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White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
was a football stadium in Tottenham, North London
London
and was the home of Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur Football Club from 1899 to 2017. Its capacity varied over the years; when changed to all-seater it had a capacity of 36,284[2] before demolition. The stadium was fully demolished after the end of the 2016–17 season.[3] The stadium, which was known amongst Spurs fans as The Lane, had hosted 2,533 competitive Spurs games in its 118-year history.[4] It had also been used for England
England
national football matches and England under-21 football matches. White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
held capacity records in the early 1960s with numbers entering the 70,000s, but as seating was introduced, the stadium's capacity decreased to a modest number in comparison to other Premier League
Premier League
clubs. The record attendance at the ground was 75,038, for an FA Cup
FA Cup
tie on 5 March 1938 against Sunderland.[5] Tottenham's final game at White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
was played on 14 May 2017 with a 2–1 victory against Manchester United.[6] Construction work is in progress for Tottenham
Tottenham
to move to a new stadium with a planned capacity of 62,062,[7] with the new stadium being built on the current site instead of moving elsewhere or from the borough of Haringey. The new stadium has been designed by Populous, which also designed derby rival Arsenal's home, the Emirates Stadium. Initial designs were created by KSS Design Group
KSS Design Group
back in 2008, but long delays allowed for major changes to the scheme by a different company.[8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin 1.2 Redevelopment 1.3 All-seater stadium 1.4 New stadium

2 Other uses 3 Structure and facilities 4 Records 5 Transport 6 Future with new stadium 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Origin[edit] When the club was first formed in 1882, the club played its matches on public land at the Park Lane
Park Lane
end of Tottenham
Tottenham
Marshes.[9][10] As the ground was on public land, the club could not charge admission fees for spectators, and while the number of spectators grew to a few thousands within a few years, it yielded no gate receipts. In 1888, the club rented a pitch at Asplins Farm next to the railway line at Northumberland Park at a cost of £17 per annum, with the spectators charged 3d a game.[11] The first stand with just over 100 seats and changing rooms underneath was built on the ground for the 1894–95 season.[12] Overcrowding at the ground however became an issue; in 1898, during a match against Woolwich Arsenal attended by a record crowd of 15,000, the refreshment stand collapsed when fans climbed up onto its roof in the overcrowded ground, prompting the club to start looking for a new ground. In 1899, the club moved a short distance to a piece of land behind the White Hart pub.[13] The new location was located to the east of Tottenham
Tottenham
High Road. The site was formerly used as a nursery being owned by the brewery company Charringtons. A groundsman at a local cricket club, John Over, was tasked with demolishing the greenhouses and preparing a playing surface for football.[9] The stands from the previous ground at Northumberland Park were moved to the new ground.[14] The new ground was never officially named, although names such as Gilpin Park and Percy Park were suggested.[15][16] In its early day it was normally referred to as the Hotspur's or Spurs' Ground by the club or the High Road Ground by the public, in time it became popularly known as White Hart Lane, which is in fact the name of the street that lies across to the west of the High Road away from the ground. It is however unclear how it became so-named; some thought that it acquired the name because spectators would first meet up at the White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
railway station, another suggestion is that it referred to the lane leading to the stadium entrance beside the White Hart pub later officially named Bill Nicholson Way.[17]

First match at White Hart Lane, Spurs vs Notts County, 4 September 1899.

The first game at the Lane to mark its opening was a friendly against Notts County on 4 September 1899, with around 5,000 supporters attending, generating a gate receipt of £115.[18] The first goal at the Lane came from Tommy McCairns of Notts County, followed by an equaliser from Tom Pratt and a hat-trick from David Copeland, ending in a 4–1 home win.[19] The first competitive game on the ground was held five days later in front of a 11,000 crowd against Queens Park Rangers, which Spurs won 1–0 with the only goal scored by Tom Smith.[20][4] In 1904, a large earth bank was built at the Park Lane
Park Lane
end. The ground now had an overall capacity of 32,000, with a main stand that provided seating for 500, and covered accommodation for 12,000.[9][10] However, the club's ability to develop the site were restricted by the terms of the ground lease with Charringtons
Charringtons
and, following a share issue, the club bought the freehold for £8,900 in 1905. An additional £2,600 was used to purchase the land at the northern (Paxton Road) end, where another large bank was built the same year, matching that at the Park Lane end, and bringing capacity up to 40,000.[10][14] Spurs was admitted to the Second Division of the Football League
Football League
in 1908, and played their first league game on 1 September 1908 against Wolverhampton Wanderers at White Hart Lane. Spurs won 3–0, and the first Football League
Football League
goal on the ground was scored by Vivian Woodward.[21] Redevelopment[edit]

The West Stand built in 1909

White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
underwent redevelopment in the early 20th century with stadium developer, Archibald Leitch, who designed the stands that were built over a period of two and a half decades. The first to be designed, the main West Stand, was a two-tiered structure, with seating for 5,300 in the upper tier and a paddock in front with standing room for over 6,000. The roof covered the whole stand and featured a mock-Tudor gable, emblazoned with the club's name. At the time, it was the largest stand at a British football ground.[9] Built at a cost of £50,000, it opened on September 11, 1909 for Spurs' first home game in Division One, which was a match against Manchester United that ended in a 2–2 draw.[22] The central section of the East Stand was also covered in 1909 and two years later its wooden terrace was replaced by an enlarged concrete terrace, with the roof extended to cover the whole stand.[9] With further expansion of the banking at the two ends, the stadium capacity increased to over 50,000 by the onset of the First World War. During the war, the stadium was taken over by the Ministry of War and the East Stand was turned into a factory for making gas masks, gunnery and protection equipment.[23]

The cockerel

The pitch was overlooked by a bronze fighting cock (the club symbol) that kept an eye on proceedings from the roof of the touchline stands. The cockerel was adopted as an emblem for the club as Harry Hotspur, after whom the club was named, was said to be fond of cock-fighting.[24] The original cockerel on a ball was erected at the end of the 1909–1910 season and was cast by William James Scott, who had played for the club when it was an amateur club. It was originally located atop the West Stand. but was removed in 1957 for upgrading of floodlighting and reappeared on top of the East Stand in December 1958.[23] In 1989, the original cockerel was removed to be replaced by fibreglass replicas that were placed on top of both the East Stand and West Stand. The original cockerel was moved to the executive suites where it stayed for many years, then to the West Stand reception. It was moved to the club offices at Lilywhite House in 2016 as the stadium was due to be demolished for redevelopment.[25] The ground continued to be renovated in the 1920s and early 1930s, with three more stands designed by Archibald Leitch.[9] The FA Cup
FA Cup
win in 1921 provided money to build a covered two-tiered terrace at the Paxton Road end and, in 1923, a similar stand was added at the Park Lane end. The capacity had now reached 58,000, with about 40,000 under cover.[14] In 1934 the club spent £60,000 to rebuild the East Stand. The new stand was a double-decker structure, with the lower section in two tiers; the upper section had 4,983 seats, while the middle tier, which was to become known as "the shelf", and lower terrace provided standing room for over 18,700.[9] The total stadium capacity was now nearly 80,000. The East Stand was officially opened on 22 September 1934 for a match against Aston Villa.[14] In the 1930s, football had a popular following, and despite Tottenham's relative lack of success at the time, 75,038 spectators squeezed into White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
in March 1938 to see Spurs' performance against Sunderland in the FA Cup. The redeveloped stadium was also used for international matches; in 1935 it hosted a game between Nazi Germany and England
England
that England
England
won, 3–0.[26] The venue also hosted some of the football preliminaries for the 1948 Summer Olympics.[27] During the Second World War, Spurs shared the ground with rival Arsenal when Highbury was requisitioned by the government and used as an Air Raid Precautions centre.[28]

The old South Stand before being rebuilt in the 1990s

Tottenham
Tottenham
became firmly established as one of England's biggest clubs that attracted some of the highest attendances in the country on a regular basis. Attendance at White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
averaged at over 53,000 in 1961, their double winning year.[29] Between the late 1920s and 1972, White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
was one of very few British football grounds that featured no advertising hoardings at all. 1953 saw the introduction of floodlights with their first use being a friendly against Racing Club de Paris in September of that year.[30] They were upgraded in 1957, and in 1961, floodlight pylons were installed. These were renovated again in the 1970s, and in 1990, the floodlights on pylons were replaced with spotlights on the East and West stands.[14] All-seater stadium[edit] The stadium as designed by Archibald Leitch
Archibald Leitch
stayed in the same form for a few decades, seating sections however were progressively introduced. In 1962, 2,600 seats were fitted at the back of the South Stand (on Park Lane), followed the next year by 3,500 seats at the North (Paxton Road) Stand, which was further extended in 1968 to link up with the West Stand to give a further 1,400 seats.[14] The South and West stands were linked in 1973 that added further seats, but the capacity of the ground dropped overall as seats replaced standing terraces. In 1980, in a bid to improve facilities and upgrade what were then considered outdated stadium, a new phase of redevelopment began that would transformed the ground. The old West Stand was demolished in November 1980 to be replaced by a new stand that had 6,500 seats and featured 72 executive boxes.[16] The new West Stand opened 15 months later on 6 February 1982 for a match against Wolverhampton Wanderers.[14] However, cost overruns in the project to over £5 million resulted in financial difficulties for the club , leading to a change of directors who then floated the club on the London
London
Stock Exchange in 1983, the first sports club to do so.[31][32]

The East Stand in 1991 – the upper part of The Shelf had been replaced by executive boxes, but the remaining standing terraces had not yet been replaced by seats

In 1985, a plan to demolish and rebuild the East Stand was rejected by Haringey Council. In 1988, the club decided to proceed instead with a refurbishment of the East Stand despite objections by fans. The long stretch of raised standing terrace on the East Stand, known by fans as The Shelf,[33] was redesigned to include the installation of executive boxes replacing the upper section of the standing terrace. Work on the East Stand however caused the opening game of the 1988–89 season against Coventry to be postponed a few hours before kickoff.[16] The work continued in the summer of 1989 and the refurbished East Stand opened on 18 October 1989 for the North London
London
Derby.[14] The cost of the project however doubled to over £8 million; this, together with other financial problems, would again led to a change of directors at the club in 1991.[32]

Outside View of stadium from south-west corner

There was perimeter fencing in the 1980s between the stands behind the goals and the pitch and in front of the East Stand; fencing was first erected to segregate away fans in the 1970s and to combat the threat of pitch invasions from hooligans. All the fences were removed on 18 April 1989 for safety reasons in reaction to the Hillsborough disaster three days earlier, in which 96 Liverpool fans were fatally injured, most of them crushed to death against the perimeter fencing in an overcrowded standing area (the fencing at the same place had also previously caused an incidence of crushing of Spurs fans in a cup tie in 1981).[34][35]

Aerial view looking east over the stadium

Also as a response to the Hillsborough disaster
Hillsborough disaster
and the subsequent Taylor Report
Taylor Report
of 1990 that called for all-seater stadiums, standing areas were removed over the next few years, further reducing the capacity of the ground. Standing areas on the lower terraces of the East and South stands were replaced with seating in 1992, followed by the North Stand the next year. The South Stand was demolished in 1994, and its redevelopment completed in March 1995. The work was partly funded by the Football Trust. The first Jumbotron
Jumbotron
video screen for live coverage and screening of away matches was also installed above the South Stand,[14] and there would eventually be two screens, one above each penalty area. The renovation of the Members' (North) Stand, reached via Paxton Road, was completed in 1998, leaving the stadium with a capacity of around 36,000. The stadium would stay in this form bar some minor adjustments until 2016 when the north-east corner of the stadium was demolished to allow for the construction of a new stadium while the final 2016–17 season was being played at White Hart Lane. New stadium[edit] By the turn of the millennium, the capacity of White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
had fallen significantly behind compared to other major Premier League clubs who had plans to expand further (for example, proposed development of Old Trafford
Old Trafford
had a projected capacity of 79,000 while Arsenal planned to build a new stadium that would seat 60,000).[36] Talks began over the redevelopment and future of White Hart Lane, and many stadium designs and ideas were rumoured in the media, with the possibility of Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur moving home also mooted. However, a move to Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
was ruled out by the club, as was talk of moving to the Olympic Stadium in Stratford after completion of the 2012 Olympic Games. Ultimately the club's owners, ENIC Group, decided to focus solely on the ongoing redevelopment plan for White Hart Lane as part of the Northumberland Development Project. Sections of the North and East stands at the north-east corner were removed in 2016 to allow construction of the new stadium next to the old stadium in the final season at the Lane.[37] As this reduced the stadium capacity below that required for European games, Tottenham Hotspur played every European home game in 2016–17 at Wembley Stadium.[38] On 14 May 2017, White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
hosted its final match in a Premier League
Premier League
encounter between Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur and Manchester United. It ended in a 2–1 victory for the home side, securing the highest league ranking for Spurs since 1963, with goals from Victor Wanyama and Harry Kane. The last goal at the stadium was scored by Manchester United's striker Wayne Rooney.[39] Demolition work on the stadium began the following day,[40] by August 2017, the last visual part of White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
had been removed.[41]

A panorama of White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
from the North-West corner. The North-East corner (left) was removed for the duration of the 2016–17 Football season

Other uses[edit] During the construction of the new Wembley Stadium, White Hart Lane hosted full England
England
international matches, such as a 2–0 defeat to Holland.[42] Since the opening of the rebuilt Wembley, the Lane had been occasionally used to host England
England
Under-21's international matches years, most notably a 1–1 draw against France Under-21's.[43] The ground had been used for other sports and events since the early years such as baseball (there was once a Spurs baseball team).[44][45] A number of boxing matches were also held at the ground, for example, the match between Jack London
London
and Bruce Woodcock in 1945,[46] the Frank Bruno
Frank Bruno
vs Joe Bugner bout in 1987,[47] and the fight on 21 September 1991 where Michael Watson
Michael Watson
collapsed with a near fatal brain injury after a fight with Chris Eubank.[48] In 1995 and 1996 White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
also hosted American football, as the home ground of the London
London
Monarchs. Because the pitch could not accommodate a regulation-length American football
American football
field, the Monarchs received special permission from the World League to play on a 93-yard field.[49] The association with American football
American football
would continue with the construction of a new stadium that features a retractable pitch to reveal a pitch designed specifically for playing American football.[50] Structure and facilities[edit]

Audio description by David Lammy

White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
plan

The outer White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
frame was designed in a rectangular shape, with the inner seating tiers being rounded to maximise the number of seats possible within the structure. The cockerel was placed upon the West Stand, with the West Stand located on Tottenham
Tottenham
High Road, the East Stand being on Worcester Avenue, the North Stand on Paxton Road and the South Stand on Park Lane. The stands were officially named after compass points, but were more colloquially referred to by the road onto which they back.[51] The capacity of the stands immediately before demolition of part of White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
started in summer 2016 was as follows:

Stand Capacity

North Stand – (Paxton Road) 10,086

South Stand – (Park Lane) 8,633

East Stand – (Worcester Avenue) 10,691

West Stand – (High Road) 6,890

Total capacity 36,300

The pitch at White Hart Lane, at 100 × 67 metres (or 6,700 square meters), was one of the smallest in the Premier League.[52] Records[edit] Tottenham's biggest win at the stadium came in an FA Cup
FA Cup
tie against Crewe in February 1960, with a 13–2 final score. This was also the highest score seen at the stadium.[53] The biggest win in the Football League at the stadium took place on 22 October 1977 against Bristol Rovers which finished 9–0.[4] On 22 November 2009, Tottenham defeated Wigan Athletic 9–1 in the Premier League.[54] The club's biggest defeats at the venue were 0–6 scores in Division One, firstly against Sunderland on 19 December 1914 and later against Arsenal on 6 March 1935.[53] The player with the most appearances at White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
is Steve Perryman who played 436 games, while Jimmy Greaves
Jimmy Greaves
scored the most goals with 176 goals at the Lane. The highest attendance recorded at the Lane is 75,038 for the sixth round FA Cup
FA Cup
tie against in Sunderland, FA Cup
FA Cup
sixth round, 5 March 1938.[4] It was also the highest ever gate for a home match at the club until 2016 when over 85,000 attended the 2016–17 UEFA Champions League
2016–17 UEFA Champions League
match against Monaco held at Wembley Stadium, which was their temporary home for European matches that season.[55] Transport[edit] The area close to the stadium is regularly served by many different bus routes and services.[56] Bus routes 149, 259, 279, and 349 stop outside the ground. White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
and Northumberland Park National Rail stations are 0.2 miles (0.32 km) and 0.7 miles (1.1 km) away, respectively. Tottenham
Tottenham
Hale, a rail and tube station, and Seven Sisters tube station are also nearby. There are controlled parking zones in operation in the area on all match days. Future with new stadium[edit] Main article: Northumberland Development Project

White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
in May 2017 with new stadium being built next to it. West Stand partially demolished.

There have been a number of plans in the past for relocation. The first, reported in 2001, was to relocate to a proposed 43,000-seat stadium at Pickett's Lock intended for the 2005 World Athletics Championships to be held in London. However, the stadium was never built as the government deemed the project too expensive, and the venue of the games was eventually moved to Helsinki. Over the next few years various other schemes were suggested, including a relocation to the rebuilt Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(which finally opened in 2007).[57] On 1 October 2010, ostensibly as a back-up to the plans for a new stadium, Tottenham
Tottenham
registered interest in making use of the Olympic Stadium being built for the 2012 London
London
Olympics in conjunction with AEG, owners and operators of The O2 in London's Greenwich, formerly known as the Millennium Dome.[58] The club also proposed rebuilding on the site after the 2012 Olympics.[59] However Spurs bid for the stadium was rejected on 11 February 2011.[60] Spurs pursued legal action over the ruling to give the Stratford stadium to West Ham United,[61] but later withdrew.[62][63] Even before Spurs' Olympic Park bid, and instead of relocating elsewhere, the club was pursuing another option via its Northumberland Development Project NDP. This involved a plan to build a new stadium, partly on the site of the existing White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
ground. The NDP was announced on 30 October 2008, including a scheme to develop on the current site and also to its north where land was purchased to construct a totally new 56,250-seat stadium. It was likely that the (unofficial) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
name would be abandoned in favour of a naming rights sponsorship link.[64] The NDP area was projected to include leisure facilities, shops, housing, a club museum, public space which can be used as a temporary ice rink and also a new base for the Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur Foundation. On 26 October 2009, the club submitted their planning application, hoping to start work on the new ground in 2010 and to be playing in it come 2012.[65] But in May 2010, following adverse reaction, this was withdrawn in favour of a substantially revised planning application. Haringey Council
Haringey Council
were requested on 30 September 2010 to grant permission for the new stadium and other associated developments (subject to negotiation of 'Section 106' developer contributions). The new plans were referred to English Heritage, the Mayor of London
London
and the Secretary of State for a final decision.[66] The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, approved the plans on 25 November 2010.[67] On 20 September 2011, planning permission was granted (planning reference HGY/2010/1000).[68]

White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
in July 2017. Only South Stand still standing here (visible behind new stadium under construction), but soon to be completely removed.

Since then, the development plans had been revised several times during a lengthy delay because of a compulsory purchase order. A compulsory purchase order was eventually issued in July 2014 giving approval for the new stadium scheme to proceed[69] but was subject to an unsuccessful legal challenge by a business located within the proposed site in February 2015.[70] On 8 July 2015, Tottenham announced brand new revised plans, including a larger 61,000 capacity, making it the biggest club stadium in London. The revised stadium design also includes a 17,000 seat single tier stand, the biggest of its kind in the UK.[71] The new plan also comprises a combination of 579 new homes (increased from the 285 in previous plan), a 180-room hotel, an extreme sports building, a community health centre, enhanced public spaces and 'The Tottenham
Tottenham
Experience' – an interactive museum and club shop complex incorporating the listed Warmington House.[71] The anticipated stadium opening date is currently scheduled for the start of the 2018/19 season.[72] Additionally, on 8 July 2015 it was announced by the club that the new stadium would host two NFL International Series
NFL International Series
games, every year, for ten years.[71] On 16 December 2015, the revised plans were approved by Haringey Council (planning reference HGY/2015/3000) that would enable Phase 2 of the NDP to begin, as Phase 1 (Lilywhite House) had already been completed in February 2015.[73] This therefore allowed widening of the High Road pavement leading to the new stadium by demolishing three buildings (Edmonton Dispensary, The Red House, and the former White Hart Public House). Construction work on the stadium began in early 2016.[74] On 28 April 2017, it was announced that Tottenham
Tottenham
would play all its home matches in the 2017–18 season at Wembley Stadium, in order to complete the demolition of White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
and the construction of the new stadium.[75] References[edit]

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Hotspur drop Olympic Stadium legal bid". Tottenham
Tottenham
and Wood Green Independent. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011.  ^ " Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur ends 2012 Olympic Stadium legal bid". BBC News. 12 March 2015.  ^ " Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur confirms Northumberland Development Project". www.tottenhamhotspur.com. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2008.  ^ " Tottenham
Tottenham
reveal new ground plan". BBC Sport. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2008.  ^ Stadium Plans "THFC Official website Accessed 2 October 2010 ^ "Tottenham's White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
stadium plans approved". BBC Sport. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2010.  ^ " Tottenham
Tottenham
sign planning agreement to build new stadium". BBC. 20 September 2011.  ^ "New Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur stadium scheme gets the green light". Department for Communities and Local Government. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.  ^ plans for new stadium given massive boost as business looking to block move loses High Court appeal. Daily Telegraph
Daily Telegraph
20 February 2015, Accessed 20 February 2015 ^ a b c " Northumberland Development Project
Northumberland Development Project
updated designs and plans". tottenhamhotspur.com. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur stadium dispute firm in court challenge BBC News online 15 January 2015, Accessed 12 March 2015 ^ CLUB ANNOUNCEMENT Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur. Retrieved 17 December 2015 ^ Tottenham's revised stadium plans approved by Haringey Council, BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2015 ^ "Club Announcement – 2017/18 season al Wembley confirmed". Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to White Hart Lane.

Official website History of White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
at tottenhamhotspur.com

v t e

Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur Football Club

Players Managers Reserves & Academy Records & Statistics Honours Current Season

History

History Seasons European Record

Home Stadium

White Hart Lane Wembley Stadium Northumberland Development Project
Northumberland Development Project
(Planned)

Rivalries

North London
London
derby Chelsea rivalry

Songs

"Glory, Glory, Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur" "Hot Shot Tottenham!" "Nice One Cyril" "Ossie's Dream (Spurs Are on Their Way to Wembley)" "Tottenham, Tottenham" "When the Year Ends in One"

Other

Superleague Formula team Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur Ladies F.C.

Links to related articles

v t e

Premier League
Premier League
venues

Current

Anfield Bet365 Stadium City of Manchester Stadium Dean Court Emirates Stadium Falmer Stadium Goodison Park The Hawthorns King Power Stadium Kirklees Stadium Liberty Stadium London
London
Stadium Old Trafford St James' Park St Mary's Stadium Selhurst Park Stamford Bridge Turf Moor Vicarage Road Wembley Stadium

Former

Bloomfield Road Boundary Park Bramall Lane Cardiff City Stadium Carrow Road City Ground County Ground Craven Cottage DW Stadium Elland Road Ewood Park Fratton Park Hillsborough Stadium KCOM Stadium Loftus Road Macron Stadium Madejski Stadium Molineux Oakwell Portman Road Pride Park Riverside Stadium Stadium of Light St Andrew's The Valley Valley Parade Villa Park

Demolished

Ayresome Park Baseball Ground Boleyn Ground Burnden Park The Dell Filbert Street Highbury Highfield Road Maine Road Roker Park White Hart Lane

v t e

Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics

Aldershot Arsenal Stadium Bisley National Rifle Association Ranges Champion Hill Craven Cottage Empire Pool Empire Stadium Empress Hall, Earl's Court Finchley Lido Green Pond Road Griffin Park Guinness Sports Club Harringay Arena Henley Royal Regatta Herne Hill Velodrome Lynn Road Lyons' Sports Club Polytechnic Sports Ground Royal Military Academy Selhurst Park Tweseldown Racecourse Torbay Wembley Palace of Engineering White Hart Lane Windsor Great Park

v t e

Olympic venues in association football

1900 Vélodrome de Vincennes 1904 Francis Field 1908 White City Stadium 1912 Råsunda IP, Stockholm Olympic Stadium
Stockholm Olympic Stadium
(final), Tranebergs Idrottsplats 1920 Jules Ottenstadion, Olympisch Stadion (final), Stade Joseph Marien, Stadion Broodstraat 1924 Stade Bergeyre, Stade de Colombes (final), Stade de Paris, Stade Pershing 1928 Monnikenhuize, Olympic Stadium (final), Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel 1936 Hertha-BSC Field, Mommsenstadion, Olympiastadion (final), Poststadion 1948 Arsenal Stadium, Champion Hill, Craven Cottage, Empire Stadium (medal matches), Fratton Park, Goldstone Ground, Green Pond Road, Griffin Park, Lynn Road, Selhurst Park, White Hart Lane 1952 Helsinki
Helsinki
Football Grounds, Kotka, Lahti, Olympic Stadium (final), Tampere, Turku 1956 Melbourne Cricket Ground
Melbourne Cricket Ground
(final), Olympic Park Stadium 1960 Florence Communal Stadium, Grosseto Communal Stadium, L'Aquila Communal Stadium, Livorno Ardenza Stadium, Naples Saint Paul's Stadium, Pescara Adriatic Stadium, Stadio Flaminio
Stadio Flaminio
(final) 1964 Komazawa Olympic Park Stadium, Mitsuzawa Football Field, Nagai Stadium, Tokyo National Stadium (final), Nishikyogoku Athletic Stadium, Ōmiya Football Field, Prince Chichibu Memorial Football Field 1968 Estadio Azteca
Estadio Azteca
(final), Estadio Cuauhtémoc, Estadio Nou Camp, Jalisco Stadium 1972 Dreiflüssestadion, ESV-Stadion, Jahnstadion, Olympiastadion (final), Rosenaustadion, Urban Stadium 1976 Lansdowne Park, Olympic Stadium (final), Sherbrooke Stadium, Varsity Stadium 1980 Dinamo Stadium, Dynamo Central Stadium, Grand Arena, Grand Arena (final), Kirov Stadium, Republican Stadium 1984 Harvard Stadium, Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, Rose Bowl (final), Stanford Stadium 1988 Busan Stadium, Daegu Stadium, Daejeon Stadium, Dongdaemun Stadium, Olympic Stadium (final) 1992 Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta, Camp Nou
Camp Nou
(final), Estadio Luís Casanova, La Romareda, Sarrià Stadium 1996 Florida Citrus Bowl, Legion Field, Orange Bowl, RFK Memorial Stadium, Sanford Stadium
Sanford Stadium
(both finals) 2000 Stadium Australia, Brisbane Cricket Ground, Bruce Stadium, Hindmarsh Stadium, Melbourne Cricket Ground, Olympic Stadium (men's final), Sydney Football Stadium
Sydney Football Stadium
(women's final) 2004 Kaftanzoglio Stadium, Karaiskakis Stadium
Karaiskakis Stadium
(women's final), Olympic Stadium (men's final), Pampeloponnisiako Stadium, Pankritio Stadium, Panthessaliko Stadium 2008 Beijing National Stadium
Beijing National Stadium
(men's final), Qinhuangdao Olympic Sports Center Stadium, Shanghai Stadium, Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium, Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Workers' Stadium
Workers' Stadium
(women's final) 2012 City of Coventry Stadium, Hampden Park, Millennium Stadium, St James' Park, Old Trafford, Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(both finals) 2016 Estádio Nacional de Brasília, Arena Fonte Nova, Mineirão, Arena Corinthians, Arena da Amazônia, Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, Maracanã (both finals) 2020 International Stadium Yokohama, Kashima Soccer Stadium, Miyagi Stadium, National Stadium, Saitama Stadium, Sapporo Dome, Tokyo Stadium 2024 Parc des Princes
Parc des Princes
(both finals), Parc Olympique Lyonnais, Stade de la Beaujoire, Stade de Nice, Stade Geoffroy-Guichard, Stade Matmut Atlantique, Stadium Municipal, Stade Pierre-Mauroy, Stade Vélodrome 2028 Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park, Banc of California Stadium, Rose Bowl, Levi's Stadium, Avaya Stadium, Stanford Stadium, California Memorial Stadium

v t e

London
London
Monarchs

Founded in 1991 Folded in 1998 Based in London, England

Stadiums

Wembley Stadium White Hart Lane Stamford Bridge Crystal Palace Ashton Gate Alexander Stadium

Head Coaches

Larry Kennan Ray Willsey Bobby Hammond Lionel Taylor

World Bowl Appearances (1)

World Bowl '91

League Championships (1)

1991

Seasons

1991 1992 1995 1996 1997 1998

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
( Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England
England
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich
Greenwich
Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham
Tottenham
Court Road Victoria Em

.