Wiktionary is a multilingual, -based project to create a of terms (including s, s, s, s, etc.) in all s and in a number of s. These entries may contain s, s for illustrations, s, , s, usage examples, s, related terms, and s of words into other languages, among other features. It is via a . Its is a of the words ''wiki'' and ''dictionary''. It is available in 182 languages and in . Like its sister project , Wiktionary is run by the , and is written collaboratively by , dubbed "Wiktionarians". Its , , allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. Because Wiktionary is not limited by print space considerations, most of Wiktionary's language editions provide definitions and translations of words from many languages, and some editions offer additional informations typically found in . Wiktionary data is frequently used in various .

History and development

Wiktionary was brought online on December 12, 2002, following a proposal by Daniel Alston and an idea by , co-founder of Wikipedia. On March 28, 2004, the first non- Wiktionaries were initiated in and . Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started. Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary (wiktionary.wikipedia.org) until May 1, 2004, when it switched to the current domain name. , Wiktionary features over 30 million articles (and even more entries) across its editions. The largest of the language editions is the English Wiktionary, with over 6.8 million entries, followed by the French Wiktionary with over 4.2 million and the Wiktionary with over 1.7 million entries. Forty-three Wiktionary language editions contain over 100,000 entries each. Many of the definitions at the project's largest language editions were created by bots that found creative ways to generate entries or (rarely) automatically imported thousands of entries from previously published dictionaries. Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary in 2007 created 163,000 of the entries there.TheDaveBot




Another of these bots, "ThirdPersBot," was responsible for the addition of a number of s that would not have received their own entries in standard dictionaries; for instance, it defined "smoulders" as the "third-person singular simple present form of smoulder." Of the 1,269,938 definitions the English Wiktionary provides for 996,450 English words, 478,068 are "form of" definitions of this kind. This means that even without such entries, its coverage of English is significantly larger than that of major monolingual print dictionaries. '' of the English Language, Unabridged'', for instance, has 475,000 entries (with many additional embedded headwords); the ' has 615,000 headwords, but includes as well, for which the English Wiktionary has an additional 34,234 gloss definitions. Detailed exist to show how many entries of various kinds exist. The English Wiktionary does not rely on bots to the extent that some other editions do. The and Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project (FVDP), which provides free content bilingual dictionaries to and from Vietnamese. These imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese edition's contents. Like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported approximately 20,000 entries from the database of . The French Wiktionary grew rapidly in 2006 thanks in a large part to bots copying many entries from old, freely licensed dictionaries, such as the eighth edition of the ' (1935, around 35,000 words), and using bots to add words from other Wiktionary editions with French translations. The edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as "LXbot" added boilerplate entries (with headings, but without definitions) for words in English and .LXbot
As of July 2021, en.wiktionary has over 791,870 definitions and over 1,269,938 total definitions (including different forms) for English entries alone, with a total of over 9,928,056 definitions across all languages.


Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions. Some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term "Wiktionary", based on the previous English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a developer. Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, a four-phase contest to adopt a uniform logo was held at the Wikimedia Meta-Wiki from September to October 2006. Some communities adopted the winning entry by "Smurrayinchester", a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, and a number of the larger wikis ultimately kept their textual logos. In April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by "AAEngelman" of an open hardbound dictionary won a head-to-head vote against the 2006 logo, but the process to refine and adopt the new logo then stalled. In the following years, some wikis replaced their textual logos with one of the two newer logos. In 2012, 55 wikis that had been using the English Wiktionary logo received localized versions of the 2006 design by "Smurrayinchester". In July 2016, the English Wiktionary adopted a variant of this logo. , 135 wikis, representing 61% of Wiktionary's entries, use a logo based on the 2006 design by "Smurrayinchester", 33 wikis (36%) use a textual logo, and three wikis (3%) use the 2009 design by "AAEngelman".

Criteria for ensuring accuracy

To ensure accuracy, the English Wiktionary has a policy requiring that terms be ''attested''. Terms in major languages such as English and Chinese must be verified by: # clearly widespread use, or # use in permanently recorded media, conveying meaning, in at least three independent instances spanning at least a year. For less-documented languages such as and extinct languages such as , one use in a permanently recorded medium or one mention in a reference work is sufficient verification.


As of , there are Wiktionary sites for languages of which are active and are closed.'s . Retrieved from The active sites have articles, and the closed sites have articles.'s . Retrieved from There are registered users of which are recently active. The top ten wiktionary language projects by mainspace article count: For a complete list with totals see Wikimedia Statistics:

Critical reception

Critical reception of Wiktionary has been mixed. In 2006, Jill Lepore wrote in the article "Noah's Ark" for '',''
There's no show of hands at ''Wiktionary''. There's not even an editorial staff. "Be your own lexicographer!", might be ''Wiktionary's'' motto. Who needs experts? Why pay good money for a dictionary written by lexicographers when we could cobble one together ourselves?

''Wiktionary'' isn't so much republican or democratic as Maoist. And it's only as good as the books from which it pilfers.
's review for ' was less critical:
Is there a place for Wiktionary? Undoubtedly. The industry and enthusiasm of its many creators are proof that there's a market. And it's wonderful to have another strong source to use when searching the odd terms that pop up in today's fast-changing world and the online environment. But as with so many Web sources (including this column), it's best used by sophisticated users in conjunction with more reputable sources.
References in other publications are fleeting and part of larger discussions of Wikipedia, not progressing beyond a definition, although David Brooks in ' described it as "wild and woolly". One of the impediments to independent coverage of Wiktionary is the continuing confusion that it is merely an extension of Wikipedia. The measure of correctness of the inflections for a subset of the Polish words in the English Wiktionary showed that this grammatical data is very stable. Only 131 out of 4,748 Polish words have had their inflection data corrected. , Wiktionary has seen growing use in academia.

Wiktionary data in natural language processing

Wiktionary has . Wiktionary lexicographic data can be converted to in order to be used in tasks. Wiktionary data mining is a complex task. There are the following difficulties: **(1) the constant and frequent changes to data and schemata **(2) the heterogeneity in Wiktionary language edition schemata and **(3) the human-centric nature of a . There are several for different Wiktionary language editions: * DBpedia Wiktionary : a subproject of , the data are extracted from English, French, German, and Russian wiktionaries; the data includes language, parts of speech, definitions, semantic relations and translations. The declarative description of the page schema, s and are used in order to extract information. * JWKTL (Java Wiktionary Library) : provides access to English Wiktionary and German Wiktionary dumps via a Java . The data includes language, parts of speech, definitions, quotations, semantic relations, etymologies and translations. JWKTL is distributed under the . * wikokit : the parser of English Wiktionary and Russian Wiktionary. The parsed data includes language, parts of speech, definitions, quotations, semantic relations and translations. This is a open-source software. * Etymological entries have been parsed in the Etymological project. Examples of tasks which have been solved with the help of Wiktionary data include: * between and ; data of English Wiktionary, Dutch Wiktionary and Wikipedia were used with the machine translation platform. * Construction of by the parser NULEX, which integrates open linguistic resources: English Wiktionary, , and . The parser NULEX English Wiktionary for tense information (verbs), plural form and parts of speech (nouns). * and , where Wiktionary was used to automatically create pronunciation dictionaries. Word-pronunciation pairs were retrieved from 6 Wiktionary language editions (Czech, English, French, Spanish, Polish, and German). Pronunciations are in terms of the . The system based on English Wiktionary has the highest word error rate, where each third phoneme has to be changed. * and constructing. * . * . Medero & assessed vocabulary difficulty ( detection) with the help of Wiktionary data. Properties of words extracted from Wiktionary entries (definition length and , sense, and translation counts) were investigated. Medero & Ostendorf expected that **(1) very common words will be more likely to have multiple parts of speech, **(2) common words to be more likely to have multiple senses, **(3) common words will be more likely to have been translated into multiple languages. These features extracted from Wiktionary entries were useful in distinguishing word types that appear in articles from words that only appear in the Standard English comparable articles. * . Li et al. (2012) built multilingual POS-taggers for eight resource-poor languages on the basis of English Wiktionary and . * . "Wikidata:Lexicographical data" was started in 2018 to provide structured data support to Wikitonaries. It stores word data of all languages in a machine readable data model, under a dedicated "Lexeme" namespace in Wikidata. As of October 2021, the project has amassed over 600,000 lexeme entries of various languages.

See also






* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

External links

Wiktionary front page

English Wiktionary
* * * /en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Multilingual_statistics Wiktionary's multilingual statistics* (including list of all existing Wiktionaries) *. {{Dictionaries of English Wikimedia projects