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White nationalism
White nationalism
is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which holds the belief that white people are a race[1] and seeks to develop and maintain a white national identity.[2][3][4] Its proponents identify with and are attached to the concept of a white nation.[5] White nationalists say they seek to ensure the survival of the white race, and the cultures of historically white states. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in majority-white countries, maintain their political and economic dominance, and that their cultures should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, immigration of nonwhites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race,[6] and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.[6] White nationalism
White nationalism
is sometimes described as a euphemism for, or subset of, white supremacy, and the two have been used interchangeably by journalists and other analysts.[7][8] White nationalist groups espouse white separatism and white supremacy.[9] White separatism is the pursuit of a "white-only state"; supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to nonwhites, taking ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism.[4][10] White nationalists generally avoid the term "supremacy" because it has negative connotations.[11][12] Critics argue that the term "white nationalism" and ideas such as white pride exist solely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy, and that most white nationalist groups promote racial violence.

Contents

1 Views

1.1 Definitions of whiteness

2 Regional movements

2.1 Australia 2.2 Canada 2.3 Germany 2.4 New Zealand 2.5 Paraguay 2.6 South Africa 2.7 United States

2.7.1 Relationships with black separatist groups

3 Criticism 4 Notable organizations 5 Notable individuals 6 Notable media 7 See also 8 References

Views White nationalists claim that culture is a product of race, and advocate for the self-preservation of white people.[13] White nationalists seek to ensure the survival of (what they see as) the white race, and the cultures of historically white nations. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in mainly-white countries, maintain their dominance of its political and economic life, and that their culture should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, mass immigration of non-whites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race, and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.[6] Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington
described white nationalists as arguing that the demographic shift in the United States towards non-whites would bring a new culture that is intellectually and morally inferior.[13] White nationalists claim that this demographic shift brings affirmative action, immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards.[14] Most American white nationalists say immigration should be restricted to people of European ancestry.[15][16][17] White nationalists embrace a variety of religious and non-religious beliefs, including various denominations of Christianity, generally Protestant, although some specifically overlap with white nationalist ideology (Christian Identity, for example, is a family of white supremacist denominations), Germanic neopaganism
Germanic neopaganism
(e.g. Wotanism) and atheism.[18] Definitions of whiteness Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. In the United States, it often—though not exclusively—implies European ancestry of non-Jewish descent.[citation needed] Some white nationalists draw on 19th-century racial taxonomy. White nationalist Jared Taylor
Jared Taylor
has argued that Jews
Jews
can be considered "white", although this is controversial within white nationalist circles.[19] Many white nationalists oppose Israel
Israel
and Zionism, while some, such as William Daniel Johnson and Taylor, have expressed support for Israel
Israel
and have drawn parallels between their ideology and Zionism.[20][21] Different racial theories, such as Nordicism
Nordicism
and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint.[22] Pan-Aryanism defines whites as individuals native to Europe, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Western Asia
Western Asia
who are wholly of Caucasian lineage or are overwhelmingly from the following Caucasian ethnic groups, or any combination thereof: Indo-European ("Aryan", including the Iranian and Indo-Aryan peoples), Old European (e.g. Basque), or Hamitic
Hamitic
(in modern times supposedly confined to Berbers). Regional movements Australia The White Australia
Australia
policy was semi-official government policy in Australia
Australia
until the mid twentieth century. It restricted non-white immigration to Australia
Australia
and gave preference to British migrants over all others. The Barton Government, which won the first elections following Federation in 1901, was formed by the Protectionist Party
Protectionist Party
with the support of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
(ALP). The support of the Labor Party was contingent upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Workers' Union
Australian Workers' Union
and other labor organizations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded. The first Parliament of Australia
Australia
quickly moved to restrict immigration to maintain Australia's "British character", passing the Pacific Island Labourers Act and the Immigration Restriction Act before parliament rose for its first Christmas recess. The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Act of 1901 limited immigration to Australia
Australia
and required a person seeking entry to Australia
Australia
to write out a passage of 50 words dictated to them in any European language, not necessarily English, at the discretion of an immigration officer. Barton argued in favour of the bill: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman."[23] The passage chosen for the test could often be very difficult, so that even if the test was given in English, a person was likely to fail. The test enabled immigration officials to exclude individuals on the basis of race without explicitly saying so. Although the test could theoretically be given to any person arriving in Australia, in practice it was given selectively on the basis of race. This test was later abolished in 1958. Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce
Stanley Bruce
supported the White Australia policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the 1925 Australian Federal election.[24]

It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia
Australia
Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire.[24] We intend to keep this country white and not allow its peoples to be faced with the problems that at present are practically insoluble in many parts of the world.[25]

At the beginning of World War II, Prime Minister John Curtin
John Curtin
(ALP) expressed support for White Australia
Australia
policy: "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[26] Another (ALP) Leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967 Arthur Calwell supported the White European Australia
Australia
policy. This is reflected by Calwell's comments in his 1972 memoirs, Be Just and Fear Not, in which he made it clear that he maintained his view that non-European people should not be allowed to settle in Australia. He wrote:

I am proud of my white skin, just as a Chinese is proud of his yellow skin, a Japanese of his brown skin, and the Indians of their various hues from black to coffee-coloured. Anybody who is not proud of his race is not a man at all. And any man who tries to stigmatize the Australian community as racist because they want to preserve this country for the white race is doing our nation great harm... I reject, in conscience, the idea that Australia
Australia
should or ever can become a multi-racial society and survive.[27]

He was the last leader of either the Labour or Liberal party to support it. Canada The Parliament of Canada
Parliament of Canada
passed the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1923 to bar all Chinese from coming to Canada with the exception of diplomats, students, and those granted special permission by the Minister of Immigration. Chinese immigration to Canada had already been heavily regulated by the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1885 which required Chinese immigrants to pay a fifty dollar fee to enter the country (the fee was increased to one hundred dollars in 1900 and to five hundred dollars in 1903).[28] Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, which had formed in Vancouver, British Columbia
British Columbia
on 12 August 1907 under the auspices of the Trades and Labour Council, pressured Parliament to halt Asian immigration. The Exclusion League's stated aim was "to keep Oriental immigrants out of British Columbia."[29] The Canadian government also attempted to restrict immigration from British India
India
by passing an order-in-council on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who "in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior" did not "come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality." In practice, this applied only to ships that began their voyages in India, because the great distance usually necessitated a stopover in either Japan
Japan
or Hawaii. These regulations came at a time when Canada was accepting massive numbers of immigrants (over 400,000 in 1913 alone – a figure that remains unsurpassed to this day), almost all of whom came from Europe. This piece of legislation has been called the "continuous journey regulation". Germany The Thule Society
Thule Society
developed out of the "Germanic Order" in 1918, and those who wanted to join the Order in 1917 had to sign a special "blood declaration of faith" concerning their lineage: "The signer hereby swears to the best of his knowledge and belief that no Jewish or coloured blood flows in either his or in his wife's veins, and that among their ancestors are no members of the coloured races."[30] Heinrich Himmler, one of the main perpetrators of the Holocaust, said in a speech in 1937: "The next decades do in fact not mean some struggle of foreign politics which Germany
Germany
can overcome or not ... but a question of to be or not to be for the white race ... ."[31] As the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
said on the 29th of May 1938 on the Steckelburg in Schlüchtern: "It is however certain that all of us share the fate of Europe, and that we shall regard this common fate as an obligation, because in the end the very existence of White people depends on the unity of the European continent."[32] At the same time Nazis subdivided white people into groups, viewing the Nordics as the "master race" (Herrenvolk) above groups like Alpine and Mediterranean peoples.[33] Slavic peoples, such as Russians and Poles, were considered Untermenschen
Untermenschen
instead of Aryan.[34] Hitler's conception of the Aryan Herrenvolk
Herrenvolk
("Aryan master race") explicitly excluded the vast majority of Slavs, regarding the Slavs
Slavs
as having dangerous Jewish and Asiatic influences.[35] The Nazis because of this declared Slavs
Slavs
to be untermenschen (subhumans).[36][37] Hitler described Slavs
Slavs
as "a mass of born slaves who feel the need of a master".[38] Hitler declared that because Slavs
Slavs
were subhumans that the Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
were not applicable to them, and German soldiers in World War II
World War II
were thus permitted to ignore the Geneva Conventions in regard to Slavs.[39] Hitler called Slavs
Slavs
"a rabbit family" meaning they were intrinsically idle and disorganized.[40] Nazi Germany's propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
had media speak of Slavs
Slavs
as primitive animals who were from the Siberian tundra who were like a "dark wave of filth".[40][41] The Nazi notion of Slavs
Slavs
being inferior was part of the agenda for creating Lebensraum
Lebensraum
("living space") for Germans and other Germanic people in eastern Europe
Europe
that was initiated during World War II
World War II
under Generalplan Ost, millions of Germans and other Germanic settlers would be moved into conquered territories of Eastern Europe, while the original Slavic inhabitants were to be exterminated and enslaved.[42] Nazi Germany's ally the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
rejected the common conception that Croats
Croats
were primarily a Slavic people and claimed that Croats
Croats
were primarily the descendents of the Germanic Goths.[43] However the Nazi regime continued to classify Croats
Croats
as "subhuman" in spite of the alliance.[44] Even among European cultures and people that were considered Aryan, the Nazis considered the Nordic race
Nordic race
and German culture to be superior to other Aryan races and cultures, thus making them far less Pan-European than groups that identify themselves as White Nationalist. New Zealand Following the example of anti-Chinese poll taxes enacted by California in 1852 and by Australian states in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s, John Hall's government passed the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act 1881. This imposed a £10 tax per Chinese person entering New Zealand, and permitted only one Chinese immigrant for every 10 tons of cargo. Richard Seddon's government increased the tax to £100 per head in 1896, and tightened the other restriction to only one Chinese immigrant for every 200 tons of cargo. The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Act of 1899 prohibited the entry of immigrants who were not of British or Irish parentage and who were unable to fill out an application form in "any European language."[45] The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Amendment Act of 1920 aimed to further limit Asian immigration into New Zealand by requiring all potential immigrants not of British or Irish parentage to apply in writing for a permit to enter the country. The Minister of Customs had the discretion to determine whether any applicant was "suitable." Prime Minister William Massey
William Massey
asserted that the act was "the result of a deep seated sentiment on the part of a huge majority of the people of this country that this Dominion shall be what is often called a 'white' New Zealand."[46] One case of a well known opponent of non-British and non-European immigration to New Zealand is that of English-born Lionel Terry who, after traveling widely to South Africa, British Columbia
British Columbia
and finally New Zealand and publishing a book highly critical of capitalism and Asian immigration, shot and killed an elderly Chinese immigrant in Wellington. Terry was convicted of murder in 1905 and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life incarceration in New Zealand psychiatric institutions. A Department of External Affairs memorandum in 1953 stated: "Our immigration is based firmly on the principle that we are and intend to remain a country of European development. It is inevitably discriminatory against Asians – indeed against all persons who are not wholly of European race and colour. Whereas we have done much to encourage immigration from Europe, we do everything to discourage it from Asia."[47] Paraguay In Paraguay, the New Australian Movement founded New Australia, a utopian socialist settlement in 1893. Its founder, William Lane, intended the settlement to be based on a "common-hold" instead of a commonwealth, life marriage, teetotalism, communism and a brotherhood of Anglophone white people and the preservation of the "colour-line". The colony was officially founded as Colonia Nueva Australia
Australia
and comprised 238 adults and children.[48] In July 1893, the first ship left Sydney, Australia
Australia
for Paraguay, where the government was keen to get white settlers, and had offered the group a large area of good land. The settlement had been described as a refuge for misfits, failures and malcontents of the left wing of Australian democracy.[49] Notable Australian individuals who joined the colony included Mary Gilmore, Rose Summerfield and Gilbert Stephen Casey. Summerfield was the mother of León Cadogan, a noted Paraguayan ethnologist. Due to poor management and a conflict over the prohibition of alcohol, the government of Paraguay
Paraguay
eventually dissolved New Australia
Australia
as a cooperative. Some colonists founded communes elsewhere in Paraguay
Paraguay
but others returned to Australia
Australia
or moved to England. Around 2,000 descendants of the New Australia
Australia
colonists still live in Paraguay.[50][51] South Africa In South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the National Party starting in 1948, as opposition to apartheid heated up.[52][53] The Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959 established homelands (sometimes pejoratively referred to as Bantustans) for ten different black African tribes. The ultimate goal of the National Party was to move all Black South Africans into one of these homelands (although they might continue to work in South Africa
South Africa
as "guest workers"), leaving what was left of South Africa
South Africa
(about 87 percent of the land area) with what would then be a White majority, at least on paper. As the homelands were seen by the apartheid government as embryonic independent nations, all Black South Africans were registered as citizens of the homelands, not of the nation as a whole, and were expected to exercise their political rights only in the homelands. Accordingly, the three token parliamentary seats that had been reserved for White representatives of black South Africans in Cape Province were scrapped. The other three provinces – Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Natal – had never allowed any Black representation. Coloureds
Coloureds
were removed from the Common Roll of Cape Province
Cape Province
in 1953. Instead of voting for the same representatives as White South Africans, they could now only vote for four White representatives to speak for them. Later, in 1968, the Coloureds
Coloureds
were disenfranchised altogether. In the place of the four parliamentary seats, a partially elected body was set up to advise the government in an amendment to the Separate Representation of Voters Act. During the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s, the government implemented a policy of "resettlement", to force people to move to their designated "group areas". Millions of people were forced to relocate during this period. These removals included people relocated due to slum clearance programs, labour tenants on White-owned farms, the inhabitants of the so-called "black spots", areas of Black owned land surrounded by White farms, the families of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and "surplus people" from urban areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape (which was declared a "Coloured Labour Preference Area")[54] who were moved to the Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei homelands. The best-publicised forced removals of the 1950s occurred in Johannesburg, when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto, an abbreviation for South Western Townships.[55][56] Until 1955, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
had been one of the few urban areas where Blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial slum. As industry in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
grew, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. It could also boast the only swimming pool for Black children in Johannesburg.[57] As one of the oldest black settlements in Johannesburg, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 Blacks it contained, both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture.[tone] Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western Areas Removal Scheme. In the early hours, heavily armed police entered Sophiatown
Sophiatown
to force residents out of their homes and load their belongings onto government trucks. The residents were taken to a large tract of land, thirteen miles (19 km) from the city center, known as Meadowlands (that the government had purchased in 1953). Meadowlands became part of a new planned Black city called Soweto. The Sophiatown
Sophiatown
slum was destroyed by bulldozers, and a new White suburb named Triomf (Triumph) was built in its place. This pattern of forced removal and destruction was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to people of African descent. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor (Mkhumbane) in Durban, and District Six
District Six
in Cape Town, where 55,000 coloured and Indian people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under the Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act
of 1950. Ultimately, nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian and Chinese people
Chinese people
were moved in terms of the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 White people
White people
were also forced to move when land was transferred from "White South Africa" into the Black homelands.[citation needed] Before South Africa
South Africa
became a republic, politics among White South Africans was typified by the division between the chiefly Afrikaner pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican liberal sentiments, with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people.[58] Once republican status was attained, Hendrik Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between those of British descent and the Afrikaners.[59] He claimed that the only difference now was between those who supported apartheid and those in opposition to it. The ethnic divide would no longer be between Afrikaans speakers and English speakers, but rather White and Black ethnicities. Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity of White people
White people
to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a majority "no" vote in Natal.[60] Later, however, some of them recognized the perceived need for White unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonization elsewhere in Africa, which left them apprehensive. Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" pronouncement left the British faction feeling that Britain had abandoned them.[61] The more conservative English-speakers gave support to Verwoerd; others were troubled by the severing of ties with Britain and remained loyal to the Crown.[62][63] They were acutely displeased at the choice between British and South African nationality. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent ballot illustrated only a minor swell of support, indicating that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the White population.[64] The Black Homeland Citizenship Act
Black Homeland Citizenship Act
of 1970 was a denaturalization law passed during the apartheid era of South Africa
South Africa
that changed the status of the inhabitants of the Bantustans (Black homelands) so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa. The aim was to ensure that white South Africans came to make up the majority of the de jure population. United States

Poster for The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915).

The Naturalization Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 103) provided the first rules to be followed by the United States government in granting national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were "free white persons" of "good moral character." Major changes to this racial requirement for US citizenship did not occur until the years following the American Civil War. In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed to grant citizenship to black people born in the US, but it specifically excluded untaxed Indians, because they were separate nations. However, citizenship for other non-whites born in the US was not settled until 1898 with United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, which concluded with an important precedent in its interpretation of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This racial definition of American citizenship has had consequences for perceptions of American identity.[65] Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, racial definitions of the American nation were still common, resulting in race-specific immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, formed on 14 May 1905 in San Francisco, California
California
by 67 labor unions and supported by labor leaders (and European immigrants) Patrick Henry McCarthy
Patrick Henry McCarthy
of the Building Trades Council of San Francisco, Andrew Furuseth
Andrew Furuseth
and Walter McCarthy of the Sailor's Union, attempted to influence legislation restricting Asian immigration. During the controversy surrounding the All of Mexico Movement, Senator John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
of South Carolina
South Carolina
stated "We have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race... Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race." Following the defeat of the Confederate States of America, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was founded as an insurgent group with the goal of maintaining the Southern racial system throughout the Reconstruction Era. Although the first incarnation of the KKK was focused on maintaining the Antebellum South, its second incarnation in the 1915-1940s period was much more oriented towards white nationalism and American nativism, with slogans such as "One Hundred Percent Americanism" and "America for Americans", in which "Americans" were understood to be white and Protestant. The 1915 film The Birth of a Nation is an example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time, and its positive portrayal of the first KKK is considered to be one of the factors which led to the emergence of the second KKK.[66] The second KKK was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1915 and, starting in 1921, it adopted a modern business system of recruiting. The organization grew rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity. Reflecting the social tensions of urban industrialization and vastly increased immigration, its membership grew most rapidly in cities and spread out of the South to the Midwest and West. The second KKK called for strict morality and better enforcement of prohibition. Its rhetoric promoted anti-Catholicism and nativism.[67] Some local groups took part in attacks on private houses and carried out other violent activities. The violent episodes were generally in the South.[68]

Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928.

The second KKK was a formal fraternal organization, with a national and state structure. At its peak in the mid-1920s, the organization claimed to include about 15% of the nation's eligible population, approximately 4 to 5 million men. Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders, and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about 30,000 by 1930. It faded away in the 1940s.[69] Starting in the 1960s, white nationalism grew in the US as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society.[70] Samuel P. Huntington argues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo- Protestant
Protestant
and English-speaking.[71] The Immigration
Immigration
and Nationality Act of 1965 had opened entry to the US to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result it would significantly, and unintentionally, alter the demographic mix in the US.[72] The slogan "white power" was popularized by American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
leader George Lincoln Rockwell, who used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
after Carmichael issued a call for "black power".[73] Rockwell advocated a return to white control of all American institutions, and violently opposed any minority advancement. He rejected the Nazi idea of "master race", however, and accepted all white European nationalities in his ideology, including Turks.[74] One of the most influential white nationalists in the United States was Dr. William Luther Pierce, who founded the National Alliance in 1974. In the United States a movement calling for white separatism emerged in the 1980s.[75] Leonard Zeskind has chronicled the movement in his book Blood and Politics, in which he argues that it has moved from the "margins to the mainstream".[76] During the 1980s the United States also saw an increase in the number of neo-völkisch movements. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, these movements cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged, especially in the English-speaking world, since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th and early 20th century Germany
Germany
in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism, and multiculturalism.[77] Some are neo-fascist, neo-Nazi or Third Positionist; others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics,[77] and a few have national anarchist tendencies. One example is the neo-tribalist paganism promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship.[78] Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes, so neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements. Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right, Evolian Traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity, Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (Esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism, National Socialist black metal). More recently, the alt-right, a broad term covering many different far-right ideologies and groups in the United States, some of which endorse white nationalism, has gained traction as an alternative to mainstream conservatism in its national politics.[79] The comic book super hero Captain America, in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in 2017.[80][81] Relationships with black separatist groups In February 1962 George Lincoln Rockwell, the leader of the American Nazi Party, spoke at a Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
rally in Chicago, where he was applauded by Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
as he pronounced: "I am proud to stand here before black men. I believe Elijah Muhammed is the Adolf Hitler of the black man!"[82] Rockwell had attended, but did not speak at, an earlier NOI rally in Washington, D.C. in June 1961,[83] and once he even donated $20 to the NOI.[84] In 1965, after breaking with the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
and denouncing its separatist doctrine, Malcolm X
Malcolm X
told his followers that the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
under Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
had made secret agreements with the American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
and the Ku Klux Klan.[83] Rockwell and other white supremacists (e.g. Willis Carto) also supported less well-known black separatist groups, such as Hassan Jeru-Ahmed's Blackman's Army of Liberation, in reference to which Rockwell told Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
reporter Michael Drosnin in 1967 that if "Any Negro wants to go back to Africa, I'll carry him piggy-back."[85] More recently, Tom Metzger, erstwhile Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
leader from California, spoke at a NOI rally in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in September 1985 and donated $100 to the group.[86] In October of that same year, over 200 prominent white supremacists met at former Klan leader Robert E. Miles's farm to discuss an alliance with Louis Farrakhan, head of the NOI.[84] In attendance were Edward Reed Fields of the National States' Rights Party, Richard Girnt Butler of the Aryan Nations, Don Black, Roy Frankhouser, and Metzger, who said that "America is like a rotting carcass. The Jews
Jews
are living off the carcass like the parasites they are. Farrakhan understands this."[84] Criticism Numerous individuals and organizations have argued that ideas such as white pride and white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy. Kofi Buenor Hadjor argues that black nationalism is a response to racial discrimination, while white nationalism is the expression of white supremacy.[87] Other critics have described white nationalism as a "...somewhat paranoid ideology" based upon the publication of pseudo-academic studies.[88] Carol M. Swain
Carol M. Swain
argues that the unstated goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger audience, and that most white nationalist groups promote white separatism and racial violence.[89] Opponents accuse white nationalists of hatred, racial bigotry and destructive identity politics.[90][91] White supremacist groups have a history of perpetrating hate crimes, particularly against people of Jewish or African descent.[92] Examples include the lynching of black people by the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
(KKK). Some critics argue that white nationalists—while posturing as civil rights groups advocating the interests of their racial group—frequently draw on the nativist traditions of the KKK and the British National Front.[93] Critics have noted the anti-semitic rhetoric used by some white nationalists, as highlighted by the promotion of conspiracy theories such as Zionist Occupation Government.[94] Notable organizations

American Freedom Party American Front Aryan Guard Aryan Nations Australia
Australia
First Party Australian Protectionist Party Black Legion (political movement) British National Party British People's Party Canadian Heritage Alliance Council of Conservative Citizens[95] Creativity Alliance Creativity Movement European-American Unity and Rights Organization German American Bund Golden Dawn Heathen Front Identity Evropa National Alliance (United States)[96] National Front (UK) National Policy Institute National Revival of Poland National Socialist League National Vanguard Nationalist Alliance Nationalist Party of Canada Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(Germany) Nordic Resistance Movement Patriotic Youth League Silver Legion of America Vigrid Volksfront White Aryan Resistance White Nationalist Party

Notable individuals

Virginia Abernethy Andrew Auernheimer Gordon Lee Baum Louis Beam Richard Girnt Butler Theodore G. Bilbo Don Black Peter Brimelow Thomas W. Chittum Craig Cobb Harold Covington Ian Stuart Donaldson David Duke James Edwards Paul Fromm (activist) Matthew F. Hale Hinton Rowan Helper William Daniel Johnson Ben Klassen August Kreis III Alex Linder Kevin B. Macdonald Tom Metzger Nikolaos Michaloliakos Merlin Miller William Dudley Pelley
William Dudley Pelley
– founder of the Silver Legion of America William Luther Pierce Thomas Robb Saga Richard B. Spencer Gerald L. K. Smith Edgar Steele J. B. Stoner Kevin Alfred Strom Tomislav Sunić Wesley A. Swift Hal Turner Jared Taylor Eugène Terre'Blanche Varg Vikernes James Wickstrom

Notable media

American Renaissance Candour The Daily Stormer Info-14 Metapedia National Vanguard Occidental Observer Podblanc The Political Cesspool Redwatch Stormfront Vanguard News Network Gab

See also

New nationalism (21st century) Alt-right Anti-Zionism Black nationalism Criticism of multiculturalism Ethnic nationalism Holocaust
Holocaust
denial Kinism Know Nothing List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center
Southern Poverty Law Center
as hate groups List of white nationalist organizations National-Anarchism The Passing of the Great Race White separatism White genocide

References Notes

^ Heidi Beirich and Kevin Hicks. "Chapter 7: White nationalism
White nationalism
in America". In Perry, Barbara. Hate Crimes. Greenwood Publishing, 2009. pp.114-115 ^ Conversi, Daniele (July 2004). "Can nationalism studies and ethnic/racial studies be brought together?". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Taylor and Francis. 30 (4): 815–29. doi:10.1080/13691830410001699649.  ^ Heidi Beirich and Kevin Hicks. "Chapter 7: White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America". In Perry, Barbara. Hate Crimes. Greenwood Publishing, 2009. p.119. "One of the primary political goals of white nationalism is to forge a white identity". ^ a b c d "White Nationalism, Explained". The New York Times. 21 November 2016. "White nationalism, he said, is the belief that national identity should be built around white ethnicity, and that white people should therefore maintain both a demographic majority and dominance of the nation’s culture and public life. [...] white nationalism is about maintaining political and economic dominance, not just a numerical majority or cultural hegemony". ^ Rothì, Despina M.; Lyons, Evanthia; Chryssochoou, Xenia (February 2005). "National attachment and patriotism in a European nation: a British study". Political Psychology. Wiley. 26 (1): 135–55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2005.00412.x.  In this paper, nationalism is termed "identity content" and patriotism "relational orientation". ^ a b c FBI Counterterrorism Division (13 December 2006). State of domestic white nationalist extremist movement in the United States. FBI Intelligence Assessment. p. 4.  ^ Perlman, Merrill (14 August 2017). "The key difference between 'nationalists' and 'supremacists'". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ CNN, Joe Sterling,. "White nationalism, a term once on the fringes, now front and center". CNN.  ^ "White Nationalist". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Loftis, Susanne (April 11, 2003). "Interviews offer unprecedented look into the world and words of the new white nationalism". Vanderbilt News. Vanderbilt University.  ^ Zeskind, Leonard (November 2005). "The New Nativism: The alarming overlap between white nationalists and mainstream anti-immigrant forces". The American Prospect. The American Prospect, Inc. 16 (11).  ^ Hughey, Matthew (2012). White Bound: Nationalists, Antiracists, and the Shared Meanings of Race. Stanford University Press. pp. 198–199. ISBN 9780804783316. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ a b "The Hispanic challenge", Foreign Policy (March 1, 2004) ^ Despite new leaders, and with them new tactics and new ideas, the goal of white separatists remains to convince Americans that racial separation is the only way to survive. National Public Radio (August 14, 2003) ^ Dating the White Way Newsweek August 9, 2004 ^ Zeskind, Leonard (2009), "Prolegomena to the future, 2001–2004", in Zeskind, Leonard, Blood and politics: the history of the white nationalist movement from the margins to the mainstream, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 526, ISBN 9780374109035.  ^ Schumaker, Paul (2008), "Questions of citizenship", in Schumaker, Paul, From ideologies to public philosophies: an introduction to political theory, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, p. 254, ISBN 9781405168359.  ^ Crowe, Paul (2009), "Daoist heritage today", in Clarke, Peter B.; Beyer, Peter, The world's religions: continuities and transformations, London New York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 129–34, ISBN 9780415397254, A competing atheistic or panthestic white racist movement also appeared, which included the Church of the Creator/ Creativity  Preview. ^ Potok, Mark; Beirich, Heidi (Summer 2006). "Schism over Anti-Semitism Divides Key White Nationalist Group". Intelligence Report. Retrieved February 22, 2018.  ^ Greenberg, Brad A. (May 29, 2008). " Racism
Racism
colors judicial bid: Candidate Bill Johnson advocates deportation of 'non-whites'". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. TRIBE Media Corp.  ^ Sheen, David. "American White separatist finds shared values with Israel". muftah.org. Muftah.  ^ "Refuting racial myths (RRM)".  ^ Kendall, Timothy. Within China's Orbit: China through the eyes of the Australian Parliament. Australian Parliamentary Library.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b "Policy Launch Speech: Stanley Bruce, Prime Minister". Melbourne: The Age. 26 October 1925. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 24 January 2008.  ^ Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002), "Origin stories and political economy, 1740–1870", in Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita, The Great Barrier Reef: history, science, heritage, Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 301, ISBN 9781280162640.  Preview. ^ "Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy". Australian Department of Immigration. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2006.  ^ Calwell, Be Just and Fear Not, 117 ^ "Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act 1885, c. 71". asian.ca. Asian Canadian – Law Centre. July 20, 1855.  ^ Vancouver
Vancouver
News-Advertiser, 7 September 1907. ^ Rudolf von Sebottendorff, Bevor Hitler kam, 1933, p. 42 (original: "Blutbekenntnis": "Unterzeichner versichert nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen, daß in seinen und seiner Frau Adern kein jüdisches oder farbiges Blut fließe und daß sich unter den Vorfahren auch keine Angehörigen der farbigen Rassen befinden.") ^ "Die nächsten Jahrzehnte bedeuten nicht etwa irgendeine Auseinandersetzung außenpolitischer Art, die Deutschland bestehen kann oder nicht bestehen kann, sondern ... sie bedeuten das Sein oder Nichtsein des weißen Menschen, ... .", Sammelheft ausgewählter Vorträge und Reden (Collection of chosen Talks and Speeches), Franz Eher Nachfolger (main Nazi publishing house), Berlin, 1939, p. 145, "Wesen und Aufgabe der SS und der Polizei, 1937" (Nature and Purpose of the SS and the Police, 1937). ^ "Trotzdem aber bleibt bestehen, daß wir alle unter dem gleichen Schicksal Europas stehen, und daß wir dieses gemeinsame Schicksal als Verpflichtung empfinden müssen, weil am Ende die Existenz des weißen Menschen überhaupt von dieser Einheit des europäischen Kontinents abhängt." Feier anläßlich des 450. Geburtstages von Hutten, 29.5.1938 ^ Hate Crimes, volume 2 Barbara Perry, p. 110 ^ Revisiting the National Socialist Legacy: Coming to Terms With Forced Labor, Expropriation, Compensation, and Restitution p. 84 Oliver Rathkolb ^ Mineau, André (2004). "The conceptualization of ideology". In Mineau, André. Operation Barbarossa: ideology and ethics against human dignity. Amsterdam New York: Rodopi. pp. 34–36. ISBN 9789042016330.  ^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz; Robert, Edward (translator) (1961), "Poland under Nazi occupation", in Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz; Robert, Edward (translator), Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe
Europe
(1st ed.), Polonia Publishing House, p. 219, ASIN B0006BXJZ6, archived from the original on April 9, 2011, retrieved March 12, 2014  ^ Thorne, Steve (2006), "Us and them", in Thorne, Steve, The language of war, London New York: Routledge, p. 38, ISBN 9780203006597.  ^ Perry, Marvin (2001), "The era of totalitarianism", in Perry, Marvin, Western civilization: a brief history (10th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, p. 468, ISBN 9781111837198.  ^ Nelson, Anne (2009), "Other worlds", in Nelson, Anne, Red Orchestra: the story of the Berlin underground and the circle of friends who resisted Hitler, New York: Random House, p. 212, ISBN 9781400060009.  ^ a b Downing, David (2009), "Wednesday 19 November", in Downing, David, Sealing their fate: the twenty-two days that decided World War II, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, p. 48, ISBN 9780306816208.  ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2005), "Cultural development", in Frucht, Richard C., Eastern Europe: an introduction to the people, lands, and culture, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, p. 259, ISBN 9781576078006.  Preview. ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. (2007), "The Führer as statesman: ideology and foreign policy", in Bendersky, Joseph W., A concise history of Nazi Germany
Germany
(3rd ed.), Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., pp. 161–62, ISBN 9780742553637.  ^ Norman, Rich (1973), "Yugoslavia: Croatia", in Rich, Norman, Hitler's war aims: the establishment of the new order, New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., pp. 276–277, ISBN 9780393055092.  ^ Davies, Norman (2008). Europe
Europe
at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. Pan Macmillan. pp. 167, 209.  ^ Beaglehole, Ann (13 July 2012). "Story: Immigration
Immigration
regulation – 1881–1914: restrictions on Chinese and others". teara.govt.nz. Te Ara – Encyclopedia of New Zealand.  ^ New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 14 September 1920, p. 905. ^ Quoted in Stuart William Greif, ed., Immigration
Immigration
and national identity in New Zealand: one people, two peoples, many peoples? Palmerston North: Dunmore, 1995, p. 39. ^ "Cosme and New Australia
Australia
colonies". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 2006-07-27.  ^ Australian Encyclopaedia Volume 2, p. 191, Angus and Robertson Limited, 1926 ^ Eric Campbell (September 26, 2006). " Paraguay
Paraguay
Aussies". Final Story, Series 16, Episode 12. ABC Television.  ^ Paraguay
Paraguay
Aussies - Peru. Journeyman Pictures / ABC. September 26, 2006.  ^ Apartheid-era party is ending its existence, The International Herald Tribune August 9, 2004 ^ Kani explores a post-apartheid world on stage. ABC Transcripts (Australia: May 11, 2005) ^ Western, J. (June 2002). "A divided city: Cape Town". Political Geography, Special
Special
Issue Dedicated to Saul B. Cohen. Elsevier. 21 (5): 711–16. doi:10.1016/S0962-6298(02)00016-1.  ^ "From the Western Areas to Soweto: forced removals". Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2008.  ^ "Toby Street Blues". Time Magazine. 21 February 1955.  ^ Martin Meredith (1 April 2010). Mandela: A Biography. Simon and Schuster. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-84739-933-5.  ^ Muller (1975), p. 508. ^ Booth, Douglas (1998). The race game: sport and politics in South Africa. Routledge. p. 89. ^ Thompson, Paul Singer (1990). Natalians first: separatism in South Africa, 1909–1961. Southern Book Publishers. p. 167. ^ Joyce, Peter (2007). The making of a nation: South Africa's road to freedom. Zebra. p. 118. ^ Suzman, Helen (1993). In no uncertain terms: a South African memoir. Knopf. p. 35. ^ Keppel-Jones, Arthur (1975). South Africa: a short history. Hutchinson. p. 132. ^ Lacour-Gayet, Robert (1977). A history of South Africa. Cassell. p. 311. ^ Devos, Thierry; Banaji, Mahzarin R. (March 2005). "American = White?". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association via PsycNET. 88 (3): 447–66. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.447. PMID 15740439.  Pdf. ^ In its darkness, 'Kong' shows the human heart. Newsday (New York: December 15, 2005) ^ Pegram, Thomas R., One Hundred Percent American: The Rebirth and Decline of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the 1920s (2011), pp. 47–88. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T., The Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the City, 1915–1930 (Oxford University Press, 1967; 1992 edition). ^ Lay, Shawn. " Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the Twentieth Century", The New Georgia Encyclopedia (Coker College). ^ "Black Politics are in a Black Hole", Newsday (New York, January 14, 2005) ^ "Bush and Kerry Show Opposing Faces of Two Different Americas. Business Day (South Africa: October 21, 2004) ^ Jennifer Ludden. "1965 immigration law changed face of America". NPR.  ^ George Lincoln Rockwell, Stokely Carmichael. "George Lincoln Rockwell vs Stokely Carmichael" – via Internet Archive.  ^ Perry, Barbara, Hate Crimes, vol. 2, p. 110 ^ Dobratz, Betty A., and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 1997. White power, white pride !: the white separatist movement in the United States. New York: Twayne ^ Zeskind, Leonard (2009). Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement
Nationalist Movement
from the Margins to the Mainstream. Macmillan. pp. 535–38.  ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 6. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 261 ^ Welton, Benjamin (2016-02-01). "What, Exactly, is the 'Alternative Right?'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2016-02-05.  ^ Harrison, Berry (2017-01-25). "Fliers For Nationalist Organization Appear at Boise State". Boise Weekly.  ^ Blanchard, Nicole (2017-01-26). "BSU nationalist group delays 1st meeting after online pushback, media reports". Idaho Statesman.  ^ George Thayer (1967). The Farther Shore of Politics: The American Political Fringe Today. Allen Lane. pp. 25–26.  ^ a b Mattias Gardell (7 October 1996). In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
and The Nation of Islam. Duke University Press. pp. 273–74. ISBN 0-8223-1845-8.  ^ a b c Wayne King (October 12, 1985). "White Supremacists Voice Support of Farrakhan". New York Times. p. 12.  ^ Michael Drosnin (June 5, 1967). "U.S. Negro Group Plans Own Nation in Africa: 'Blackman's Army'". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. p. 29.  ^ "Bedfellows: The Klan Connection". New York Times. October 6, 1985. p. E20.  ^ Hadjor, Kofi Buenor (1995). Another America: The Politics of Race and Blame. Haymarket Books. p. 100. ISBN 1-931859-34-5.  ^ Caliendo, S.M & McIllwan, C.D. (2011). The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity. Taylor & Francis. pp. 233–35.  ^ Swain, Carol M. (2002). The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80886-3.  ^ McConnell, Scott (August–September 2002). "The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America". First Things.  ^ Wise, Tim, "Making Nice With Racists: David Horowitz and The Soft Pedaling Of White Supremacy", Znet (December 16, 2002) Archived February 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Swain, C.M., The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America: Its Challenge to Integration (Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp. 114–17 ^ "BNP: A party on the fringe". BBC News. August 24, 2001. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ Boler, M., Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times, (MIT Press, 2008) pp. 440–43. ^ "Council of Conservative Citizens". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ "National Alliance". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 

Bibliography

Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations. Geneva: INUPRESS. ISBN 0-9656383-2-4.  Josey, Charles Conant (1983) [1923]. The Philosophy of Nationalism. Washington, D.C.: Cliveden Press. ISBN 1-878465-10-4.  Levin, Michael E. (1997). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-95789-6.  McDaniel, George (ed.) (2003). A Race Against Time: Racial Heresies for the 21st Century. Oakton, VA: New Century Foundation. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Robertson, Wilmot (1981). The Dispossessed Majority. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-15-1.  Robertson, Wilmot (1993). The Ethnostate. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-22-4.  Swain, Carol M. (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01693-2. 

v t e

White nationalism

Foundations and related topics

Alt-right Afrophobia Antisemitism Antiziganism Apartheid Aryan race Christian Identity Creativity Ethnic nationalism Eugenics Far-right Fourteen Words Hispanophobia Homophobia Identitarian movement Islamophobia Kinism Ku Klux Klan National-anarchism Nazism

Neo-Nazism

Neo-völkisch movements Nordicism Racism Right-wing terrorism White Australia
Australia
policy White genocide conspiracy theory White power skinhead White pride White separatism White supremacy Wotanism Zionist Occupation Government
Zionist Occupation Government
conspiracy theory

Organizations

Europe

Bloc identitaire Blood & Honour British National Party CasaPound Combat 18 Dutch Peoples-Union Front Comtois Golden Dawn Jobbik Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia National Democratic Party of Germany National Revival of Poland National Socialist Front National Socialist Movement of Denmark National Socialist Movement of Norway Nazi Party Nordic Resistance Movement Noua Dreaptă Party of the Swedes Russian National Unity Slavic Union Social-National Assembly Soldiers of Odin Vigrid Voorpost

North America

11th Hour Remnant Messenger American Freedom Party American Nazi Party Aryan Guard Aryan Nations Combat 18 Council of Conservative Citizens Counter-Currents Publishing European-American Unity and Rights Organization Hammerskins Heritage Front Identity Evropa Ku Klux Klan National Alliance NAAWP National Policy Institute National Vanguard Nationalist Movement National Socialist Movement NSDAP/AO (1972) Liberty Lobby The Order Traditionalist Worker Party Redneck
Redneck
Shop White Aryan Resistance White Order of Thule

Oceania

Antipodean Resistance New Zealand National Front United Patriots Front

South Africa

Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Weerstandsbeweging Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Volksfront Blanke Bevrydingsbeweging Conservative Party Kommandokorps South African National Front South African Party

Media

Music

Blood & Honour National Socialist black metal Nazi punk Rock Against Communism

Print media

American Renaissance Arktos Media The Aryan Alternative Candour National Vanguard The Occidental Quarterly Washington Summit Publishers

Radio shows

Derek Black Show The Political Cesspool

Websites

/pol/ The Daily Stormer Kuruc.info Metapedia Occidental Observer Redwatch The Right Stuff South Africa
South Africa
Today Stormfront Vanguard News Network VDARE Gab

Opposition

Anti-Defamation League Anti-fascism Antifa Anti-racism Online Hate Prevention Institute Simon Wiesenthal Center Southern Poverty Law Center Searchlight

v t e

White people

Caucasian race European peoples West Asian peoples Central Asian peoples North African peoples

Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

Worldwide diaspora

Africa

Algeria Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Morocco Namibia Saint Helena South Africa Tunisia Zambia Zimbabwe

Asia

Pakistan

United States Canada Bermuda Bahamas Barbados Cayman Islands Jamaica Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Latin America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Peru Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela

Oceania

Australia New Caledonia New Zealand

Historical concepts

Apartheid Aryan First white child Honorary whites Play the white man Racial whitening

Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento

White Australia
Australia
policy The White Man's Burden White gods

Sociological phenomena and theories

Acting white
Acting white
(Passing as white) Angry white male Missing white woman syndrome Skin whitening White flight

South African farm attacks

White fragility White guilt White privilege Whiteness studies Whitewashed film roles White savior

White American caricatures and stereotypes

Poor Whites

Redlegs Rednecks Mountain whites

Identity politics in the United States

US definitions of whiteness

One-drop rule

Alt-right Christian Identity Non-Hispanic whites White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Old Stock Americans White ethnic White Hispanic White nationalism White pride White separatism White supremacy

Scientific racism

Human skin color Color terminology for race Alpine Armenoid Dinaric East Baltic Irano-Afghan Mediterranean

Commons

v t e

Ethnic nationalism

Africa

Acholi Afrikaner Algerian Berber Canarian Congolese Coptic Egyptian Ethiopian Hutu Igbo Libyan Nigerian Sahrawi Rhodesian Somali Tunisian Ugandan

Asia

Arab Armenian Assamese Assyrian Azerbaijani Balkar and Karachay Baloch Bangladeshi Bengali Bodo Burmese (Burmese Buddhist) Chinese Circassian Dalit East Turkestani Filipino Georgian Gorkha Hindu Hong Kong Indian Indonesian Iranian Iraqi Israeli Japanese Kashmiri Khmer Korean Kurdish Lebanese Lezgian Malay

Early Malaysian Malay

Malaysian Hindu Manchurian Mongolian Marathi Naga Pashtun Pakistani Palestinian Punjabi Ryukyu Saraiki Sikh Sindhi Sinhalese Buddhist South Asian Muslim Sri Lankan Tamil Syrian Taiwanese Tamil Thai Tibetan Tripuri Turkic Turkish Vietnamese Zaza

Europe

Albanian

in Albania in Kosovo in Rep. of Macedonia

Andalusian Armenian Asturian Austrian Azerbaijani Balkar and Karachay Basque Bavarian Belgian Belarusian Bosniak Breton British Bulgarian Canarian Castilian Catalan Celtic Circassian Cornish Corsican Croatian Cypriot Czech Czechoslovak English Estonian Faroese Flemish Finnish French Galician German

in Austria

Georgian Greek Hungarian Icelandic Irish Italian Lezgian Lithuanian Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Norwegian Occitan Padanian Polish Prussian Rhenish Romanian Russian Scandinavian Sardinian Scottish Serbian Sicilian Silesian Slavic Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swabian Swiss Turkic Turkish Ukrainian Ulster Valencian Venetian Walloon Welsh

The Americas

American Argentine Brazilian Canadian Confederate Chicano Puerto Rican Native-American Greenlandic Québécois

Oceania

Australian Hawaiian Māori

Other

Racial

Black White

Religious

Christian Islamic

Soviet (spanning two continents) Yugoslav

Note: Forms of nationalism based primarily on ethnic groups are listed above. This does not imply that all nationalists with a given ethnicity subscribe to that form of ethnic nationalism.

v t e

Alt-right

Common ideas

American nationalism Antifeminism Antisemitism Islamophobia Isolationism Nativism Protectionism Right-wing populism White nationalism

Websites

4chan

/pol/

8chan American Renaissance Breitbart Gab Gateway Pundit Hatreon The Daily Stormer /r/The_Donald InfoWars The Right Stuff Metapedia Occidental Observer VDARE Voat

Organizations

Anti-Communist Action Arktos Media Atomwaffen Division Identity Evropa Patriot Front League of the South Nationalist Front National Policy Institute New Century Foundation Proud Boys Traditionalist Worker Party Vanguard America Washington Summit Publishers

Conspiracy theories

Cultural Marxism White genocide Sandy Hook shooting Seth Rich murder Pizzagate

Events

Gamergate controversy 2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign DeploraBall 2017 Berkeley protests Unite the Right rally

Memes

Basket of deplorables Cuckservative Fashwave It's OK to be white Pepe the Frog Snowflake Social justice warrior Triple parentheses

Related ideas

Alt-lite Men's rights movement Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism New nationalism New Right Paleoconservatism Paleolibertarianism Radical rig

.
White Nationalism
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The Info List - White Nationalism


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White nationalism
White nationalism
is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which holds the belief that white people are a race[1] and seeks to develop and maintain a white national identity.[2][3][4] Its proponents identify with and are attached to the concept of a white nation.[5] White nationalists say they seek to ensure the survival of the white race, and the cultures of historically white states. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in majority-white countries, maintain their political and economic dominance, and that their cultures should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, immigration of nonwhites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race,[6] and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.[6] White nationalism
White nationalism
is sometimes described as a euphemism for, or subset of, white supremacy, and the two have been used interchangeably by journalists and other analysts.[7][8] White nationalist groups espouse white separatism and white supremacy.[9] White separatism is the pursuit of a "white-only state"; supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to nonwhites, taking ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism.[4][10] White nationalists generally avoid the term "supremacy" because it has negative connotations.[11][12] Critics argue that the term "white nationalism" and ideas such as white pride exist solely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy, and that most white nationalist groups promote racial violence.

Contents

1 Views

1.1 Definitions of whiteness

2 Regional movements

2.1 Australia 2.2 Canada 2.3 Germany 2.4 New Zealand 2.5 Paraguay 2.6 South Africa 2.7 United States

2.7.1 Relationships with black separatist groups

3 Criticism 4 Notable organizations 5 Notable individuals 6 Notable media 7 See also 8 References

Views White nationalists claim that culture is a product of race, and advocate for the self-preservation of white people.[13] White nationalists seek to ensure the survival of (what they see as) the white race, and the cultures of historically white nations. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in mainly-white countries, maintain their dominance of its political and economic life, and that their culture should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, mass immigration of non-whites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race, and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.[6] Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington
described white nationalists as arguing that the demographic shift in the United States towards non-whites would bring a new culture that is intellectually and morally inferior.[13] White nationalists claim that this demographic shift brings affirmative action, immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards.[14] Most American white nationalists say immigration should be restricted to people of European ancestry.[15][16][17] White nationalists embrace a variety of religious and non-religious beliefs, including various denominations of Christianity, generally Protestant, although some specifically overlap with white nationalist ideology (Christian Identity, for example, is a family of white supremacist denominations), Germanic neopaganism
Germanic neopaganism
(e.g. Wotanism) and atheism.[18] Definitions of whiteness Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. In the United States, it often—though not exclusively—implies European ancestry of non-Jewish descent.[citation needed] Some white nationalists draw on 19th-century racial taxonomy. White nationalist Jared Taylor
Jared Taylor
has argued that Jews
Jews
can be considered "white", although this is controversial within white nationalist circles.[19] Many white nationalists oppose Israel
Israel
and Zionism, while some, such as William Daniel Johnson and Taylor, have expressed support for Israel
Israel
and have drawn parallels between their ideology and Zionism.[20][21] Different racial theories, such as Nordicism
Nordicism
and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint.[22] Pan-Aryanism defines whites as individuals native to Europe, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Western Asia
Western Asia
who are wholly of Caucasian lineage or are overwhelmingly from the following Caucasian ethnic groups, or any combination thereof: Indo-European ("Aryan", including the Iranian and Indo-Aryan peoples), Old European (e.g. Basque), or Hamitic
Hamitic
(in modern times supposedly confined to Berbers). Regional movements Australia The White Australia
Australia
policy was semi-official government policy in Australia
Australia
until the mid twentieth century. It restricted non-white immigration to Australia
Australia
and gave preference to British migrants over all others. The Barton Government, which won the first elections following Federation in 1901, was formed by the Protectionist Party
Protectionist Party
with the support of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
(ALP). The support of the Labor Party was contingent upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Workers' Union
Australian Workers' Union
and other labor organizations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded. The first Parliament of Australia
Australia
quickly moved to restrict immigration to maintain Australia's "British character", passing the Pacific Island Labourers Act and the Immigration Restriction Act before parliament rose for its first Christmas recess. The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Act of 1901 limited immigration to Australia
Australia
and required a person seeking entry to Australia
Australia
to write out a passage of 50 words dictated to them in any European language, not necessarily English, at the discretion of an immigration officer. Barton argued in favour of the bill: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman."[23] The passage chosen for the test could often be very difficult, so that even if the test was given in English, a person was likely to fail. The test enabled immigration officials to exclude individuals on the basis of race without explicitly saying so. Although the test could theoretically be given to any person arriving in Australia, in practice it was given selectively on the basis of race. This test was later abolished in 1958. Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce
Stanley Bruce
supported the White Australia policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the 1925 Australian Federal election.[24]

It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia
Australia
Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire.[24] We intend to keep this country white and not allow its peoples to be faced with the problems that at present are practically insoluble in many parts of the world.[25]

At the beginning of World War II, Prime Minister John Curtin
John Curtin
(ALP) expressed support for White Australia
Australia
policy: "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[26] Another (ALP) Leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967 Arthur Calwell supported the White European Australia
Australia
policy. This is reflected by Calwell's comments in his 1972 memoirs, Be Just and Fear Not, in which he made it clear that he maintained his view that non-European people should not be allowed to settle in Australia. He wrote:

I am proud of my white skin, just as a Chinese is proud of his yellow skin, a Japanese of his brown skin, and the Indians of their various hues from black to coffee-coloured. Anybody who is not proud of his race is not a man at all. And any man who tries to stigmatize the Australian community as racist because they want to preserve this country for the white race is doing our nation great harm... I reject, in conscience, the idea that Australia
Australia
should or ever can become a multi-racial society and survive.[27]

He was the last leader of either the Labour or Liberal party to support it. Canada The Parliament of Canada
Parliament of Canada
passed the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1923 to bar all Chinese from coming to Canada with the exception of diplomats, students, and those granted special permission by the Minister of Immigration. Chinese immigration to Canada had already been heavily regulated by the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1885 which required Chinese immigrants to pay a fifty dollar fee to enter the country (the fee was increased to one hundred dollars in 1900 and to five hundred dollars in 1903).[28] Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, which had formed in Vancouver, British Columbia
British Columbia
on 12 August 1907 under the auspices of the Trades and Labour Council, pressured Parliament to halt Asian immigration. The Exclusion League's stated aim was "to keep Oriental immigrants out of British Columbia."[29] The Canadian government also attempted to restrict immigration from British India
India
by passing an order-in-council on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who "in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior" did not "come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality." In practice, this applied only to ships that began their voyages in India, because the great distance usually necessitated a stopover in either Japan
Japan
or Hawaii. These regulations came at a time when Canada was accepting massive numbers of immigrants (over 400,000 in 1913 alone – a figure that remains unsurpassed to this day), almost all of whom came from Europe. This piece of legislation has been called the "continuous journey regulation". Germany The Thule Society
Thule Society
developed out of the "Germanic Order" in 1918, and those who wanted to join the Order in 1917 had to sign a special "blood declaration of faith" concerning their lineage: "The signer hereby swears to the best of his knowledge and belief that no Jewish or coloured blood flows in either his or in his wife's veins, and that among their ancestors are no members of the coloured races."[30] Heinrich Himmler, one of the main perpetrators of the Holocaust, said in a speech in 1937: "The next decades do in fact not mean some struggle of foreign politics which Germany
Germany
can overcome or not ... but a question of to be or not to be for the white race ... ."[31] As the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
said on the 29th of May 1938 on the Steckelburg in Schlüchtern: "It is however certain that all of us share the fate of Europe, and that we shall regard this common fate as an obligation, because in the end the very existence of White people depends on the unity of the European continent."[32] At the same time Nazis subdivided white people into groups, viewing the Nordics as the "master race" (Herrenvolk) above groups like Alpine and Mediterranean peoples.[33] Slavic peoples, such as Russians and Poles, were considered Untermenschen
Untermenschen
instead of Aryan.[34] Hitler's conception of the Aryan Herrenvolk
Herrenvolk
("Aryan master race") explicitly excluded the vast majority of Slavs, regarding the Slavs
Slavs
as having dangerous Jewish and Asiatic influences.[35] The Nazis because of this declared Slavs
Slavs
to be untermenschen (subhumans).[36][37] Hitler described Slavs
Slavs
as "a mass of born slaves who feel the need of a master".[38] Hitler declared that because Slavs
Slavs
were subhumans that the Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
were not applicable to them, and German soldiers in World War II
World War II
were thus permitted to ignore the Geneva Conventions in regard to Slavs.[39] Hitler called Slavs
Slavs
"a rabbit family" meaning they were intrinsically idle and disorganized.[40] Nazi Germany's propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
had media speak of Slavs
Slavs
as primitive animals who were from the Siberian tundra who were like a "dark wave of filth".[40][41] The Nazi notion of Slavs
Slavs
being inferior was part of the agenda for creating Lebensraum
Lebensraum
("living space") for Germans and other Germanic people in eastern Europe
Europe
that was initiated during World War II
World War II
under Generalplan Ost, millions of Germans and other Germanic settlers would be moved into conquered territories of Eastern Europe, while the original Slavic inhabitants were to be exterminated and enslaved.[42] Nazi Germany's ally the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
rejected the common conception that Croats
Croats
were primarily a Slavic people and claimed that Croats
Croats
were primarily the descendents of the Germanic Goths.[43] However the Nazi regime continued to classify Croats
Croats
as "subhuman" in spite of the alliance.[44] Even among European cultures and people that were considered Aryan, the Nazis considered the Nordic race
Nordic race
and German culture to be superior to other Aryan races and cultures, thus making them far less Pan-European than groups that identify themselves as White Nationalist. New Zealand Following the example of anti-Chinese poll taxes enacted by California in 1852 and by Australian states in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s, John Hall's government passed the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act 1881. This imposed a £10 tax per Chinese person entering New Zealand, and permitted only one Chinese immigrant for every 10 tons of cargo. Richard Seddon's government increased the tax to £100 per head in 1896, and tightened the other restriction to only one Chinese immigrant for every 200 tons of cargo. The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Act of 1899 prohibited the entry of immigrants who were not of British or Irish parentage and who were unable to fill out an application form in "any European language."[45] The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Amendment Act of 1920 aimed to further limit Asian immigration into New Zealand by requiring all potential immigrants not of British or Irish parentage to apply in writing for a permit to enter the country. The Minister of Customs had the discretion to determine whether any applicant was "suitable." Prime Minister William Massey
William Massey
asserted that the act was "the result of a deep seated sentiment on the part of a huge majority of the people of this country that this Dominion shall be what is often called a 'white' New Zealand."[46] One case of a well known opponent of non-British and non-European immigration to New Zealand is that of English-born Lionel Terry who, after traveling widely to South Africa, British Columbia
British Columbia
and finally New Zealand and publishing a book highly critical of capitalism and Asian immigration, shot and killed an elderly Chinese immigrant in Wellington. Terry was convicted of murder in 1905 and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life incarceration in New Zealand psychiatric institutions. A Department of External Affairs memorandum in 1953 stated: "Our immigration is based firmly on the principle that we are and intend to remain a country of European development. It is inevitably discriminatory against Asians – indeed against all persons who are not wholly of European race and colour. Whereas we have done much to encourage immigration from Europe, we do everything to discourage it from Asia."[47] Paraguay In Paraguay, the New Australian Movement founded New Australia, a utopian socialist settlement in 1893. Its founder, William Lane, intended the settlement to be based on a "common-hold" instead of a commonwealth, life marriage, teetotalism, communism and a brotherhood of Anglophone white people and the preservation of the "colour-line". The colony was officially founded as Colonia Nueva Australia
Australia
and comprised 238 adults and children.[48] In July 1893, the first ship left Sydney, Australia
Australia
for Paraguay, where the government was keen to get white settlers, and had offered the group a large area of good land. The settlement had been described as a refuge for misfits, failures and malcontents of the left wing of Australian democracy.[49] Notable Australian individuals who joined the colony included Mary Gilmore, Rose Summerfield and Gilbert Stephen Casey. Summerfield was the mother of León Cadogan, a noted Paraguayan ethnologist. Due to poor management and a conflict over the prohibition of alcohol, the government of Paraguay
Paraguay
eventually dissolved New Australia
Australia
as a cooperative. Some colonists founded communes elsewhere in Paraguay
Paraguay
but others returned to Australia
Australia
or moved to England. Around 2,000 descendants of the New Australia
Australia
colonists still live in Paraguay.[50][51] South Africa In South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the National Party starting in 1948, as opposition to apartheid heated up.[52][53] The Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959 established homelands (sometimes pejoratively referred to as Bantustans) for ten different black African tribes. The ultimate goal of the National Party was to move all Black South Africans into one of these homelands (although they might continue to work in South Africa
South Africa
as "guest workers"), leaving what was left of South Africa
South Africa
(about 87 percent of the land area) with what would then be a White majority, at least on paper. As the homelands were seen by the apartheid government as embryonic independent nations, all Black South Africans were registered as citizens of the homelands, not of the nation as a whole, and were expected to exercise their political rights only in the homelands. Accordingly, the three token parliamentary seats that had been reserved for White representatives of black South Africans in Cape Province were scrapped. The other three provinces – Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Natal – had never allowed any Black representation. Coloureds
Coloureds
were removed from the Common Roll of Cape Province
Cape Province
in 1953. Instead of voting for the same representatives as White South Africans, they could now only vote for four White representatives to speak for them. Later, in 1968, the Coloureds
Coloureds
were disenfranchised altogether. In the place of the four parliamentary seats, a partially elected body was set up to advise the government in an amendment to the Separate Representation of Voters Act. During the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s, the government implemented a policy of "resettlement", to force people to move to their designated "group areas". Millions of people were forced to relocate during this period. These removals included people relocated due to slum clearance programs, labour tenants on White-owned farms, the inhabitants of the so-called "black spots", areas of Black owned land surrounded by White farms, the families of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and "surplus people" from urban areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape (which was declared a "Coloured Labour Preference Area")[54] who were moved to the Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei homelands. The best-publicised forced removals of the 1950s occurred in Johannesburg, when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto, an abbreviation for South Western Townships.[55][56] Until 1955, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
had been one of the few urban areas where Blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial slum. As industry in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
grew, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. It could also boast the only swimming pool for Black children in Johannesburg.[57] As one of the oldest black settlements in Johannesburg, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 Blacks it contained, both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture.[tone] Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western Areas Removal Scheme. In the early hours, heavily armed police entered Sophiatown
Sophiatown
to force residents out of their homes and load their belongings onto government trucks. The residents were taken to a large tract of land, thirteen miles (19 km) from the city center, known as Meadowlands (that the government had purchased in 1953). Meadowlands became part of a new planned Black city called Soweto. The Sophiatown
Sophiatown
slum was destroyed by bulldozers, and a new White suburb named Triomf (Triumph) was built in its place. This pattern of forced removal and destruction was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to people of African descent. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor (Mkhumbane) in Durban, and District Six
District Six
in Cape Town, where 55,000 coloured and Indian people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under the Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act
of 1950. Ultimately, nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian and Chinese people
Chinese people
were moved in terms of the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 White people
White people
were also forced to move when land was transferred from "White South Africa" into the Black homelands.[citation needed] Before South Africa
South Africa
became a republic, politics among White South Africans was typified by the division between the chiefly Afrikaner pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican liberal sentiments, with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people.[58] Once republican status was attained, Hendrik Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between those of British descent and the Afrikaners.[59] He claimed that the only difference now was between those who supported apartheid and those in opposition to it. The ethnic divide would no longer be between Afrikaans speakers and English speakers, but rather White and Black ethnicities. Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity of White people
White people
to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a majority "no" vote in Natal.[60] Later, however, some of them recognized the perceived need for White unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonization elsewhere in Africa, which left them apprehensive. Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" pronouncement left the British faction feeling that Britain had abandoned them.[61] The more conservative English-speakers gave support to Verwoerd; others were troubled by the severing of ties with Britain and remained loyal to the Crown.[62][63] They were acutely displeased at the choice between British and South African nationality. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent ballot illustrated only a minor swell of support, indicating that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the White population.[64] The Black Homeland Citizenship Act
Black Homeland Citizenship Act
of 1970 was a denaturalization law passed during the apartheid era of South Africa
South Africa
that changed the status of the inhabitants of the Bantustans (Black homelands) so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa. The aim was to ensure that white South Africans came to make up the majority of the de jure population. United States

Poster for The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915).

The Naturalization Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 103) provided the first rules to be followed by the United States government in granting national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were "free white persons" of "good moral character." Major changes to this racial requirement for US citizenship did not occur until the years following the American Civil War. In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed to grant citizenship to black people born in the US, but it specifically excluded untaxed Indians, because they were separate nations. However, citizenship for other non-whites born in the US was not settled until 1898 with United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, which concluded with an important precedent in its interpretation of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This racial definition of American citizenship has had consequences for perceptions of American identity.[65] Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, racial definitions of the American nation were still common, resulting in race-specific immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, formed on 14 May 1905 in San Francisco, California
California
by 67 labor unions and supported by labor leaders (and European immigrants) Patrick Henry McCarthy
Patrick Henry McCarthy
of the Building Trades Council of San Francisco, Andrew Furuseth
Andrew Furuseth
and Walter McCarthy of the Sailor's Union, attempted to influence legislation restricting Asian immigration. During the controversy surrounding the All of Mexico Movement, Senator John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
of South Carolina
South Carolina
stated "We have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race... Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race." Following the defeat of the Confederate States of America, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was founded as an insurgent group with the goal of maintaining the Southern racial system throughout the Reconstruction Era. Although the first incarnation of the KKK was focused on maintaining the Antebellum South, its second incarnation in the 1915-1940s period was much more oriented towards white nationalism and American nativism, with slogans such as "One Hundred Percent Americanism" and "America for Americans", in which "Americans" were understood to be white and Protestant. The 1915 film The Birth of a Nation is an example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time, and its positive portrayal of the first KKK is considered to be one of the factors which led to the emergence of the second KKK.[66] The second KKK was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1915 and, starting in 1921, it adopted a modern business system of recruiting. The organization grew rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity. Reflecting the social tensions of urban industrialization and vastly increased immigration, its membership grew most rapidly in cities and spread out of the South to the Midwest and West. The second KKK called for strict morality and better enforcement of prohibition. Its rhetoric promoted anti-Catholicism and nativism.[67] Some local groups took part in attacks on private houses and carried out other violent activities. The violent episodes were generally in the South.[68]

Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928.

The second KKK was a formal fraternal organization, with a national and state structure. At its peak in the mid-1920s, the organization claimed to include about 15% of the nation's eligible population, approximately 4 to 5 million men. Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders, and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about 30,000 by 1930. It faded away in the 1940s.[69] Starting in the 1960s, white nationalism grew in the US as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society.[70] Samuel P. Huntington argues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo- Protestant
Protestant
and English-speaking.[71] The Immigration
Immigration
and Nationality Act of 1965 had opened entry to the US to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result it would significantly, and unintentionally, alter the demographic mix in the US.[72] The slogan "white power" was popularized by American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
leader George Lincoln Rockwell, who used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
after Carmichael issued a call for "black power".[73] Rockwell advocated a return to white control of all American institutions, and violently opposed any minority advancement. He rejected the Nazi idea of "master race", however, and accepted all white European nationalities in his ideology, including Turks.[74] One of the most influential white nationalists in the United States was Dr. William Luther Pierce, who founded the National Alliance in 1974. In the United States a movement calling for white separatism emerged in the 1980s.[75] Leonard Zeskind has chronicled the movement in his book Blood and Politics, in which he argues that it has moved from the "margins to the mainstream".[76] During the 1980s the United States also saw an increase in the number of neo-völkisch movements. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, these movements cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged, especially in the English-speaking world, since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th and early 20th century Germany
Germany
in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism, and multiculturalism.[77] Some are neo-fascist, neo-Nazi or Third Positionist; others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics,[77] and a few have national anarchist tendencies. One example is the neo-tribalist paganism promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship.[78] Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes, so neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements. Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right, Evolian Traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity, Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (Esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism, National Socialist black metal). More recently, the alt-right, a broad term covering many different far-right ideologies and groups in the United States, some of which endorse white nationalism, has gained traction as an alternative to mainstream conservatism in its national politics.[79] The comic book super hero Captain America, in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in 2017.[80][81] Relationships with black separatist groups In February 1962 George Lincoln Rockwell, the leader of the American Nazi Party, spoke at a Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
rally in Chicago, where he was applauded by Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
as he pronounced: "I am proud to stand here before black men. I believe Elijah Muhammed is the Adolf Hitler of the black man!"[82] Rockwell had attended, but did not speak at, an earlier NOI rally in Washington, D.C. in June 1961,[83] and once he even donated $20 to the NOI.[84] In 1965, after breaking with the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
and denouncing its separatist doctrine, Malcolm X
Malcolm X
told his followers that the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
under Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
had made secret agreements with the American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
and the Ku Klux Klan.[83] Rockwell and other white supremacists (e.g. Willis Carto) also supported less well-known black separatist groups, such as Hassan Jeru-Ahmed's Blackman's Army of Liberation, in reference to which Rockwell told Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
reporter Michael Drosnin in 1967 that if "Any Negro wants to go back to Africa, I'll carry him piggy-back."[85] More recently, Tom Metzger, erstwhile Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
leader from California, spoke at a NOI rally in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in September 1985 and donated $100 to the group.[86] In October of that same year, over 200 prominent white supremacists met at former Klan leader Robert E. Miles's farm to discuss an alliance with Louis Farrakhan, head of the NOI.[84] In attendance were Edward Reed Fields of the National States' Rights Party, Richard Girnt Butler of the Aryan Nations, Don Black, Roy Frankhouser, and Metzger, who said that "America is like a rotting carcass. The Jews
Jews
are living off the carcass like the parasites they are. Farrakhan understands this."[84] Criticism Numerous individuals and organizations have argued that ideas such as white pride and white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy. Kofi Buenor Hadjor argues that black nationalism is a response to racial discrimination, while white nationalism is the expression of white supremacy.[87] Other critics have described white nationalism as a "...somewhat paranoid ideology" based upon the publication of pseudo-academic studies.[88] Carol M. Swain
Carol M. Swain
argues that the unstated goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger audience, and that most white nationalist groups promote white separatism and racial violence.[89] Opponents accuse white nationalists of hatred, racial bigotry and destructive identity politics.[90][91] White supremacist groups have a history of perpetrating hate crimes, particularly against people of Jewish or African descent.[92] Examples include the lynching of black people by the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
(KKK). Some critics argue that white nationalists—while posturing as civil rights groups advocating the interests of their racial group—frequently draw on the nativist traditions of the KKK and the British National Front.[93] Critics have noted the anti-semitic rhetoric used by some white nationalists, as highlighted by the promotion of conspiracy theories such as Zionist Occupation Government.[94] Notable organizations

American Freedom Party American Front Aryan Guard Aryan Nations Australia
Australia
First Party Australian Protectionist Party Black Legion (political movement) British National Party British People's Party Canadian Heritage Alliance Council of Conservative Citizens[95] Creativity Alliance Creativity Movement European-American Unity and Rights Organization German American Bund Golden Dawn Heathen Front Identity Evropa National Alliance (United States)[96] National Front (UK) National Policy Institute National Revival of Poland National Socialist League National Vanguard Nationalist Alliance Nationalist Party of Canada Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(Germany) Nordic Resistance Movement Patriotic Youth League Silver Legion of America Vigrid Volksfront White Aryan Resistance White Nationalist Party

Notable individuals

Virginia Abernethy Andrew Auernheimer Gordon Lee Baum Louis Beam Richard Girnt Butler Theodore G. Bilbo Don Black Peter Brimelow Thomas W. Chittum Craig Cobb Harold Covington Ian Stuart Donaldson David Duke James Edwards Paul Fromm (activist) Matthew F. Hale Hinton Rowan Helper William Daniel Johnson Ben Klassen August Kreis III Alex Linder Kevin B. Macdonald Tom Metzger Nikolaos Michaloliakos Merlin Miller William Dudley Pelley
William Dudley Pelley
– founder of the Silver Legion of America William Luther Pierce Thomas Robb Saga Richard B. Spencer Gerald L. K. Smith Edgar Steele J. B. Stoner Kevin Alfred Strom Tomislav Sunić Wesley A. Swift Hal Turner Jared Taylor Eugène Terre'Blanche Varg Vikernes James Wickstrom

Notable media

American Renaissance Candour The Daily Stormer Info-14 Metapedia National Vanguard Occidental Observer Podblanc The Political Cesspool Redwatch Stormfront Vanguard News Network Gab

See also

New nationalism (21st century) Alt-right Anti-Zionism Black nationalism Criticism of multiculturalism Ethnic nationalism Holocaust
Holocaust
denial Kinism Know Nothing List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center
Southern Poverty Law Center
as hate groups List of white nationalist organizations National-Anarchism The Passing of the Great Race White separatism White genocide

References Notes

^ Heidi Beirich and Kevin Hicks. "Chapter 7: White nationalism
White nationalism
in America". In Perry, Barbara. Hate Crimes. Greenwood Publishing, 2009. pp.114-115 ^ Conversi, Daniele (July 2004). "Can nationalism studies and ethnic/racial studies be brought together?". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Taylor and Francis. 30 (4): 815–29. doi:10.1080/13691830410001699649.  ^ Heidi Beirich and Kevin Hicks. "Chapter 7: White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America". In Perry, Barbara. Hate Crimes. Greenwood Publishing, 2009. p.119. "One of the primary political goals of white nationalism is to forge a white identity". ^ a b c d "White Nationalism, Explained". The New York Times. 21 November 2016. "White nationalism, he said, is the belief that national identity should be built around white ethnicity, and that white people should therefore maintain both a demographic majority and dominance of the nation’s culture and public life. [...] white nationalism is about maintaining political and economic dominance, not just a numerical majority or cultural hegemony". ^ Rothì, Despina M.; Lyons, Evanthia; Chryssochoou, Xenia (February 2005). "National attachment and patriotism in a European nation: a British study". Political Psychology. Wiley. 26 (1): 135–55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2005.00412.x.  In this paper, nationalism is termed "identity content" and patriotism "relational orientation". ^ a b c FBI Counterterrorism Division (13 December 2006). State of domestic white nationalist extremist movement in the United States. FBI Intelligence Assessment. p. 4.  ^ Perlman, Merrill (14 August 2017). "The key difference between 'nationalists' and 'supremacists'". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ CNN, Joe Sterling,. "White nationalism, a term once on the fringes, now front and center". CNN.  ^ "White Nationalist". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Loftis, Susanne (April 11, 2003). "Interviews offer unprecedented look into the world and words of the new white nationalism". Vanderbilt News. Vanderbilt University.  ^ Zeskind, Leonard (November 2005). "The New Nativism: The alarming overlap between white nationalists and mainstream anti-immigrant forces". The American Prospect. The American Prospect, Inc. 16 (11).  ^ Hughey, Matthew (2012). White Bound: Nationalists, Antiracists, and the Shared Meanings of Race. Stanford University Press. pp. 198–199. ISBN 9780804783316. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ a b "The Hispanic challenge", Foreign Policy (March 1, 2004) ^ Despite new leaders, and with them new tactics and new ideas, the goal of white separatists remains to convince Americans that racial separation is the only way to survive. National Public Radio (August 14, 2003) ^ Dating the White Way Newsweek August 9, 2004 ^ Zeskind, Leonard (2009), "Prolegomena to the future, 2001–2004", in Zeskind, Leonard, Blood and politics: the history of the white nationalist movement from the margins to the mainstream, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 526, ISBN 9780374109035.  ^ Schumaker, Paul (2008), "Questions of citizenship", in Schumaker, Paul, From ideologies to public philosophies: an introduction to political theory, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, p. 254, ISBN 9781405168359.  ^ Crowe, Paul (2009), "Daoist heritage today", in Clarke, Peter B.; Beyer, Peter, The world's religions: continuities and transformations, London New York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 129–34, ISBN 9780415397254, A competing atheistic or panthestic white racist movement also appeared, which included the Church of the Creator/ Creativity  Preview. ^ Potok, Mark; Beirich, Heidi (Summer 2006). "Schism over Anti-Semitism Divides Key White Nationalist Group". Intelligence Report. Retrieved February 22, 2018.  ^ Greenberg, Brad A. (May 29, 2008). " Racism
Racism
colors judicial bid: Candidate Bill Johnson advocates deportation of 'non-whites'". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. TRIBE Media Corp.  ^ Sheen, David. "American White separatist finds shared values with Israel". muftah.org. Muftah.  ^ "Refuting racial myths (RRM)".  ^ Kendall, Timothy. Within China's Orbit: China through the eyes of the Australian Parliament. Australian Parliamentary Library.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b "Policy Launch Speech: Stanley Bruce, Prime Minister". Melbourne: The Age. 26 October 1925. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 24 January 2008.  ^ Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002), "Origin stories and political economy, 1740–1870", in Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita, The Great Barrier Reef: history, science, heritage, Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 301, ISBN 9781280162640.  Preview. ^ "Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy". Australian Department of Immigration. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2006.  ^ Calwell, Be Just and Fear Not, 117 ^ "Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act 1885, c. 71". asian.ca. Asian Canadian – Law Centre. July 20, 1855.  ^ Vancouver
Vancouver
News-Advertiser, 7 September 1907. ^ Rudolf von Sebottendorff, Bevor Hitler kam, 1933, p. 42 (original: "Blutbekenntnis": "Unterzeichner versichert nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen, daß in seinen und seiner Frau Adern kein jüdisches oder farbiges Blut fließe und daß sich unter den Vorfahren auch keine Angehörigen der farbigen Rassen befinden.") ^ "Die nächsten Jahrzehnte bedeuten nicht etwa irgendeine Auseinandersetzung außenpolitischer Art, die Deutschland bestehen kann oder nicht bestehen kann, sondern ... sie bedeuten das Sein oder Nichtsein des weißen Menschen, ... .", Sammelheft ausgewählter Vorträge und Reden (Collection of chosen Talks and Speeches), Franz Eher Nachfolger (main Nazi publishing house), Berlin, 1939, p. 145, "Wesen und Aufgabe der SS und der Polizei, 1937" (Nature and Purpose of the SS and the Police, 1937). ^ "Trotzdem aber bleibt bestehen, daß wir alle unter dem gleichen Schicksal Europas stehen, und daß wir dieses gemeinsame Schicksal als Verpflichtung empfinden müssen, weil am Ende die Existenz des weißen Menschen überhaupt von dieser Einheit des europäischen Kontinents abhängt." Feier anläßlich des 450. Geburtstages von Hutten, 29.5.1938 ^ Hate Crimes, volume 2 Barbara Perry, p. 110 ^ Revisiting the National Socialist Legacy: Coming to Terms With Forced Labor, Expropriation, Compensation, and Restitution p. 84 Oliver Rathkolb ^ Mineau, André (2004). "The conceptualization of ideology". In Mineau, André. Operation Barbarossa: ideology and ethics against human dignity. Amsterdam New York: Rodopi. pp. 34–36. ISBN 9789042016330.  ^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz; Robert, Edward (translator) (1961), "Poland under Nazi occupation", in Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz; Robert, Edward (translator), Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe
Europe
(1st ed.), Polonia Publishing House, p. 219, ASIN B0006BXJZ6, archived from the original on April 9, 2011, retrieved March 12, 2014  ^ Thorne, Steve (2006), "Us and them", in Thorne, Steve, The language of war, London New York: Routledge, p. 38, ISBN 9780203006597.  ^ Perry, Marvin (2001), "The era of totalitarianism", in Perry, Marvin, Western civilization: a brief history (10th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, p. 468, ISBN 9781111837198.  ^ Nelson, Anne (2009), "Other worlds", in Nelson, Anne, Red Orchestra: the story of the Berlin underground and the circle of friends who resisted Hitler, New York: Random House, p. 212, ISBN 9781400060009.  ^ a b Downing, David (2009), "Wednesday 19 November", in Downing, David, Sealing their fate: the twenty-two days that decided World War II, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, p. 48, ISBN 9780306816208.  ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2005), "Cultural development", in Frucht, Richard C., Eastern Europe: an introduction to the people, lands, and culture, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, p. 259, ISBN 9781576078006.  Preview. ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. (2007), "The Führer as statesman: ideology and foreign policy", in Bendersky, Joseph W., A concise history of Nazi Germany
Germany
(3rd ed.), Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., pp. 161–62, ISBN 9780742553637.  ^ Norman, Rich (1973), "Yugoslavia: Croatia", in Rich, Norman, Hitler's war aims: the establishment of the new order, New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., pp. 276–277, ISBN 9780393055092.  ^ Davies, Norman (2008). Europe
Europe
at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. Pan Macmillan. pp. 167, 209.  ^ Beaglehole, Ann (13 July 2012). "Story: Immigration
Immigration
regulation – 1881–1914: restrictions on Chinese and others". teara.govt.nz. Te Ara – Encyclopedia of New Zealand.  ^ New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 14 September 1920, p. 905. ^ Quoted in Stuart William Greif, ed., Immigration
Immigration
and national identity in New Zealand: one people, two peoples, many peoples? Palmerston North: Dunmore, 1995, p. 39. ^ "Cosme and New Australia
Australia
colonies". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 2006-07-27.  ^ Australian Encyclopaedia Volume 2, p. 191, Angus and Robertson Limited, 1926 ^ Eric Campbell (September 26, 2006). " Paraguay
Paraguay
Aussies". Final Story, Series 16, Episode 12. ABC Television.  ^ Paraguay
Paraguay
Aussies - Peru. Journeyman Pictures / ABC. September 26, 2006.  ^ Apartheid-era party is ending its existence, The International Herald Tribune August 9, 2004 ^ Kani explores a post-apartheid world on stage. ABC Transcripts (Australia: May 11, 2005) ^ Western, J. (June 2002). "A divided city: Cape Town". Political Geography, Special
Special
Issue Dedicated to Saul B. Cohen. Elsevier. 21 (5): 711–16. doi:10.1016/S0962-6298(02)00016-1.  ^ "From the Western Areas to Soweto: forced removals". Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2008.  ^ "Toby Street Blues". Time Magazine. 21 February 1955.  ^ Martin Meredith (1 April 2010). Mandela: A Biography. Simon and Schuster. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-84739-933-5.  ^ Muller (1975), p. 508. ^ Booth, Douglas (1998). The race game: sport and politics in South Africa. Routledge. p. 89. ^ Thompson, Paul Singer (1990). Natalians first: separatism in South Africa, 1909–1961. Southern Book Publishers. p. 167. ^ Joyce, Peter (2007). The making of a nation: South Africa's road to freedom. Zebra. p. 118. ^ Suzman, Helen (1993). In no uncertain terms: a South African memoir. Knopf. p. 35. ^ Keppel-Jones, Arthur (1975). South Africa: a short history. Hutchinson. p. 132. ^ Lacour-Gayet, Robert (1977). A history of South Africa. Cassell. p. 311. ^ Devos, Thierry; Banaji, Mahzarin R. (March 2005). "American = White?". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association via PsycNET. 88 (3): 447–66. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.447. PMID 15740439.  Pdf. ^ In its darkness, 'Kong' shows the human heart. Newsday (New York: December 15, 2005) ^ Pegram, Thomas R., One Hundred Percent American: The Rebirth and Decline of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the 1920s (2011), pp. 47–88. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T., The Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the City, 1915–1930 (Oxford University Press, 1967; 1992 edition). ^ Lay, Shawn. " Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the Twentieth Century", The New Georgia Encyclopedia (Coker College). ^ "Black Politics are in a Black Hole", Newsday (New York, January 14, 2005) ^ "Bush and Kerry Show Opposing Faces of Two Different Americas. Business Day (South Africa: October 21, 2004) ^ Jennifer Ludden. "1965 immigration law changed face of America". NPR.  ^ George Lincoln Rockwell, Stokely Carmichael. "George Lincoln Rockwell vs Stokely Carmichael" – via Internet Archive.  ^ Perry, Barbara, Hate Crimes, vol. 2, p. 110 ^ Dobratz, Betty A., and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 1997. White power, white pride !: the white separatist movement in the United States. New York: Twayne ^ Zeskind, Leonard (2009). Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement
Nationalist Movement
from the Margins to the Mainstream. Macmillan. pp. 535–38.  ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 6. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 261 ^ Welton, Benjamin (2016-02-01). "What, Exactly, is the 'Alternative Right?'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2016-02-05.  ^ Harrison, Berry (2017-01-25). "Fliers For Nationalist Organization Appear at Boise State". Boise Weekly.  ^ Blanchard, Nicole (2017-01-26). "BSU nationalist group delays 1st meeting after online pushback, media reports". Idaho Statesman.  ^ George Thayer (1967). The Farther Shore of Politics: The American Political Fringe Today. Allen Lane. pp. 25–26.  ^ a b Mattias Gardell (7 October 1996). In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
and The Nation of Islam. Duke University Press. pp. 273–74. ISBN 0-8223-1845-8.  ^ a b c Wayne King (October 12, 1985). "White Supremacists Voice Support of Farrakhan". New York Times. p. 12.  ^ Michael Drosnin (June 5, 1967). "U.S. Negro Group Plans Own Nation in Africa: 'Blackman's Army'". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. p. 29.  ^ "Bedfellows: The Klan Connection". New York Times. October 6, 1985. p. E20.  ^ Hadjor, Kofi Buenor (1995). Another America: The Politics of Race and Blame. Haymarket Books. p. 100. ISBN 1-931859-34-5.  ^ Caliendo, S.M & McIllwan, C.D. (2011). The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity. Taylor & Francis. pp. 233–35.  ^ Swain, Carol M. (2002). The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80886-3.  ^ McConnell, Scott (August–September 2002). "The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America". First Things.  ^ Wise, Tim, "Making Nice With Racists: David Horowitz and The Soft Pedaling Of White Supremacy", Znet (December 16, 2002) Archived February 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Swain, C.M., The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America: Its Challenge to Integration (Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp. 114–17 ^ "BNP: A party on the fringe". BBC News. August 24, 2001. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ Boler, M., Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times, (MIT Press, 2008) pp. 440–43. ^ "Council of Conservative Citizens". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ "National Alliance". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 

Bibliography

Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations. Geneva: INUPRESS. ISBN 0-9656383-2-4.  Josey, Charles Conant (1983) [1923]. The Philosophy of Nationalism. Washington, D.C.: Cliveden Press. ISBN 1-878465-10-4.  Levin, Michael E. (1997). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-95789-6.  McDaniel, George (ed.) (2003). A Race Against Time: Racial Heresies for the 21st Century. Oakton, VA: New Century Foundation. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Robertson, Wilmot (1981). The Dispossessed Majority. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-15-1.  Robertson, Wilmot (1993). The Ethnostate. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-22-4.  Swain, Carol M. (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01693-2. 

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White nationalism

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Neo-völkisch movements Nordicism Racism Right-wing terrorism White Australia
Australia
policy White genocide conspiracy theory White power skinhead White pride White separatism White supremacy Wotanism Zionist Occupation Government
Zionist Occupation Government
conspiracy theory

Organizations

Europe

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North America

11th Hour Remnant Messenger American Freedom Party American Nazi Party Aryan Guard Aryan Nations Combat 18 Council of Conservative Citizens Counter-Currents Publishing European-American Unity and Rights Organization Hammerskins Heritage Front Identity Evropa Ku Klux Klan National Alliance NAAWP National Policy Institute National Vanguard Nationalist Movement National Socialist Movement NSDAP/AO (1972) Liberty Lobby The Order Traditionalist Worker Party Redneck
Redneck
Shop White Aryan Resistance White Order of Thule

Oceania

Antipodean Resistance New Zealand National Front United Patriots Front

South Africa

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Websites

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v t e

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Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

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Ethnic nationalism

Africa

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Asia

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in Albania in Kosovo in Rep. of Macedonia

Andalusian Armenian Asturian Austrian Azerbaijani Balkar and Karachay Basque Bavarian Belgian Belarusian Bosniak Breton British Bulgarian Canarian Castilian Catalan Celtic Circassian Cornish Corsican Croatian Cypriot Czech Czechoslovak English Estonian Faroese Flemish Finnish French Galician German

in Austria

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The Americas

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Other

Racial

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Note: Forms of nationalism based primarily on ethnic groups are listed above. This does not imply that all nationalists with a given ethnicity subscribe to that form of ethnic nationalism.

v t e

Alt-right

Common ideas

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Websites

4chan

/pol/

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Organizations

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Conspiracy theories

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Events

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Memes

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Related ideas

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The Info List - White Nationalism


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White nationalism
White nationalism
is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which holds the belief that white people are a race[1] and seeks to develop and maintain a white national identity.[2][3][4] Its proponents identify with and are attached to the concept of a white nation.[5] White nationalists say they seek to ensure the survival of the white race, and the cultures of historically white states. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in majority-white countries, maintain their political and economic dominance, and that their cultures should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, immigration of nonwhites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race,[6] and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.[6] White nationalism
White nationalism
is sometimes described as a euphemism for, or subset of, white supremacy, and the two have been used interchangeably by journalists and other analysts.[7][8] White nationalist groups espouse white separatism and white supremacy.[9] White separatism is the pursuit of a "white-only state"; supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to nonwhites, taking ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism.[4][10] White nationalists generally avoid the term "supremacy" because it has negative connotations.[11][12] Critics argue that the term "white nationalism" and ideas such as white pride exist solely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy, and that most white nationalist groups promote racial violence.

Contents

1 Views

1.1 Definitions of whiteness

2 Regional movements

2.1 Australia 2.2 Canada 2.3 Germany 2.4 New Zealand 2.5 Paraguay 2.6 South Africa 2.7 United States

2.7.1 Relationships with black separatist groups

3 Criticism 4 Notable organizations 5 Notable individuals 6 Notable media 7 See also 8 References

Views White nationalists claim that culture is a product of race, and advocate for the self-preservation of white people.[13] White nationalists seek to ensure the survival of (what they see as) the white race, and the cultures of historically white nations. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in mainly-white countries, maintain their dominance of its political and economic life, and that their culture should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, mass immigration of non-whites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race, and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.[6] Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington
described white nationalists as arguing that the demographic shift in the United States towards non-whites would bring a new culture that is intellectually and morally inferior.[13] White nationalists claim that this demographic shift brings affirmative action, immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards.[14] Most American white nationalists say immigration should be restricted to people of European ancestry.[15][16][17] White nationalists embrace a variety of religious and non-religious beliefs, including various denominations of Christianity, generally Protestant, although some specifically overlap with white nationalist ideology (Christian Identity, for example, is a family of white supremacist denominations), Germanic neopaganism
Germanic neopaganism
(e.g. Wotanism) and atheism.[18] Definitions of whiteness Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. In the United States, it often—though not exclusively—implies European ancestry of non-Jewish descent.[citation needed] Some white nationalists draw on 19th-century racial taxonomy. White nationalist Jared Taylor
Jared Taylor
has argued that Jews
Jews
can be considered "white", although this is controversial within white nationalist circles.[19] Many white nationalists oppose Israel
Israel
and Zionism, while some, such as William Daniel Johnson and Taylor, have expressed support for Israel
Israel
and have drawn parallels between their ideology and Zionism.[20][21] Different racial theories, such as Nordicism
Nordicism
and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint.[22] Pan-Aryanism defines whites as individuals native to Europe, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Western Asia
Western Asia
who are wholly of Caucasian lineage or are overwhelmingly from the following Caucasian ethnic groups, or any combination thereof: Indo-European ("Aryan", including the Iranian and Indo-Aryan peoples), Old European (e.g. Basque), or Hamitic
Hamitic
(in modern times supposedly confined to Berbers). Regional movements Australia The White Australia
Australia
policy was semi-official government policy in Australia
Australia
until the mid twentieth century. It restricted non-white immigration to Australia
Australia
and gave preference to British migrants over all others. The Barton Government, which won the first elections following Federation in 1901, was formed by the Protectionist Party
Protectionist Party
with the support of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
(ALP). The support of the Labor Party was contingent upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Workers' Union
Australian Workers' Union
and other labor organizations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded. The first Parliament of Australia
Australia
quickly moved to restrict immigration to maintain Australia's "British character", passing the Pacific Island Labourers Act and the Immigration Restriction Act before parliament rose for its first Christmas recess. The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Act of 1901 limited immigration to Australia
Australia
and required a person seeking entry to Australia
Australia
to write out a passage of 50 words dictated to them in any European language, not necessarily English, at the discretion of an immigration officer. Barton argued in favour of the bill: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman."[23] The passage chosen for the test could often be very difficult, so that even if the test was given in English, a person was likely to fail. The test enabled immigration officials to exclude individuals on the basis of race without explicitly saying so. Although the test could theoretically be given to any person arriving in Australia, in practice it was given selectively on the basis of race. This test was later abolished in 1958. Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce
Stanley Bruce
supported the White Australia policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the 1925 Australian Federal election.[24]

It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia
Australia
Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire.[24] We intend to keep this country white and not allow its peoples to be faced with the problems that at present are practically insoluble in many parts of the world.[25]

At the beginning of World War II, Prime Minister John Curtin
John Curtin
(ALP) expressed support for White Australia
Australia
policy: "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[26] Another (ALP) Leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967 Arthur Calwell supported the White European Australia
Australia
policy. This is reflected by Calwell's comments in his 1972 memoirs, Be Just and Fear Not, in which he made it clear that he maintained his view that non-European people should not be allowed to settle in Australia. He wrote:

I am proud of my white skin, just as a Chinese is proud of his yellow skin, a Japanese of his brown skin, and the Indians of their various hues from black to coffee-coloured. Anybody who is not proud of his race is not a man at all. And any man who tries to stigmatize the Australian community as racist because they want to preserve this country for the white race is doing our nation great harm... I reject, in conscience, the idea that Australia
Australia
should or ever can become a multi-racial society and survive.[27]

He was the last leader of either the Labour or Liberal party to support it. Canada The Parliament of Canada
Parliament of Canada
passed the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1923 to bar all Chinese from coming to Canada with the exception of diplomats, students, and those granted special permission by the Minister of Immigration. Chinese immigration to Canada had already been heavily regulated by the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1885 which required Chinese immigrants to pay a fifty dollar fee to enter the country (the fee was increased to one hundred dollars in 1900 and to five hundred dollars in 1903).[28] Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, which had formed in Vancouver, British Columbia
British Columbia
on 12 August 1907 under the auspices of the Trades and Labour Council, pressured Parliament to halt Asian immigration. The Exclusion League's stated aim was "to keep Oriental immigrants out of British Columbia."[29] The Canadian government also attempted to restrict immigration from British India
India
by passing an order-in-council on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who "in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior" did not "come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality." In practice, this applied only to ships that began their voyages in India, because the great distance usually necessitated a stopover in either Japan
Japan
or Hawaii. These regulations came at a time when Canada was accepting massive numbers of immigrants (over 400,000 in 1913 alone – a figure that remains unsurpassed to this day), almost all of whom came from Europe. This piece of legislation has been called the "continuous journey regulation". Germany The Thule Society
Thule Society
developed out of the "Germanic Order" in 1918, and those who wanted to join the Order in 1917 had to sign a special "blood declaration of faith" concerning their lineage: "The signer hereby swears to the best of his knowledge and belief that no Jewish or coloured blood flows in either his or in his wife's veins, and that among their ancestors are no members of the coloured races."[30] Heinrich Himmler, one of the main perpetrators of the Holocaust, said in a speech in 1937: "The next decades do in fact not mean some struggle of foreign politics which Germany
Germany
can overcome or not ... but a question of to be or not to be for the white race ... ."[31] As the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
said on the 29th of May 1938 on the Steckelburg in Schlüchtern: "It is however certain that all of us share the fate of Europe, and that we shall regard this common fate as an obligation, because in the end the very existence of White people depends on the unity of the European continent."[32] At the same time Nazis subdivided white people into groups, viewing the Nordics as the "master race" (Herrenvolk) above groups like Alpine and Mediterranean peoples.[33] Slavic peoples, such as Russians and Poles, were considered Untermenschen
Untermenschen
instead of Aryan.[34] Hitler's conception of the Aryan Herrenvolk
Herrenvolk
("Aryan master race") explicitly excluded the vast majority of Slavs, regarding the Slavs
Slavs
as having dangerous Jewish and Asiatic influences.[35] The Nazis because of this declared Slavs
Slavs
to be untermenschen (subhumans).[36][37] Hitler described Slavs
Slavs
as "a mass of born slaves who feel the need of a master".[38] Hitler declared that because Slavs
Slavs
were subhumans that the Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
were not applicable to them, and German soldiers in World War II
World War II
were thus permitted to ignore the Geneva Conventions in regard to Slavs.[39] Hitler called Slavs
Slavs
"a rabbit family" meaning they were intrinsically idle and disorganized.[40] Nazi Germany's propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
had media speak of Slavs
Slavs
as primitive animals who were from the Siberian tundra who were like a "dark wave of filth".[40][41] The Nazi notion of Slavs
Slavs
being inferior was part of the agenda for creating Lebensraum
Lebensraum
("living space") for Germans and other Germanic people in eastern Europe
Europe
that was initiated during World War II
World War II
under Generalplan Ost, millions of Germans and other Germanic settlers would be moved into conquered territories of Eastern Europe, while the original Slavic inhabitants were to be exterminated and enslaved.[42] Nazi Germany's ally the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
rejected the common conception that Croats
Croats
were primarily a Slavic people and claimed that Croats
Croats
were primarily the descendents of the Germanic Goths.[43] However the Nazi regime continued to classify Croats
Croats
as "subhuman" in spite of the alliance.[44] Even among European cultures and people that were considered Aryan, the Nazis considered the Nordic race
Nordic race
and German culture to be superior to other Aryan races and cultures, thus making them far less Pan-European than groups that identify themselves as White Nationalist. New Zealand Following the example of anti-Chinese poll taxes enacted by California in 1852 and by Australian states in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s, John Hall's government passed the Chinese Immigration
Immigration
Act 1881. This imposed a £10 tax per Chinese person entering New Zealand, and permitted only one Chinese immigrant for every 10 tons of cargo. Richard Seddon's government increased the tax to £100 per head in 1896, and tightened the other restriction to only one Chinese immigrant for every 200 tons of cargo. The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Act of 1899 prohibited the entry of immigrants who were not of British or Irish parentage and who were unable to fill out an application form in "any European language."[45] The Immigration
Immigration
Restriction Amendment Act of 1920 aimed to further limit Asian immigration into New Zealand by requiring all potential immigrants not of British or Irish parentage to apply in writing for a permit to enter the country. The Minister of Customs had the discretion to determine whether any applicant was "suitable." Prime Minister William Massey
William Massey
asserted that the act was "the result of a deep seated sentiment on the part of a huge majority of the people of this country that this Dominion shall be what is often called a 'white' New Zealand."[46] One case of a well known opponent of non-British and non-European immigration to New Zealand is that of English-born Lionel Terry who, after traveling widely to South Africa, British Columbia
British Columbia
and finally New Zealand and publishing a book highly critical of capitalism and Asian immigration, shot and killed an elderly Chinese immigrant in Wellington. Terry was convicted of murder in 1905 and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life incarceration in New Zealand psychiatric institutions. A Department of External Affairs memorandum in 1953 stated: "Our immigration is based firmly on the principle that we are and intend to remain a country of European development. It is inevitably discriminatory against Asians – indeed against all persons who are not wholly of European race and colour. Whereas we have done much to encourage immigration from Europe, we do everything to discourage it from Asia."[47] Paraguay In Paraguay, the New Australian Movement founded New Australia, a utopian socialist settlement in 1893. Its founder, William Lane, intended the settlement to be based on a "common-hold" instead of a commonwealth, life marriage, teetotalism, communism and a brotherhood of Anglophone white people and the preservation of the "colour-line". The colony was officially founded as Colonia Nueva Australia
Australia
and comprised 238 adults and children.[48] In July 1893, the first ship left Sydney, Australia
Australia
for Paraguay, where the government was keen to get white settlers, and had offered the group a large area of good land. The settlement had been described as a refuge for misfits, failures and malcontents of the left wing of Australian democracy.[49] Notable Australian individuals who joined the colony included Mary Gilmore, Rose Summerfield and Gilbert Stephen Casey. Summerfield was the mother of León Cadogan, a noted Paraguayan ethnologist. Due to poor management and a conflict over the prohibition of alcohol, the government of Paraguay
Paraguay
eventually dissolved New Australia
Australia
as a cooperative. Some colonists founded communes elsewhere in Paraguay
Paraguay
but others returned to Australia
Australia
or moved to England. Around 2,000 descendants of the New Australia
Australia
colonists still live in Paraguay.[50][51] South Africa In South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the National Party starting in 1948, as opposition to apartheid heated up.[52][53] The Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959 established homelands (sometimes pejoratively referred to as Bantustans) for ten different black African tribes. The ultimate goal of the National Party was to move all Black South Africans into one of these homelands (although they might continue to work in South Africa
South Africa
as "guest workers"), leaving what was left of South Africa
South Africa
(about 87 percent of the land area) with what would then be a White majority, at least on paper. As the homelands were seen by the apartheid government as embryonic independent nations, all Black South Africans were registered as citizens of the homelands, not of the nation as a whole, and were expected to exercise their political rights only in the homelands. Accordingly, the three token parliamentary seats that had been reserved for White representatives of black South Africans in Cape Province were scrapped. The other three provinces – Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Natal – had never allowed any Black representation. Coloureds
Coloureds
were removed from the Common Roll of Cape Province
Cape Province
in 1953. Instead of voting for the same representatives as White South Africans, they could now only vote for four White representatives to speak for them. Later, in 1968, the Coloureds
Coloureds
were disenfranchised altogether. In the place of the four parliamentary seats, a partially elected body was set up to advise the government in an amendment to the Separate Representation of Voters Act. During the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s, the government implemented a policy of "resettlement", to force people to move to their designated "group areas". Millions of people were forced to relocate during this period. These removals included people relocated due to slum clearance programs, labour tenants on White-owned farms, the inhabitants of the so-called "black spots", areas of Black owned land surrounded by White farms, the families of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and "surplus people" from urban areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape (which was declared a "Coloured Labour Preference Area")[54] who were moved to the Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei homelands. The best-publicised forced removals of the 1950s occurred in Johannesburg, when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto, an abbreviation for South Western Townships.[55][56] Until 1955, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
had been one of the few urban areas where Blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial slum. As industry in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
grew, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. It could also boast the only swimming pool for Black children in Johannesburg.[57] As one of the oldest black settlements in Johannesburg, Sophiatown
Sophiatown
held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 Blacks it contained, both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture.[tone] Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western Areas Removal Scheme. In the early hours, heavily armed police entered Sophiatown
Sophiatown
to force residents out of their homes and load their belongings onto government trucks. The residents were taken to a large tract of land, thirteen miles (19 km) from the city center, known as Meadowlands (that the government had purchased in 1953). Meadowlands became part of a new planned Black city called Soweto. The Sophiatown
Sophiatown
slum was destroyed by bulldozers, and a new White suburb named Triomf (Triumph) was built in its place. This pattern of forced removal and destruction was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to people of African descent. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor (Mkhumbane) in Durban, and District Six
District Six
in Cape Town, where 55,000 coloured and Indian people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under the Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act
of 1950. Ultimately, nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian and Chinese people
Chinese people
were moved in terms of the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 White people
White people
were also forced to move when land was transferred from "White South Africa" into the Black homelands.[citation needed] Before South Africa
South Africa
became a republic, politics among White South Africans was typified by the division between the chiefly Afrikaner pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican liberal sentiments, with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people.[58] Once republican status was attained, Hendrik Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between those of British descent and the Afrikaners.[59] He claimed that the only difference now was between those who supported apartheid and those in opposition to it. The ethnic divide would no longer be between Afrikaans speakers and English speakers, but rather White and Black ethnicities. Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity of White people
White people
to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a majority "no" vote in Natal.[60] Later, however, some of them recognized the perceived need for White unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonization elsewhere in Africa, which left them apprehensive. Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" pronouncement left the British faction feeling that Britain had abandoned them.[61] The more conservative English-speakers gave support to Verwoerd; others were troubled by the severing of ties with Britain and remained loyal to the Crown.[62][63] They were acutely displeased at the choice between British and South African nationality. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent ballot illustrated only a minor swell of support, indicating that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the White population.[64] The Black Homeland Citizenship Act
Black Homeland Citizenship Act
of 1970 was a denaturalization law passed during the apartheid era of South Africa
South Africa
that changed the status of the inhabitants of the Bantustans (Black homelands) so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa. The aim was to ensure that white South Africans came to make up the majority of the de jure population. United States

Poster for The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915).

The Naturalization Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 103) provided the first rules to be followed by the United States government in granting national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were "free white persons" of "good moral character." Major changes to this racial requirement for US citizenship did not occur until the years following the American Civil War. In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed to grant citizenship to black people born in the US, but it specifically excluded untaxed Indians, because they were separate nations. However, citizenship for other non-whites born in the US was not settled until 1898 with United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, which concluded with an important precedent in its interpretation of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This racial definition of American citizenship has had consequences for perceptions of American identity.[65] Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, racial definitions of the American nation were still common, resulting in race-specific immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, formed on 14 May 1905 in San Francisco, California
California
by 67 labor unions and supported by labor leaders (and European immigrants) Patrick Henry McCarthy
Patrick Henry McCarthy
of the Building Trades Council of San Francisco, Andrew Furuseth
Andrew Furuseth
and Walter McCarthy of the Sailor's Union, attempted to influence legislation restricting Asian immigration. During the controversy surrounding the All of Mexico Movement, Senator John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
of South Carolina
South Carolina
stated "We have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race... Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race." Following the defeat of the Confederate States of America, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was founded as an insurgent group with the goal of maintaining the Southern racial system throughout the Reconstruction Era. Although the first incarnation of the KKK was focused on maintaining the Antebellum South, its second incarnation in the 1915-1940s period was much more oriented towards white nationalism and American nativism, with slogans such as "One Hundred Percent Americanism" and "America for Americans", in which "Americans" were understood to be white and Protestant. The 1915 film The Birth of a Nation is an example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time, and its positive portrayal of the first KKK is considered to be one of the factors which led to the emergence of the second KKK.[66] The second KKK was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1915 and, starting in 1921, it adopted a modern business system of recruiting. The organization grew rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity. Reflecting the social tensions of urban industrialization and vastly increased immigration, its membership grew most rapidly in cities and spread out of the South to the Midwest and West. The second KKK called for strict morality and better enforcement of prohibition. Its rhetoric promoted anti-Catholicism and nativism.[67] Some local groups took part in attacks on private houses and carried out other violent activities. The violent episodes were generally in the South.[68]

Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928.

The second KKK was a formal fraternal organization, with a national and state structure. At its peak in the mid-1920s, the organization claimed to include about 15% of the nation's eligible population, approximately 4 to 5 million men. Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders, and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about 30,000 by 1930. It faded away in the 1940s.[69] Starting in the 1960s, white nationalism grew in the US as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society.[70] Samuel P. Huntington argues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo- Protestant
Protestant
and English-speaking.[71] The Immigration
Immigration
and Nationality Act of 1965 had opened entry to the US to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result it would significantly, and unintentionally, alter the demographic mix in the US.[72] The slogan "white power" was popularized by American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
leader George Lincoln Rockwell, who used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
after Carmichael issued a call for "black power".[73] Rockwell advocated a return to white control of all American institutions, and violently opposed any minority advancement. He rejected the Nazi idea of "master race", however, and accepted all white European nationalities in his ideology, including Turks.[74] One of the most influential white nationalists in the United States was Dr. William Luther Pierce, who founded the National Alliance in 1974. In the United States a movement calling for white separatism emerged in the 1980s.[75] Leonard Zeskind has chronicled the movement in his book Blood and Politics, in which he argues that it has moved from the "margins to the mainstream".[76] During the 1980s the United States also saw an increase in the number of neo-völkisch movements. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, these movements cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged, especially in the English-speaking world, since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th and early 20th century Germany
Germany
in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism, and multiculturalism.[77] Some are neo-fascist, neo-Nazi or Third Positionist; others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics,[77] and a few have national anarchist tendencies. One example is the neo-tribalist paganism promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship.[78] Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes, so neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements. Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right, Evolian Traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity, Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (Esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism, National Socialist black metal). More recently, the alt-right, a broad term covering many different far-right ideologies and groups in the United States, some of which endorse white nationalism, has gained traction as an alternative to mainstream conservatism in its national politics.[79] The comic book super hero Captain America, in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in 2017.[80][81] Relationships with black separatist groups In February 1962 George Lincoln Rockwell, the leader of the American Nazi Party, spoke at a Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
rally in Chicago, where he was applauded by Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
as he pronounced: "I am proud to stand here before black men. I believe Elijah Muhammed is the Adolf Hitler of the black man!"[82] Rockwell had attended, but did not speak at, an earlier NOI rally in Washington, D.C. in June 1961,[83] and once he even donated $20 to the NOI.[84] In 1965, after breaking with the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
and denouncing its separatist doctrine, Malcolm X
Malcolm X
told his followers that the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
under Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
had made secret agreements with the American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
and the Ku Klux Klan.[83] Rockwell and other white supremacists (e.g. Willis Carto) also supported less well-known black separatist groups, such as Hassan Jeru-Ahmed's Blackman's Army of Liberation, in reference to which Rockwell told Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
reporter Michael Drosnin in 1967 that if "Any Negro wants to go back to Africa, I'll carry him piggy-back."[85] More recently, Tom Metzger, erstwhile Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
leader from California, spoke at a NOI rally in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in September 1985 and donated $100 to the group.[86] In October of that same year, over 200 prominent white supremacists met at former Klan leader Robert E. Miles's farm to discuss an alliance with Louis Farrakhan, head of the NOI.[84] In attendance were Edward Reed Fields of the National States' Rights Party, Richard Girnt Butler of the Aryan Nations, Don Black, Roy Frankhouser, and Metzger, who said that "America is like a rotting carcass. The Jews
Jews
are living off the carcass like the parasites they are. Farrakhan understands this."[84] Criticism Numerous individuals and organizations have argued that ideas such as white pride and white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy. Kofi Buenor Hadjor argues that black nationalism is a response to racial discrimination, while white nationalism is the expression of white supremacy.[87] Other critics have described white nationalism as a "...somewhat paranoid ideology" based upon the publication of pseudo-academic studies.[88] Carol M. Swain
Carol M. Swain
argues that the unstated goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger audience, and that most white nationalist groups promote white separatism and racial violence.[89] Opponents accuse white nationalists of hatred, racial bigotry and destructive identity politics.[90][91] White supremacist groups have a history of perpetrating hate crimes, particularly against people of Jewish or African descent.[92] Examples include the lynching of black people by the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
(KKK). Some critics argue that white nationalists—while posturing as civil rights groups advocating the interests of their racial group—frequently draw on the nativist traditions of the KKK and the British National Front.[93] Critics have noted the anti-semitic rhetoric used by some white nationalists, as highlighted by the promotion of conspiracy theories such as Zionist Occupation Government.[94] Notable organizations

American Freedom Party American Front Aryan Guard Aryan Nations Australia
Australia
First Party Australian Protectionist Party Black Legion (political movement) British National Party British People's Party Canadian Heritage Alliance Council of Conservative Citizens[95] Creativity Alliance Creativity Movement European-American Unity and Rights Organization German American Bund Golden Dawn Heathen Front Identity Evropa National Alliance (United States)[96] National Front (UK) National Policy Institute National Revival of Poland National Socialist League National Vanguard Nationalist Alliance Nationalist Party of Canada Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(Germany) Nordic Resistance Movement Patriotic Youth League Silver Legion of America Vigrid Volksfront White Aryan Resistance White Nationalist Party

Notable individuals

Virginia Abernethy Andrew Auernheimer Gordon Lee Baum Louis Beam Richard Girnt Butler Theodore G. Bilbo Don Black Peter Brimelow Thomas W. Chittum Craig Cobb Harold Covington Ian Stuart Donaldson David Duke James Edwards Paul Fromm (activist) Matthew F. Hale Hinton Rowan Helper William Daniel Johnson Ben Klassen August Kreis III Alex Linder Kevin B. Macdonald Tom Metzger Nikolaos Michaloliakos Merlin Miller William Dudley Pelley
William Dudley Pelley
– founder of the Silver Legion of America William Luther Pierce Thomas Robb Saga Richard B. Spencer Gerald L. K. Smith Edgar Steele J. B. Stoner Kevin Alfred Strom Tomislav Sunić Wesley A. Swift Hal Turner Jared Taylor Eugène Terre'Blanche Varg Vikernes James Wickstrom

Notable media

American Renaissance Candour The Daily Stormer Info-14 Metapedia National Vanguard Occidental Observer Podblanc The Political Cesspool Redwatch Stormfront Vanguard News Network Gab

See also

New nationalism (21st century) Alt-right Anti-Zionism Black nationalism Criticism of multiculturalism Ethnic nationalism Holocaust
Holocaust
denial Kinism Know Nothing List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center
Southern Poverty Law Center
as hate groups List of white nationalist organizations National-Anarchism The Passing of the Great Race White separatism White genocide

References Notes

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in the City, 1915–1930 (Oxford University Press, 1967; 1992 edition). ^ Lay, Shawn. " Ku Klux Klan
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in the Twentieth Century", The New Georgia Encyclopedia (Coker College). ^ "Black Politics are in a Black Hole", Newsday (New York, January 14, 2005) ^ "Bush and Kerry Show Opposing Faces of Two Different Americas. Business Day (South Africa: October 21, 2004) ^ Jennifer Ludden. "1965 immigration law changed face of America". NPR.  ^ George Lincoln Rockwell, Stokely Carmichael. "George Lincoln Rockwell vs Stokely Carmichael" – via Internet Archive.  ^ Perry, Barbara, Hate Crimes, vol. 2, p. 110 ^ Dobratz, Betty A., and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 1997. White power, white pride !: the white separatist movement in the United States. New York: Twayne ^ Zeskind, Leonard (2009). Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement
Nationalist Movement
from the Margins to the Mainstream. Macmillan. pp. 535–38.  ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 6. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 261 ^ Welton, Benjamin (2016-02-01). "What, Exactly, is the 'Alternative Right?'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2016-02-05.  ^ Harrison, Berry (2017-01-25). "Fliers For Nationalist Organization Appear at Boise State". Boise Weekly.  ^ Blanchard, Nicole (2017-01-26). "BSU nationalist group delays 1st meeting after online pushback, media reports". Idaho Statesman.  ^ George Thayer (1967). The Farther Shore of Politics: The American Political Fringe Today. Allen Lane. pp. 25–26.  ^ a b Mattias Gardell (7 October 1996). In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
and The Nation of Islam. Duke University Press. pp. 273–74. ISBN 0-8223-1845-8.  ^ a b c Wayne King (October 12, 1985). "White Supremacists Voice Support of Farrakhan". New York Times. p. 12.  ^ Michael Drosnin (June 5, 1967). "U.S. Negro Group Plans Own Nation in Africa: 'Blackman's Army'". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. p. 29.  ^ "Bedfellows: The Klan Connection". New York Times. October 6, 1985. p. E20.  ^ Hadjor, Kofi Buenor (1995). Another America: The Politics of Race and Blame. Haymarket Books. p. 100. ISBN 1-931859-34-5.  ^ Caliendo, S.M & McIllwan, C.D. (2011). The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity. Taylor & Francis. pp. 233–35.  ^ Swain, Carol M. (2002). The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80886-3.  ^ McConnell, Scott (August–September 2002). "The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America". First Things.  ^ Wise, Tim, "Making Nice With Racists: David Horowitz and The Soft Pedaling Of White Supremacy", Znet (December 16, 2002) Archived February 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Swain, C.M., The New White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America: Its Challenge to Integration (Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp. 114–17 ^ "BNP: A party on the fringe". BBC News. August 24, 2001. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ Boler, M., Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times, (MIT Press, 2008) pp. 440–43. ^ "Council of Conservative Citizens". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ "National Alliance". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 

Bibliography

Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations. Geneva: INUPRESS. ISBN 0-9656383-2-4.  Josey, Charles Conant (1983) [1923]. The Philosophy of Nationalism. Washington, D.C.: Cliveden Press. ISBN 1-878465-10-4.  Levin, Michael E. (1997). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-95789-6.  McDaniel, George (ed.) (2003). A Race Against Time: Racial Heresies for the 21st Century. Oakton, VA: New Century Foundation. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Robertson, Wilmot (1981). The Dispossessed Majority. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-15-1.  Robertson, Wilmot (1993). The Ethnostate. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-22-4.  Swain, Carol M. (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism
Nationalism
in America. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01693-2. 

v t e

White nationalism

Foundations and related topics

Alt-right Afrophobia Antisemitism Antiziganism Apartheid Aryan race Christian Identity Creativity Ethnic nationalism Eugenics Far-right Fourteen Words Hispanophobia Homophobia Identitarian movement Islamophobia Kinism Ku Klux Klan National-anarchism Nazism

Neo-Nazism

Neo-völkisch movements Nordicism Racism Right-wing terrorism White Australia
Australia
policy White genocide conspiracy theory White power skinhead White pride White separatism White supremacy Wotanism Zionist Occupation Government
Zionist Occupation Government
conspiracy theory

Organizations

Europe

Bloc identitaire Blood & Honour British National Party CasaPound Combat 18 Dutch Peoples-Union Front Comtois Golden Dawn Jobbik Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia National Democratic Party of Germany National Revival of Poland National Socialist Front National Socialist Movement of Denmark National Socialist Movement of Norway Nazi Party Nordic Resistance Movement Noua Dreaptă Party of the Swedes Russian National Unity Slavic Union Social-National Assembly Soldiers of Odin Vigrid Voorpost

North America

11th Hour Remnant Messenger American Freedom Party American Nazi Party Aryan Guard Aryan Nations Combat 18 Council of Conservative Citizens Counter-Currents Publishing European-American Unity and Rights Organization Hammerskins Heritage Front Identity Evropa Ku Klux Klan National Alliance NAAWP National Policy Institute National Vanguard Nationalist Movement National Socialist Movement NSDAP/AO (1972) Liberty Lobby The Order Traditionalist Worker Party Redneck
Redneck
Shop White Aryan Resistance White Order of Thule

Oceania

Antipodean Resistance New Zealand National Front United Patriots Front

South Africa

Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Weerstandsbeweging Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Volksfront Blanke Bevrydingsbeweging Conservative Party Kommandokorps South African National Front South African Party

Media

Music

Blood & Honour National Socialist black metal Nazi punk Rock Against Communism

Print media

American Renaissance Arktos Media The Aryan Alternative Candour National Vanguard The Occidental Quarterly Washington Summit Publishers

Radio shows

Derek Black Show The Political Cesspool

Websites

/pol/ The Daily Stormer Kuruc.info Metapedia Occidental Observer Redwatch The Right Stuff South Africa
South Africa
Today Stormfront Vanguard News Network VDARE Gab

Opposition

Anti-Defamation League Anti-fascism Antifa Anti-racism Online Hate Prevention Institute Simon Wiesenthal Center Southern Poverty Law Center Searchlight

v t e

White people

Caucasian race European peoples West Asian peoples Central Asian peoples North African peoples

Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

Worldwide diaspora

Africa

Algeria Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Morocco Namibia Saint Helena South Africa Tunisia Zambia Zimbabwe

Asia

Pakistan

United States Canada Bermuda Bahamas Barbados Cayman Islands Jamaica Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Latin America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Peru Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela

Oceania

Australia New Caledonia New Zealand

Historical concepts

Apartheid Aryan First white child Honorary whites Play the white man Racial whitening

Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento

White Australia
Australia
policy The White Man's Burden White gods

Sociological phenomena and theories

Acting white
Acting white
(Passing as white) Angry white male Missing white woman syndrome Skin whitening White flight

South African farm attacks

White fragility White guilt White privilege Whiteness studies Whitewashed film roles White savior

White American caricatures and stereotypes

Poor Whites

Redlegs Rednecks Mountain whites

Identity politics in the United States

US definitions of whiteness

One-drop rule

Alt-right Christian Identity Non-Hispanic whites White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Old Stock Americans White ethnic White Hispanic White nationalism White pride White separatism White supremacy

Scientific racism

Human skin color Color terminology for race Alpine Armenoid Dinaric East Baltic Irano-Afghan Mediterranean

Commons

v t e

Ethnic nationalism

Africa

Acholi Afrikaner Algerian Berber Canarian Congolese Coptic Egyptian Ethiopian Hutu Igbo Libyan Nigerian Sahrawi Rhodesian Somali Tunisian Ugandan

Asia

Arab Armenian Assamese Assyrian Azerbaijani Balkar and Karachay Baloch Bangladeshi Bengali Bodo Burmese (Burmese Buddhist) Chinese Circassian Dalit East Turkestani Filipino Georgian Gorkha Hindu Hong Kong Indian Indonesian Iranian Iraqi Israeli Japanese Kashmiri Khmer Korean Kurdish Lebanese Lezgian Malay

Early Malaysian Malay

Malaysian Hindu Manchurian Mongolian Marathi Naga Pashtun Pakistani Palestinian Punjabi Ryukyu Saraiki Sikh Sindhi Sinhalese Buddhist South Asian Muslim Sri Lankan Tamil Syrian Taiwanese Tamil Thai Tibetan Tripuri Turkic Turkish Vietnamese Zaza

Europe

Albanian

in Albania in Kosovo in Rep. of Macedonia

Andalusian Armenian Asturian Austrian Azerbaijani Balkar and Karachay Basque Bavarian Belgian Belarusian Bosniak Breton British Bulgarian Canarian Castilian Catalan Celtic Circassian Cornish Corsican Croatian Cypriot Czech Czechoslovak English Estonian Faroese Flemish Finnish French Galician German

in Austria

Georgian Greek Hungarian Icelandic Irish Italian Lezgian Lithuanian Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Norwegian Occitan Padanian Polish Prussian Rhenish Romanian Russian Scandinavian Sardinian Scottish Serbian Sicilian Silesian Slavic Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swabian Swiss Turkic Turkish Ukrainian Ulster Valencian Venetian Walloon Welsh

The Americas

American Argentine Brazilian Canadian Confederate Chicano Puerto Rican Native-American Greenlandic Québécois

Oceania

Australian Hawaiian Māori

Other

Racial

Black White

Religious

Christian Islamic

Soviet (spanning two continents) Yugoslav

Note: Forms of nationalism based primarily on ethnic groups are listed above. This does not imply that all nationalists with a given ethnicity subscribe to that form of ethnic nationalism.

v t e

Alt-right

Common ideas

American nationalism Antifeminism Antisemitism Islamophobia Isolationism Nativism Protectionism Right-wing populism White nationalism

Websites

4chan

/pol/

8chan American Renaissance Breitbart Gab Gateway Pundit Hatreon The Daily Stormer /r/The_Donald InfoWars The Right Stuff Metapedia Occidental Observer VDARE Voat

Organizations

Anti-Communist Action Arktos Media Atomwaffen Division Identity Evropa Patriot Front League of the South Nationalist Front National Policy Institute New Century Foundation Proud Boys Traditionalist Worker Party Vanguard America Washington Summit Publishers

Conspiracy theories

Cultural Marxism White genocide Sandy Hook shooting Seth Rich murder Pizzagate

Events

Gamergate controversy 2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign DeploraBall 2017 Berkeley protests Unite the Right rally

Memes

Basket of deplorables Cuckservative Fashwave It's OK to be white Pepe the Frog Snowflake Social justice warrior Triple parentheses

Related ideas

Alt-lite Men's rights movement Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism New nationalism New Right Paleoconservatism Paleolibertarianism Radical rig

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