum and Grammar School at Halle. After that he entered the University, and devoted himself to natural philosophy. He distinguished himself so much in his classes, and by original work, that after taking his degree of Doctor and becoming a Privatdozent he was appointed Professor Extraordinary of natural philosophy at Halle. Career[edit] In 1831, on the recommendation of Carl Friedrich Gauss, he was hired by the University of Göttingen
Göttingen
as professor of physics, at the age of twenty-seven. His lectures were interesting, instructive, and suggestive. Weber thought that, in order to thoroughly understand physics and apply it to daily life, mere lectures, though illustrated by experiments, were insufficient, and he encouraged his students to experiment themselves, free of charge, in the college laboratory. As a student of twenty years he, with his brother, Ernst Heinrich Weber, Professor of Anatomy at Leipzig, had written a book on the Wave Theory and Fluidity, which brought its authors a considerable reputation. Acoustics was a favourite science of his, and he published numerous papers upon it in Poggendorffs Annalen, Schweigger's Jahrbücher für Chemie und Physik, and the musical journal Carcilia. The 'mechanism of walking in mankind' was another study, undertaken in conjunction with his younger brother, Eduard Weber. These important investigations were published between the years 1825 and 1838. Gauss and Weber constructed the first electromagnetic telegraph in 1833, which connected the observatory with the institute for physics in Göttingen. In December 1837, the Hannovarian government dismissed Weber, one of the Göttingen
Göttingen
Seven, from his post at the university for political reasons. Weber then travelled for a time, visiting England, among other countries, and became professor of physics in Leipzig
Leipzig
from 1843 to 1849, when he was reinstated at Göttingen. One of his most important works, co-authored with Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss
and Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt, was Atlas
Atlas
des Erdmagnetismus: nach den Elementen der Theorie entworfen ( Atlas
Atlas
of Geomagnetism: Designed according to the elements of the theory),[2][3] a series of magnetic maps, and it was chiefly through his efforts that magnetic observatories were instituted. He studied magnetism with Gauss, and during 1864 published his Electrodynamic Proportional Measures containing a system of absolute measurements for electric currents, which forms the basis of those in use. Weber died in Göttingen, where he is buried in the same cemetery as Max Planck
Max Planck
and Max Born.

Wilhelm Eduard Weber's grave in Göttingen

He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1855. In 1856 with Rudolf Kohlrausch
Rudolf Kohlrausch
(1809–1858) he demonstrated that the ratio of electrostatic to electromagnetic units produced a number that matched the value of the then known speed of light. This finding led to Maxwell's conjecture that light is an electromagnetic wave. This also led to Weber's development of his theory of electrodynamics. Also, the first usage of the letter "c" to denote the speed of light was in an 1856 paper by Kohlrausch and Weber. The SI unit of magnetic flux, the weber (symbol: Wb) is named after him. See also[edit]

German inventors and discoverers

Notes[edit]

^ "Weber". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Book Details Page: Atlas
Atlas
Des Erdmagnetismus: Nach Den Elementen Der Theorie Entworfen". World Ebook Fair. Retrieved 2012-08-27.  ^ " Atlas
Atlas
Des Erdmagnetismus: Nach Den Elementen Der Theorie Entworfen". Alibris. Retrieved 2012-08-27. 

References[edit]

Gauss, Carl Friedrich; Weber, Wilhelm Eduard (1840). " Atlas
Atlas
Des Erdmagnetismus: Nach Den Elementen Der Theorie Entworfen". Leipzig: Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung.  G.C.F. (George Carey Foster) (1891). "Wilhelm Eduard Weber". Nature. Macmillan Journals ltd. 44 (1132): 229–230. Bibcode:1891Natur..44..229G. doi:10.1038/044229b0. Retrieved 2007-11-16.  – obituary Urbanitsky, Alfred; Wormell, Richard (1886). "Electricity in the Service of Man". London: Cassell and Company: 756–758.  – Telegraph
Telegraph
of Weber and Gauss (with pictures) "Weber, Wilhelm Eduard". Virtual Laboratory. Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. Retrieved 2007-09-05.  Jackson, Myles W. (2006). Harmonious Triads: Physicists, Musicians, and Instrument Makers in Nineteenth-Century Germany. MIT Press. ISBN 0262276151. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Wilhelm Eduard Weber at Wikimedia Commons Texts on Wikisource:

"Weber, Wilhelm". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Weber, Wilhelm Eduard". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Weber, Wilhelm Eduard". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 

Biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Wilhelm Weber's Works Translated into English A bibliography compiled by A.K.T. Assis in 21st Century Science and Technology 2009-2010 Wilhelm Eduard Weber at the Mathematics Genealogy Project O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Wilhelm Eduard Weber", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .

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Copley Medallists (1851–1900)

Richard Owen
Richard Owen
(1851) Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
(1852) Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
(1853) Johannes Peter Müller
Johannes Peter Müller
(1854) Léon Foucault
Léon Foucault
(1855) Henri Milne-Edwards
Henri Milne-Edwards
(1856) Michel Eugène Chevreul
Michel Eugène Chevreul
(1857) Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
(1858) Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1859) Robert Bunsen
Robert Bunsen
(1860) Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz
(1861) Thomas Graham (1862) Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
(1863) Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(1864) Michel Chasles
Michel Chasles
(1865) Julius Plücker
Julius Plücker
(1866) Karl Ernst von Baer (1867) Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
(1868) Henri Victor Regnault
Henri Victor Regnault
(1869) James Prescott Joule
James Prescott Joule
(1870) Julius Robert von Mayer (1871) Friedrich Wöhler
Friedrich Wöhler
(1872) Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
(1873) Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(1874) August Wilhelm von Hofmann
August Wilhelm von Hofmann
(1875) Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard
(1876) James Dwight Dana
James Dwight Dana
(1877) Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
(1878) Rudolf Clausius
Rudolf Clausius
(1879) James Joseph Sylvester
James Joseph Sylvester
(1880) Charles Adolphe Wurtz
Charles Adolphe Wurtz
(1881) Arthur Cayley
Arthur Cayley
(1882) William Thomson (1883) Carl Ludwig
Carl Ludwig
(1884) Friedrich August Kekulé
August Kekulé
von Stradonitz (1885) Franz Ernst Neumann
Franz Ernst Neumann
(1886) Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
(1887) Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1888) George Salmon
George Salmon
(1889) Simon Newcomb
Simon Newcomb
(1890) Stanislao Cannizzaro
Stanislao Cannizzaro
(1891) Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
(1892) George Gabriel Stokes (1893) Edward Frankland
Edward Frankland
(1894) Karl Weierstrass
Karl Weierstrass
(1895) Karl Gegenbaur
Karl Gegenbaur
(1896) Albert von Kölliker
Albert von Kölliker
(1897) William Huggins
William Huggins
(1898) John William Strutt (1899) Marcellin Berthelot
Marcellin Berthelot
(1900)

v t e

Scientists whose names are used as SI units

Base units

André-Marie Ampère William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

Derived units

Henri Becquerel Anders Celsius Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Michael Faraday Louis Harold Gray Joseph Henry Heinrich Hertz James Prescott Joule Isaac Newton Georg Ohm Blaise Pascal Werner von Siemens Rolf Maximilian Sievert Nikola Tesla Alessandro Volta James Watt Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Scientists whose names are used as non SI units · Scientists whose names are used in physical constants

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64078196 LCCN: n83826165 ISNI: 0000 0001 0908 9628 GND: 11862976X SELIBR: 321553 SUDOC: 03233379X BNF: cb123383637 (data) MGP: 57721 NLA: 36101524 NKC: nlk20000091

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