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WIESBADEN (German pronunciation: ( listen )) is a city in central western Germany
Germany
and the capital of the federal state of Hesse
Hesse
. In July 2016, it had about 288,000 inhabitants, plus approximately 19,000 United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army ). The Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
urban area is home to approx. 560,000 people.

The city, together with nearby Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and Mainz
Mainz
, is part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region , a metropolitan area with a combined population of about 5.8 million people.

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is one of the oldest spa towns in Europe. Its name translates to "meadow baths", making reference to the hot springs. It is internationally famous for its architecture, climate (also called the "Nice of the North"), and its hot springs . At one time, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
boasted 26 hot springs. Fourteen of the springs are still flowing today.

In 1970, the town hosted the tenth _ Hessentag
Hessentag
_ state festival.

The city is considered the tenth richest in Germany
Germany
(2014) with 113.3% of gross domestic product . Every citizen has an average annual buying power of €24,798.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geographical setting

* 1.1 Climate

* 2 History

* 2.1 Classical antiquity * 2.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.3 Modern era * 2.4 Weimar Republic and Third Reich (1919 to 1945) * 2.5 World War II * 2.6 Cold War and contemporary history

* 3 Bathing and gambling * 4 Demographics

* 5 Main sights

* 5.1 The Palace
Palace
Square * 5.2 Kurhaus and Theater * 5.3 St. Bonifatius * 5.4 St. Elizabeth\'s Church * 5.5 Other sights

* 6 Boroughs of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden

* 6.1 Inner boroughs * 6.2 Suburban boroughs

* 7 Historical population * 8 Mayors

* 9 Transport

* 9.1 Roads * 9.2 Rail * 9.3 Public transport * 9.4 Airports * 9.5 Port

* 10 Military * 11 Economy

* 12 Events

* 12.1 International May Festival * 12.2 Rheingau Wine Festival * 12.3 Shooting Star Market * 12.4 Rheingau Musik Festival

* 13 Sport * 14 Twin towns – sister cities * 15 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
* 16 Notable residents * 17 Famous visitors * 18 Rivalry with Mainz
Mainz
* 19 Fictional references * 20 References * 21 External links

GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

Satellite view of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(north of Rhine river ) and Mainz
Mainz

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is situated on the right (northern) bank of the Rhine River, below the confluence of the Main , where the Rhine's main direction changes from north to west. The city is across the Rhine from Mainz, the capital of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate . Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
is located about 38 kilometres (23.6 mi) east. To the north of the city are the Taunus
Taunus
Mountains, which trend in a northeasterly direction.

The city center, the _Stadtmitte_, is located in the north-easternmost part of the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Valley at the spurs of the Taunus
Taunus
mountains, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the Rhine. The landscape is formed by a wide lowland between the Taunus
Taunus
heights in the north, the Bierstadter Höhe and the Hainerberg in the east, the Mosbacher Mountain in the south, and the Schiersteiner Mountain in the west, an offshoot of the Taunus
Taunus
range. The downtown is drained only by the narrow valley of the Salzbach, a tributary of the Rhine, on the eastern flanks of the Mosbacher Mountain. The city's main railway line and the Mainz
Mainz
road (_Mainzer Straße_) follow this valley. Several other streams drain into the Salzbach within the city center: the Wellritzbach, the Kesselbach, the Schwarzbach, the Dambach, and the Tennelbach, as well as the outflow of many thermal and mineral springs in the _Kurhaus_ (spa) district. Above the city center, the Salzbach is better known as the Rambach. _ View of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
from the Topographia Hassiae_ by Matthäus Merian in 1655.

The highest point of the Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
municipality is located northwest of the city center near the summit of the Hohe Wurzel, with an elevation of 608 metres (1,995 ft) above sea level . The lowest point is the harbour entrance of Schierstein at 83 metres (272 ft) above sea level . The central square (the _Schlossplatz_, or palace square) is at an elevation of 115 metres (377 ft).

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
covers an area of 204 km2 (79 sq mi). It is 17.6 kilometres (10.9 mi) from north to south and 19.7 kilometres (12.2 mi) from west to east. In the north are vast forest areas, which cover 27.4% of the urban area. In the west and east are vineyards and agricultural land, which cover 31.1% of the area. Of the municipality's 79 kilometres (49.1 mi)-long border, the Rhine
Rhine
makes up 10.3 kilometres (6.4 mi).

CLIMATE

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
has a temperate -oceanic climate (Köppen : Cfb) with relatively cold winters and warm summers. Its average annual temperature is 9.8 °C (49.6 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.0 °C (33.8 °F) in January to 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in July.

CLIMATE DATA FOR WIESBADEN

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 4 (39) 6 (43) 11 (52) 15 (59) 20 (68) 23 (73) 25 (77) 25 (77) 20 (68) 14 (57) 8 (46) 5 (41) 14.7 (58.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.0 (33.8) 2.2 (36) 5.5 (41.9) 9.4 (48.9) 13.8 (56.8) 17.0 (62.6) 18.6 (65.5) 18.0 (64.4) 14.6 (58.3) 10.0 (50) 4.9 (40.8) 2.1 (35.8) 9.8 (49.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −1 (30) −1 (30) 2 (36) 5 (41) 9 (48) 12 (54) 14 (57) 14 (57) 11 (52) 7 (45) 3 (37) 1 (34) 6.3 (43.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 48 (1.89) 41 (1.61) 46 (1.81) 41 (1.61) 55 (2.17) 68 (2.68) 66 (2.6) 63 (2.48) 49 (1.93) 49 (1.93) 57 (2.24) 55 (2.17) 638 (25.12)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 10 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 8 8 10 10 111

Source: Sonnenlaender.de

HISTORY

_ The Heidenmauer_ ("Heathen Wall") of _Aquae Mattiacorum_

CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

While evidence of settlement at present-day Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
dates back to the Neolithic
Neolithic
era, historical records document continuous occupancy after the erection of a Roman fort in 6 AD which housed an auxiliary cavalry unit. The thermal springs of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
are first mentioned in Pliny the Elder 's _ Naturalis Historia _. They were famous for their recreation pools for Roman army horses and possibly as the source of a mineral used for red hair dye (which was very fashionable around the turn of BC/AD among women in Rome).

The Roman settlement is first mentioned using the name _Aquae Mattiacorum_ ( Latin
Latin
for "Waters of the Mattiaci") in 121. The Mattiaci were a Germanic tribe , possibly a branch of the neighboring Chatti
Chatti
, who lived in the vicinity at that time. The town also appears as Mattiacum in Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's Geographia
Geographia
(2.10). The line of Roman frontier fortifications, the Limes Germanicus , was constructed in the Taunus not far north of Wiesbaden.

The capital of the province of Germania Superior , Mogontiacum (present-day Mainz
Mainz
), base of 2 (at times 3) Roman legions, was just over the Rhine
Rhine
and connected by a bridge at the present-day borough of Mainz-Kastel (Roman "_castellum_"), a strongly fortified bridgehead.

The Alamanni , a coalition of Germanic tribes from beyond the _Limes_, captured the fort around 260. Later, in the 370s, when the Romans and Alamanni were allied, the Alemanni gained control of the Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
area and were in charge of its defense against other Germanic tribes.

MIDDLE AGES

After the Franks
Franks
under Clovis I defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac in 496, the Franks
Franks
eventually displaced the Alamanni in the Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
area over the course of the 6th century. In the 8th century, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became the site of a royal palace of the Frankish kingdom. The first documented use of the name Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is by Einhard
Einhard
, the biographer of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, whose writings mention "Wisabada" sometime between 828 and 830.

When the Frankish Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
broke up in 888, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was in the eastern half, called East Francia (which would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
). The town was part of Franconia
Franconia
, the heartland of East Francia. In the 1170s, the Count
Count
of Nassau , Walram I, received the area around Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
as a fiefdom . When Franconia
Franconia
fragmented in the early 13th century, Nassau emerged as an independent state as part of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1232 Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became a Reichsstadt , an imperial city, of the Holy Roman Empire. However, in 1242, during the war of Emperor Frederick II against the Pope, the Archbishop of Mainz
Mainz
, Siegfried III , ordered the city's destruction.

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
returned to the control of the House of Nassau in 1270 under Count
Count
Walram II, Count
Count
of Nassau . However, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
and the castle at Sonnenberg were again destroyed in 1283 in conflict with Eppstein .

Walram's son and successor Adolf would later become king of Germany from 1292 until 1298. In 1329, under Adolf's son Gerlach I of Nassau-Weilburg the House of Nassau and thereby, Wiesbaden, received the right of coinage from Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Bavarian .

In 1355, the County of Nassau-Weilburg was divided among the sons of Gerlach. The County of Nassau's holdings would be subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became the seat of the County of Nassau- Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
under Count
Count
Adolf I (1307–1370), eldest son of Gerlach. It would eventually fell back to Nassau-Weilburg in 1605.

MODERN ERA

Due to its participation in the uprisings of the German Peasants\' War of 1525, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
lost all its privileges for over 40 years. During this time, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became Protestant with the nomination of Wolf Denthener as first Lutheran
Lutheran
pastor on January 1, 1543. The same day, the first Latin
Latin
school was opened, preparing pupils for the gymnasium in Idstein
Idstein
. In 1566, the privileges of the city were restored.

The oldest remaining building of Wiesbaden, the old city hall, was built in 1609 and 1610. No older buildings are preserved due to two fires in 1547 and 1561. In 1648, at the end of the devastating Thirty Years\' War , chronicles tell that Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
had barely 40 residents left. In 1659, the County of Nassau-Weilburg was divided again. Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became part of the County of Nassau-Usingen . In 1744, the seat of Nassau-Usingen was moved to Biebrich . In 1771, the Count
Count
of Nassau-Usingen granted a concession for gambling in Wiesbaden. In 1810, the Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Casino (German: _Spielbank_) was opened in the old Kurhaus. Gambling was later outlawed by Prussian authorities in 1872.

As a result of Napoleon
Napoleon
's victory over Austria
Austria
in the Battle of Austerlitz , the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was dissolved in 1805. On July 12, 1806, 16 states in present-day Germany, including the remaining counties of Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg, formally left the Holy Roman Empire and joined together in the Confederation of the Rhine
Rhine
. Napoleon
Napoleon
was its "protector". Under pressure from Napoleon, both counties merged to form the Duchy of Nassau
Duchy of Nassau
on August 30, 1806. Memorial for Nassauers fallen at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo

At the 1815 Congress of Vienna , the Duchy of Nassau
Duchy of Nassau
joined the German Confederation
German Confederation
. The capital of Nassau was moved from Weilburg to Wiesbaden, and the city became the ducal residence. Building activity started to give the city a magnificent appearance. Most of the historical center of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
dates back to this time. Marktkirche , designed by Carl Boos : Its neo-Gothic steeple dominates the Historical Pentagon .

In the Revolutions of 1848 , 30,000 citizens of Nassau assembled in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
on March 4. They demanded a constitution from the Duke, which they received.

In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Nassau took Austria's side. This decision led to the end of the duchy. After the Austrian defeat, Nassau was annexed by Prussia
Prussia
and became part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau . The deposed duke Adolph of Nassau in 1890 became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (see House of Nassau ). This turned out to be a fortunate change for the city, as it then became an international spa town. A rise in construction commenced after the aristocracy followed the lead of the Hohenzollern emperors, who began annual trips to Wiesbaden. The period around the turn of the 20th century is regarded as the heyday of the city. Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II
visited the city regularly in summer, such that it became an unofficial "summer residence". The city was also popular among the Russian nobility. In the wake of the imperial court, numerous nobles, artists, and wealthy businessmen increasingly settled in the city. Many wealthy persons chose Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
as their retirement seat, as it offered leisure and medical treatment alike. In the latter part of the 19th century, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became the German city with the most millionaires.

In 1894, the present Hessian State Theater, designed by the Vienna architects Fellner and Helmer, was built on behalf of Kaiser Wilhelm II.

WEIMAR REPUBLIC AND THIRD REICH (1919 TO 1945)

After World War I, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
fell under the Allied occupation of the Rhineland and was occupied by the French army in 1918. In 1921, the Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Agreement on German reparations to France was signed in the city. In 1925, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became the headquarters of the British Rhine Army until the withdrawal of occupying forces from the Rhineland in 1930.

In 1929, an airport was constructed in Erbenheim on the site of a horse-racing track. In 1936, Fighter Squadron 53 of the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
was stationed here.

In the Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
pogrom on November 10, 1938, Wiesbaden's large synagogue on Michelsberg was destroyed. The synagogue had been designed by Phillip Hoffmann and built in 1869. Another synagogue in Wiesbaden-Bierstadt was also destroyed. When the Nazis came to power in Germany, there were 2,700 Jews living in Wiesbaden. By June 1942 nearly all of them had been deported to the death camps in Poland.

General Ludwig Beck from Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was one of the planners of the July 20, 1944 assassination attempt of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. Beck was designated by his fellow conspirators to be future Head of State (Regent) after elimination of Hitler. The plot failed, however, and Beck was forced to commit suicide. Today, the city annually awards the Ludwig Beck prize for civil courage in his honor.

Lutheran
Lutheran
pastor and theologian Martin Niemöller , founder of the Confessing Church resistance movement against the Nazis, is an Honorary Citizen of Wiesbaden. He presented his last sermon before his arrest in Wiesbaden's Market Church.

WORLD WAR II

In World War II, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was the Headquarters for Germany’s Wehrkreis XII . This military district included the Eifel
Eifel
, part of Hesse
Hesse
, the Palatinate , and the Saarland
Saarland
. After the Battle of France , this _Wehrkreis_ was extended to include Lorraine , including Nancy , and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. The commander was _General der Infanterie_ Walther Schroth .

_Wehrkreis_ XII was made up of three subordinate regions: _Bereich Hauptsitze_ Koblenz
Koblenz
, Mannheim
Mannheim
and Metz
Metz
.

* _Bereich Hauptsitz_ Koblenz
Koblenz
was the headquarters for 12 _Unterregion-Hauptsitze_, namely Trier
Trier
I, Trier
Trier
II, Koblenz
Koblenz
, Neuwied , Kreuznach , Wiesbaden, Limburg an der Lahn , Lahn
Lahn
, Mainz
Mainz
, Worms , Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. * _Bereich Hauptsitz_ Mannheim
Mannheim
was the headquarters for 10 _Unterregion-Hauptsitze_, namely Saarlautern , Saarbrücken , St. Wendel , Zweibrücken , Kaiserslautern , Neustadt an der Weinstraße , Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
(Rhein), Mannheim
Mannheim
I, Mannheim
Mannheim
II and Heidelberg
Heidelberg
. * _Bereich Hauptsitz_ Metz
Metz
was the headquarters for _Unterregion-Hauptsitze_ Metz
Metz
, Diedenhofen (Thionville) and Saint-Avold .

During the war, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was largely spared by allied bombing raids. But between August 1940 and March 1945, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was attacked by Allied bombers on 66 days. In the attacks, about 18% of the city's homes were destroyed. During the war, more than 25% of the city's buildings were damaged or worse and 1,700 people were killed.

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was captured by U.S. Army forces on March 28, 1945. The U.S. 317th Infantry Regiment attacked in assault boats across the Rhine
Rhine
from Mainz
Mainz
while the 319th Infantry attacked across the Main River near Hochheim am Main . The attack started at 0100 and by early afternoon the two forces of the 80th U.S. Infantry Division had linked up with the loss of only three dead and three missing. The Americans captured 900 German soldiers and a warehouse full of 4,000 cases of champagne.

After the war's end, American pop artist Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
was stationed in Friedberg and often visited Wiesbaden.

COLD WAR AND CONTEMPORARY HISTORY

After World War II, the state of Hesse
Hesse
was established (see Greater Hesse
Hesse
), and Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
became its capital, though nearby Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main is much larger and contains many Hessian government offices. Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
however suffered much less than Frankfurt
Frankfurt
from air bombing. There is a persistent rumour that the U.S. Army Air Force spared the town with the intention of turning it into a postwar HQ, but USAAF sources claim this to be a myth, arguing that Wiesbaden's economic and strategic importance simply did not justify more bombing. Wiesbaden was host to the Headquarters, U.S. Air Forces, Europe
Europe
based at the former Lindsey Air Station from 1953 to 1973.

American armed forces have been present in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
since World War II. The U.S. 1st Armored Division was headquartered at the Wiesbaden Army Airfield , just off the Autobahn
Autobahn
toward Frankfurt, until the Division completed relocation to Fort Bliss, Texas in 2011. Wiesbaden is now home to the U.S. Army Europe Headquarters and Mission Command Center.

BATHING AND GAMBLING

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
has long been famous for its thermal springs and spa. Use of the thermal springs was first documented by the Romans. The business of spring bathing became important for Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
near the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. By 1370, 16 bath houses were in operation. By 1800, the city had 2,239 inhabitants and 23 bath houses. By 1900, Wiesbaden, with a population of 86,100, hosted 126,000 visitors annually. Famous visitors to the springs included Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Fyodor Dostoevsky , Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
, Johannes Brahms , and Henrik Pontoppidan . In those years, more millionaires were living in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
than in any other city in Germany.

Gambling followed bathing _en suite_, and in the 19th century, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
was famous for both. Its casino (_Spielbank_) rivalled those of Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg
, Baden-Baden , and Monaco
Monaco
. In 1872, the Prussian-dominated imperial government closed down all German gambling houses. The Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
casino was reopened in 1949.

DEMOGRAPHICS

List of the top 10 most common nationalities of foreign-born residents of Wiesbaden:

RANK NATIONALITY POPULATION (2017)

1 Turkey
Turkey
12,963

2 Poland
Poland
7,020

3 Italy
Italy
4,068

4 Romania
Romania
3,365

5 Greece
Greece
2,828

6 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1,815

7 Syria
Syria
1,793

8 Morocco
Morocco
1,716

9 Croatia
Croatia
1,466

10 Portugal
Portugal
1,320

According to the statistical office of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
the share of Muslims in the city was about 12,6 percent at the end of 2016 (calculation based on migrant numbers).

MAIN SIGHTS

Panorama of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
from the Neroberg
Neroberg

THE PALACE SQUARE

Former Ducal Palace
Palace

The _Schloßplatz _ ("palace square") is situated in the center of the city, surrounded by several outstanding buildings. The ducal palace was begun under William, Duke of Nassau . Its foundations were laid in 1837 and it was completed in November 1841 (two years after William's death). For the twenty-six remaining years of ducal authority it was the residence of the ruling family. It later served as a secondary residence for the King of Prussia
Prussia
1866 to 1918. It was later used as a headquarters for French and British occupying forces after World War I, then as a museum. Since 1945, the building has served as Landtag (parliamentary building) for the federal state of Hesse. The site of the palace had been that of a castle, probably from the early Middle Ages, around which the city had developed. While nothing is known of the former castle, remains of it were uncovered during excavations after World War II. New Town Hall, picture taken 1893 Old Town Hall

The new town hall was built in 1887. Engraved in the paving in front of the town hall are the heraldic eagle of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the lion of Nassau, and the fleur-de-lis of Wiesbaden. The old town hall, built in 1610, is the oldest preserved building in the city center and now is used as a civil registry office.

The Protestant _Marktkirche _ ("market church") was built from 1852 to 1862 in a neo-Gothic style. Its western steeple is 92 metres (302 feet) in height, making the church the highest building in the city.

KURHAUS AND THEATER

Kurhaus with Fontain on the Bowling Green Main article: Kurhaus, Wiesbaden Main article: Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden Main article: Bowling Green, Wiesbaden

The monumental Neo-Classical _Kurhaus _ ("spa house") was built at the request of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II
between 1904 and 1907. Its famous _Spielbank_ (casino) is again in operation.

In front of the Kurhaus is a lawn known as the Bowling Green. To one side of the Bowling Green is the Kurhaus Kolonnade. Built in 1827, the 129 meter structure is the longest hall in Europe
Europe
supported by pillars. To the other side is the Theater Kolonnade, built in 1839. It is adjacent to the Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden , built between 1892 and 1894.

ST. BONIFATIUS

Main article: St. Bonifatius, Wiesbaden

St. Bonifatius , the first church for the Catholic community after the Reformation , was built from 1845 until 1849 by Philipp Hoffmann in Gothic Revival style and dedicated to Saint Boniface .

ST. ELIZABETH\'S CHURCH

The Russian Orthodox Church of Saint Elizabeth was built on the Neroberg
Neroberg
from 1847 to 1855 by Duke Adolf of Nassau on the occasion of the early death of his wife Elizabeth Mikhailovna , who died in childbirth. The architect was Philipp Hoffmann.

*

Biebrich Palace
Palace
*

City Palace
Palace
*

Nerobergbahn
Nerobergbahn
funicular *

St. Elizabeth's Church on the Neroberg
Neroberg
*

St. Bonifatius *

Marktkirche *

Warmer Damm park

OTHER SIGHTS

A pond and fountain in the Warmer Damm

Another building from the regency of Duke Wilhelm is the Luisenplatz, a square named for the Duke's first wife. It is surrounded by Neoclassicist buildings, and in the middle of the square is the Waterloo Obelisk
Obelisk
, commemorating the Nassauers who died in the wars against Napoleon
Napoleon
. Apart from the palace in the center, the ducal family had a large palace on the banks of the Rhine, known as Schloss Biebrich . This baroque building was erected in the first half of the 18th century.

North of the city is the Neroberg
Neroberg
. From the top of this hill it is possible to view a panorama of the city. The Nerobergbahn
Nerobergbahn
funicular railway connects the city with the hill.

One of the three Hessian state museums, Museum Wiesbaden is located in Wiesbaden.

Other churches are the Bergkirche , completed in 1879 in Gothic Revival style, and the Lutherkirche , finished in 1910 in Jugendstil .

The Warme Damm is a 4.5-hectare park on the east side of Wilhelmstrasse and south of the State theater and Kurhaus which features a lake, a fountain, various statues, and large grassy areas. The park was created in 1859–1860 and is named after the medieval fortifications around a pond into which the warm waters of the town's 26 warm springs flowed.

BOROUGHS OF WIESBADEN

The city of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is divided into 26 boroughs: five in the central city and 21 suburban districts. The 21 suburban districts were incorporated in four phases from 1926 to 1977. The former right Mainz suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel and Kostheim have belonged to Wiesbaden since 1945. Boroughs of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden

INNER BOROUGHS

BOROUGH AREA POPULATION DENSITY Purchasing power per inh. MAP

Mitte 01.53 km2 020,797 013,593 019,707 €

Nordost 019.44 km2 022,621 01,163 021,709 €

Rheingauviertel 02.47 km2 019,802 08,017 017,461 €

Südost 06.62 km2 018,835 02,845 024,370 €

Westend 00.67 km2 016,528 024,669 019,047 €

SUBURBAN BOROUGHS

BOROUGH AREA POPULATION DENSITY Purchasing power per inh. INCORPORATED SINCE MAP

Auringen 03.12 km2 03,399 01,079 022,114 € 0January 1, 1977

Biebrich 012.99 km2 036,896 02,840 018,779 € 0October 28, 1926

Bierstadt 09.22 km2 012,109 01,313 022,807 € 0April 1, 1928

Breckenheim 06.53 km2 03,375 0517 022,074 € 0January 1, 1977

Delkenheim 07.43 km2 04,938 0665 020,908 € 0January 1, 1977

Dotzheim 018.27 km2 026,234 01,436 018,793 € 0April 1, 1928

Erbenheim 011.27 km2 09,258 0821 019,357 € 0April 1, 1928

Frauenstein 010.65 km2 02,359 0222 019,365 € 0April 1, 1928

Heßloch 01.54 km2 0695 0451 024,525 € 0April 1, 1928

Igstadt 07.26 km2 02,090 0288 021,869 € 0April 1, 1928

Klarenthal 06.13 km2 010,280 01,677 018,103 € 0September 1, 1964

Kloppenheim 05.39 km2 02,301 0427 021,592 € 0April 1, 1928

Mainz-Amöneburg 03.71 km2 01,444 0389 017,267 € 0July 25, 1945

Mainz-Kastel 09.51 km2 012,021 01,264 019,874 € 0July 25, 1945

Mainz-Kostheim 09.53 km2 013,935 01,462 018,623 € 0July 25, 1945

Medenbach 04.74 km2 02,501 0560 021,170 € 0January 1, 1977

Naurod 010.99 km2 04,414 0402 021,865 € 0January 1, 1977

Nordenstadt 07.73 km2 07,896 01,021 021,503 € 0January 1, 1977

Rambach 09.92 km2 02,175 0219 024,902 € 0April 1, 1928

Schierstein 09.43 km2 010,129 01,074 019,938 € 0October 28, 1926

Sonnenberg 08.34 km2 07,972 0956 027,701 € 0October 28, 1926

HISTORICAL POPULATION

Population of Wiesbaden, 1521 to present

YEAR POPULATION

1521 192

1629 915

1699 730

1722 1,329

1800 2,239

1 December 1840 11,648

3 December 1861 20,800

3 December 1864 26,600

3 December 1867 30,100

1 December 1871 35,500

1 December 1875 43,700

1 December 1880 50,238

1 December 1885 55,454

YEAR POPULATION

1 December 1890 64,670

2 December 1895 74,133

1 December 1900 86,111

1 December 1905 100,953

1 December 1910 109,002

1 December 1916 90,310

5 December 1917 86,555

8 October 1919 97,566

16 June 1925 102,737

16 June 1933 159,755

17 March 1939 170,354

31 December 1945 172,083

29 October 1946 188,370

YEAR POPULATION

13 September 1950 220,741

25 September 1956 244,994

6 June 1961 253,280

31 December 1965 260,331

27 March 1970 250,122

31 December 1975 250,592

31 December 1980 274,464

31 December 1985 266,623

25 March 1987 251,871

31 December 1990 260,301

31 December 1995 267,122

31 December 2000 270,109

30 September 2005 274,865

YEAR POPULATION

31 December 2006 275,562

31 December 2007 275,849

31 December 2008 276,742

31 December 2009 277,493

31 December 2010 275,976

MAYORS

* 1849–1868: Heinrich Fischer * 1868–1882: Wilhelm Lanz * 1882–1883: Christian Schlichter * 1883–1913: Carl Bernhard von Ibell * 1913–1919: Karl Glässing * 1919–1929: Fritz Travers * 1930–1933: Georg Krücke * 1933–1937: Alfred Schulte * 1937–1945: Erich Mix * 1945–1946: Georg Krücke * 1946–1953: Hans Heinrich Redlhammer * 1951–1954: Georg Kluge * 1954–1960: Erich Mix * 1960–1968: Georg Buch * 1968–1980: Rudi Schmitt * 1980–1982: Georg-Berndt Oschatz * 1982–1985: Hans-Joachim Jentsch * 1985–1997: Achim Exner * 1997–2007: Hildebrand Diehl * 2007–2013: Helmut Müller * 2013– Sven Gerich

The information up to 2007 was retrieved from _Die Wiesbadener Oberbürgermeister seit dem Bau des neuen Rathauses (1886)_ (The Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Mayors since the construction of the new town mayor hall (1886).)

TRANSPORT

Map of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
with Autobahns, federal roads and main streets.

ROADS

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is well connected to the German motorway (_ Autobahn
Autobahn
_) system. The Wiesbadener Kreuz is an Autobahn
Autobahn
interchange eastwards the city where the Bundesautobahn 3 (A 3), Cologne
Cologne
to Würzburg , and the Bundesautobahn 66 (A 66), Rheingau to Fulda
Fulda
, meet. With approximately 190,000 cars daily it is one of the most heavily used interchange in Germany. The Bundesautobahn 66 (A 66) connects Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
. The Bundesautobahn 643 (A 643) is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south of the city centre, runs through the southern part of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
crosses the Rhine river via the Schierstein Bridge and connect in the northwestern part of Mainz
Mainz
to the A60. The Bundesautobahn 671 (A 671) is a very short motorway in the southeastern part of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
which primarily serves as a fast connection between the city centre and the Bundesautobahn 60 to serve the cities like Rüsselsheim , Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and the Rhine-Neckar region (Mannheim, Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
and Heidelberg).

The downtown area is bordered on the north side by Taunusstrasse, which has once featured many antique stores. The east side is constrained by Wilhelmstrasse, created by Christian Zais. This 1,000 meter-long street is named after Archduke Wilhelm, not Emperor Wilhelm II, as many mistakenly believe.

The streets of central Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
are regularly congested with cars during rush hour. Besides some areas, especially the Ringroad and not directly in the centre, and the southern arterial roads like the Mainzer Straße , Biebricher Allee and Schiersteiner Straße .

RAIL

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
main station , built between 1904 and 1906.

Wiesbaden\'s main railway station and several minor railway stops connect the town with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, Mainz
Mainz
, Limburg and Koblenz
Koblenz
via Rüdesheim . Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof is connected to the Cologne- Frankfurt
Frankfurt
high-speed rail line by a 13-kilometer branch line . Hamburg
Hamburg
, München , Leipzig , Dresden
Dresden
, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Mannheim
Mannheim
and Hanover
Hanover
are connected directly to Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
via long distance service of the Deutsche Bahn . More services to locations outside the immediate area connect through Mainz
Mainz
or Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport or Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof. Regional trains and bus services are coordinated by the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund .

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

A Bus at Schierstein harbor

* S-BAHN

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is connected to the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
S-Bahn network and served by three lines (S1, S8 and S9) which connect Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
with the densely populated Rhine
Rhine
Main Region . All routes have an at least 30 minute service during the day, in the rush hour partially every 15 minutes schedule. It provides access to nearby cities such as Mainz
Mainz
, Rüsselsheim , Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Hanau
Hanau
and Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main
and smaller towns that are on the way.

* BUS

The city's public transportation service ESWE Verkehr connects all city districts to downtown by 45 bus lines in the daytime and 9 bus lines in the night. Five more bus lines, operated by the public transportation service of the city of Mainz, connects Wiesbaden's districts Kastel and Kostheim to Mainz
Mainz
downtown.

AIRPORTS

Aerial view of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport

* FRANKFURT AIRPORT

The city can easily be accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (_Flughafen Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main_) which is located 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) east of Wiesbaden. The airport has four runways and serves 265 non-stop destinations. Run by transport company Fraport
Fraport
it ranks among the world\'s 10 busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe
Europe
. The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa
Lufthansa
. Depending on whether total passengers or flights are used, it ranks second or third busiest in Europe
Europe
alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport . Passenger traffic at Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport in 2011 was 56.5 million.

The airport can be reached by car or train and has two railway stations , one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction _Offenbach Ost_ or _ Hanau
Hanau
Hbf_) departing at the regional train station take 30 minutes from the airport to Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Central Station, the ICE trains departing at the long-distance railway station take also 30 minutes to the central station.

* FRANKFURT HAHN AIRPORT

Despite the name, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Hahn Airport (_Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn_) is not located anywhere near Frankfurt
Frankfurt
but is instead situated approximately 100 km (62 mi) from the city in Lautzenhausen ( Rhineland-Palatinate ). Hahn Airport is a major base for Low-cost carrier Ryanair
Ryanair
. This airport can be reached by car or bus. The nearest train station is in Traben-Trarbach , it is ca. 17 km (11 mi) from the airport, on foot. The roads are not lit.

PORT

There are small container port operations nearby on the Rhine
Rhine
and Main rivers.

MILITARY

Lucius D. Clay Kaserne (Formerly Wiesbaden Army Airfield or WAAF) is located adjacent to Wiesbaden-Erbenheim and is home to the US Army in Europe
Europe
(USAREUR) headquarters, the 5th Signal Command and the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade. The airfield was one of the points of origin for flights to Berlin
Berlin
in support of Operation Vittles (the Berlin
Berlin
airlift) during the Soviet blockade of Berlin. General Clay, the commander of the US occupation zone in Germany, was the architect of the airlift.

The United States Army
United States Army
runs a garrison in Wiesbaden. The facilities for US soldiers and families are spread across various locations including: Aukamn, Hainerberg, Mainz-Kastel and the Wiesbaden Army-Airfield, where the names of the streets are named after servicemen and women who sacrificed their lives during the Berlin Airlift.

ECONOMY

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
hosts a number of international companies, which have their German or European headquarters there including Abbott Laboratories , DXC Technology , Ferrari
Ferrari
, Federal-Mogul , Melbourne IT , Norwegian Cruise Line and SCA . Several German companies also have their headquarters in Wiesbaden, including SGL Carbon , Dyckerhoff , KION Group , DBV-Winterthur and R + V Versicherung. Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
is also home to the "Industriepark Kalle-Albert", an industrial park in the southern quarter of Biebrich . It is one of the largest in Germany with over 80 companies from the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, including Agfa-Gevaert
Agfa-Gevaert
, Clariant , Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation and Shin-Etsu Chemical . The park was founded by chemical company Hoechst AG in 1997.

In addition, many Hessian ministries are in Wiesbaden.

At approximately €77,500, Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
has the second largest gross domestic product per inhabitant in Hesse, after Frankfurt, making it one of the richest cities in Germany. The purchasing power per inhabitant is €22,500.

EVENTS

INTERNATIONAL MAY FESTIVAL

Main article: Internationale Maifestspiele Wiesbaden

The International May Festival is an annual arts festival presented by the Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden every May. Established in 1896, it is one of the most distinguished international theatre and music festivals in the world. The festival features performances of plays, musicals, operas, and ballets. Concerts from a wide array of music are featured, as are artistic circus acts and modern dance presentations. Lectures, recitals, cabaret performances, and readings are also featured.

RHEINGAU WINE FESTIVAL

The wines and sparkling wines of the close Rheingau are presented annually at the ten-day festival in August, _Rheingauer Weinwoche_ ( Rheingau Wine Week) around the Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
City Hall, on the Schlossplatz ( Palace
Palace
Square), the square _Dern’sches Gelände_ and in the pedestrian area. At 118 booths, Rheingau and Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
vintners offer their wine and sparkling wine and invite to discover the already well known and favored, but also new vintages. Every year thousands of visitors use this opportunity to get acquainted with Rheingau Riesling wines and all their various facets and flavors. Regional specialities compatible with the wines are offered as well. A diversified musical program entertains the wine festival guests. Initiated more than 30 years ago by the Rheingau vintners, this wine festival has a long tradition.

SHOOTING STAR MARKET

Wiesbaden’s Sternschnuppenmarkt is located at the central Schlossplatz and the neighbouring streets of the parliamentary building , old town hall and market church . The Sternschnuppenmarkt takes place from the end of November until December 23 every year and is open from Monday until Thursday 10:30 – 9:00 pm, Friday and Saturday 10:30 – 9:30 pm, and Sunday 12:00 – 9:00 pm.

The market is related to the city arms of Wiesbaden: the colours blue and gold and the three lilies are characteristic. Four gates and an illuminated floral roof symbolizing Fleur-de-lis , consisting of twelve over ten metre high and twelve metre wide luminous lilies, emboss the Sternschnuppenmarkt.

Over 110 booths are decorated in oriental style, coloured blue and gold, offering Christmas style goods, arts and crafts as well as nostalgic carousels and a toy train. A Christmas tree more than 28 metres (92 feet) tall is decorated with 1000 blue and golden ties, 2500 electric bulbs and 30 flash bulbs. The nativity scene displays life-sized wooden figures.

RHEINGAU MUSIK FESTIVAL

From the beginning in 1988 the Rheingau Musik Festival has staged summer concerts in the Marktkirche and in the concert hall of the Kurhaus now named Friedrich-von-Thiersch-Saal. Wiesbaden pedestrian zone 2005.

SPORT

Since 2007 Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
has been home to SV Wehen Wiesbaden , an association football team that formerly played in nearby Taunusstein .

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
maintains official partnerships with 14 cities. Town twinnings between Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
and other cities began with Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
in 1930, one of the first town-twinnings in Germany.

* 1930 Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
, Austria * 1953 Montreux
Montreux
, Switzerland * 1964 Berlin-Kreuzberg , Germany
Germany
(twinning with the borough of Biebrich ) since 2001 Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg * 1969 Ghent
Ghent
, Belgium * 1975 Fondettes , France * 1977 Ljubljana
Ljubljana
, Slovenia * 1981 Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba
, Israel

* 1981 Donostia-San Sebastian , Spain * 1987 Wrocław , Poland * 1989 Tunbridge Wells
Tunbridge Wells
, United Kingdom * 1990 Görlitz , Germany * 1990 Ocotal , Nicaragua * 2009 Glarus
Glarus
, Switzerland (twinning with the borough of Biebrich ) * 2012 Fatih
Fatih
( Istanbul
Istanbul
), Turkey

COAT OF ARMS

Wiesbaden's coat of arms features fleurs-de-lys , stylized representations of the city's heraldic symbol, the lily. The blazon is: "Azure, two and one fleurs-de-lys Or".

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Notable people born in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
include:

* Adolphus Busch - founder of Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
, the year he was born his birthplace belonged to the city of Mainz
Mainz
not Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(born in Mainz-Kastel ). * Sarah Colonna - comedian. * Jürgen Grabowski (born 1944), Footballer who played for Eintracht Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and West Germany
Germany
. * Peter Hanenberger - automotive specialist for General Motors
General Motors
, previously chairman for Australian car giant, Holden
Holden
. * Michael Kessler - German comedian. * Shy Love - American pornographic actress. * Günther Lütjens - admiral and commander of the World War II naval Operation Rheinübung , aboard the battleship _Bismarck_ . * Bruce Maxwell - American baseball player (born on a U.S. military base at Wiesbaden). * John McEnroe - American tennis star (born on a U.S. military base at Wiesbaden). * Melody Perkins - actress who played in _ Power Rangers in Space _, and in _Power Rangers: Lost Galaxy _ as the new pink ranger. * Bud Pierce (born 1956) - American politician. * Dieter Rams - former head of design for Braun . * Rudolf von Ribbentrop (born 1921) - captain in the Waffen-SS , recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross for bravery, son of German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop . * Nico Rosberg
Nico Rosberg
- 2016 Formula One
Formula One
World Champion . * Volker Schlöndorff - (born 1939), German film director. * Henry Schwarzschild - founder of NCADP , LCDC, and head of ACLU's Capital Punishment project in America. * Kiki Vandeweghe - two-time NBA All-Star player, later a general manager and coach. * Valerie Weigmann - actress, host and Miss World Philippines 2014 titleholder. * Maria Vasilievna Yakunchikova-Weber - painter.

Others who have resided in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
include:

* Peter Carl Fabergé - fled Russia to Germany, settled first in Bad Homburg and then in Wiesbaden. * Quincy Matthew Hanley - American rapper, was born in Wiesbaden (parents were in the military). * Alexej von Jawlensky - Russian Expressionist painter, lived there from 1922 until his death in 1941. * Priscilla Presley (Beaulieu at the time) - lived in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
with her parents (her father was an Air Force Officer stationed here). It was here that she met Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
– she was 14 years old at the time, Elvis was 24. * Max Reger - studied in Wiesbaden. * Mickey Rourke - resides in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
at least part-time with his Russian-born girlfriend Anastassija Makarenko. * Debby Ryan - American actress, lived in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
for three years (her father was in the military). * Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
- settled in Biebrich (now part of Wiesbaden) in 1861, after the political ban against him in Germany
Germany
was lifted. It was there that he began work on Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
. * Reese Witherspoon - lived in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
with her parents (her father worked for the U.S. military here). * Mayte Garcia - An American belly dancer, actress, author, singer, and choreographer, lived here in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
with her parents (her father flew aircraft while in the U.S. military). It was here that Ms. Garcia met her future husband, the singer Prince, backstage at one of his concert. She was 16 at the time and Prince was 31.

FAMOUS VISITORS

* In the 19th century, visitors to the Wiesbaden's famous hot springs included Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johannes Brahms . Brahms' Symphony No. 3 (Op. 90) was composed in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
in the summer of 1883. * Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky , who suffered from an acute gambling compulsion, allegedly lost his travelling money in Wiesbaden's _Spielbank_ casino in 1865. The experience became the inspiration of his 1866 novel The Gambler (Russian Игрок), set in the fictitious place "Roulettenburg". Some historians have disputed this account, saying that Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg
was the location for Dostoyevsky's real-life misfortune. * Wiesbaden's Bowling Green has been very popular in recent years since various open-air concerts have been held there by artists like Elton John (2009 -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". _Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt _ (in German). August 2016. * ^ Verlagsgruppe Rhein Main GmbH & Co. KG. "Shutdown: US-Armee korrigiert Zahl betroffener Angestellter in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
nach oben - Wiesbadener Kurier". * ^ Heinrich-Verlag GmBH (2011). _Wiesbaden: For Old Friends and New_. Heinrich-Verlag GmBH. p. 4. ISBN 978-3-89889-167-7 . * ^ _Wiesbadener Tagblatt_. September 18, 2008 * ^ http://www.ihk-wiesbaden.de/blob/wiihk24/standort/downloads/1252818/3b947cf5d7ca7e1f6c7773443432c7d2/Kaufkraftdaten_Bezirk_IHK_Wiesbaden-data.xlsx * ^ "Weather Information for Wiesbaden". Retrieved April 8, 2012. * ^ The hypothesis of the Heidenmauer being a remainder of an aquaeduct now has been definitely proven wrong. Further reading see: Klee, Margot: Sperrmauer oder Aquädukt? Zur Deutung der Heidenmauer in Wiesbaden. (Blocking wall or aquaeduct. Re. Interpretation of the Heidenmauer in Wiesbaden). In: NA (Nassauische Annalen) 2014. Eck Werner: Ein praefectus Aquen(sium), kein praefectus aqu(a)e. Zur Inschrift CIL XIII 7279 aus Mainz
Mainz
Kastel (A praefectus Aquen(sium), not a praefectus aqu(a)e. Re. Inscription CIL XIII 7279 from Mainz Kastel). In: NA (Nassauische Annalen) 2014. * ^ Csysz, Walter: Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
in der Römerzeit. Aalen: Theiss editors, 2000 * ^ Heinrich-Verlag GmBH (2011). _Wiesbaden: For Old Friends and New_. Heinrich-Verlag GmBH. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-89889-167-7 . * ^ Heinrich-Verlag GmBH (2011). _Wiesbaden: For Old Friends and New_. Heinrich-Verlag GmBH. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-89889-167-7 . * ^ The Jewish Community of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
on the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website * ^ _A_ _B_ Heinrich-Verlag GmBH (2011). _Wiesbaden: For Old Friends and New_. Heinrich-Verlag GmBH. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-89889-167-7 . * ^ The Last Offensive by Charles B. MacDonald, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 71-183070 * ^ " Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
ceremonies mark key milestones in U.S. Army Europe transition". Eur.army.mil. June 14, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013. * ^ "Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden: Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016 - Bevölkerung" (PDF). wiesbaden.de. 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2017-04-27. * ^ Heinrich-Verlag GmBH (2011). _Wiesbaden: For Old Friends and New_. Heinrich-Verlag GmBH. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-3-89889-167-7 . * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Mitte, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Nordost, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Rheingauviertel, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Südost, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Westend, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Auringen, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Biebrich, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Bierstadt, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Breckenheim, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Delkenheim, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Dotzheim, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden_ – Ortsbezirk Erbenheim, September 2009 * ^ _Landeshaup