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WESTPHALIA (/wɛstˈfeɪliə/ ; German : Westfalen pronounced ) is a region in northwestern Germany
Germany
and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. It has an area of 20,208 km2 (7,802 sq mi) and 7.9 million inhabitants.

The region is almost identical with the Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia
Westphalia
merged with the Northern Rhineland
Rhineland
, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. In 1947, the state with its two historic parts was joined by a third one: Lippe, a former principality and free state .

All of the 17 districts and 9 independent cities of Westphalia
Westphalia
and Lippe\'s only district are members of the Westphalia- Lippe
Lippe
Regional Association (Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe).

Previous to the formation of Westphalia
Westphalia
as a province of Prussia
Prussia
and later state part of North Rhine-Westphalia, the term “Westphalia” was applied to different territories of different sizes such as a part of the ancient Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
, the Duchy of Westphalia or the Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Westphalia
. The Westphalian language , a variant of the German language
German language
, spreads north of Westphalia's borders into southwest Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Landscapes * 1.2 Largest cities * 1.3 Rivers * 1.4 Mountains * 1.5 Westphalia
Westphalia
and Eastphalia * 1.6 Division

* 2 Symbols

* 2.1 Coat of arms

* 2.1.1 Current use * 2.1.2 Previous use * 2.1.3 Similar versions

* 2.2 Flag

* 2.2.1 Current use * 2.2.2 Previous use * 2.2.3 Similar versions

* 2.3 Anthem

* 3 Identity

* 4 History

* 4.1 Roman incursion * 4.2 Charlemagne
Charlemagne
* 4.3 Middle Ages * 4.4 Early modern era * 4.5 Prussia
Prussia
* 4.6 Modern Westphalia
Westphalia

* 5 Economy * 6 In popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

GEOGRAPHY

The Sauerland
Sauerland
mountainous landscape. Typical Westphalian houses .

LANDSCAPES

Being a part of the North German Plain
North German Plain
, most of Westphalia's north is flat. In the south the German Central Uplands
Central Uplands
emerge. Westphalia
Westphalia
is divided into the following landscapes.

FLAT TO HILLY (498 m (1,634 ft) and under): East Westphalia , Münsterland , eastern Ruhr
Ruhr
Metropolitan Region , Tecklenburg Land , Westphalian Hellweg

HILLY TO MOUNTAINOUS (up to 843 m (2,766 ft)): Westphalian part of the Sauerland
Sauerland
, Siegerland
Siegerland
, Wittgenstein

LARGEST CITIES

See also: List of cities in Germany
Germany
by population

EASTERN RUHR METROPOLITAN REGION

* Dortmund
Dortmund
* Bochum
Bochum
* Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
* Hagen
Hagen
* Hamm
Hamm
* Herne * Bottrop * Recklinghausen
Recklinghausen

EAST WESTPHALIA

* Bielefeld
Bielefeld
* Paderborn
Paderborn

MüNSTERLAND

* Münster (Westphalia)

SIEGERLAND

* Siegen
Siegen

RIVERS

Westphalia
Westphalia
is roughly the region in between the rivers Rhine
Rhine
and Weser
Weser
, located both north and south of the Ruhr
Ruhr
River. Other important rivers are the Ems and the Lippe
Lippe
.

MOUNTAINS

See also: List of mountains and hills of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia

The Langenberg (843 m (2,766 ft)) and the Kahler Asten (842 m (2,762 ft)) in the Sauerland
Sauerland
part of the Rothaar Mountains
Rothaar Mountains
are Westphalia's and also North Rhine-Westphalia's highest mountains.

WESTPHALIA AND EASTPHALIA

The term "Westphalia" contrasts with the much less used term " Eastphalia ", which roughly covers the southeastern part of the present-day state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
, western Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and northern Thuringia
Thuringia
.

DIVISION

Westphalia
Westphalia
is divided into three governmental districts . These are subdivided into further districts and independent cities .

All districts and independent cities of the governmental districts of Arnsberg and Münster are considered to be a part of Westphalia
Westphalia
as a historic region. The District of Lippe
Lippe
as successor of the Free State of Lippe
Lippe
in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a separate historic region.

Governmental District of Arnsberg 3,597,297 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2015 ) 8,010 km2 (3,093 sq mi) (all districts and independent cities)

* City of Bochum
Bochum
* City of Dortmund
Dortmund
* Ennepe- Ruhr
Ruhr
District ( Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis
Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis
) * City of Hagen
Hagen
* City of Hamm
Hamm
* City of Herne * High Sauerland
Sauerland
District ( Hochsauerlandkreis
Hochsauerlandkreis
) * Markish District ( Märkischer Kreis
Märkischer Kreis
) * District of Olpe * District of Siegen-Wittgenstein * District of Soest * District of Unna

Governmental District of Detmold 1,707,246 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2015 ) 5,280 km2 (2,038 sq mi) (all districts and independent cities EXCEPT District of Lippe
Lippe
)

* City of Bielefeld
Bielefeld
* District of Gütersloh * District of Herford * District of Höxter * District of Minden-Lübbecke
Minden-Lübbecke
* District of Paderborn
Paderborn

Governmental District of Münster 2,614,229 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2015 ) 6,920 km2 (2,671 sq mi) (all districts and independent cities)

* District of Borken * City of Bottrop * District of Coesfeld * City of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
* City of Münster (Westphalia) * District of Recklinghausen
Recklinghausen
* District of Steinfurt * District of Warendorf

SYMBOLS

WESTPHALIA (current) NORTH RHINE-WESTPHALIA (current)

Civil flag State service flag

PROVINCE OF WESTPHALIA (historical)

LOWER SAXONY (current)

COAT OF ARMS

Current Use

The traditional symbol of Westphalia
Westphalia
is the Westphalian Steed: a white horse on a red field. It is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
which most of today's Westphalia
Westphalia
was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia
Westphalia
is being used by the Westphalia- Lippe
Lippe
Regional Association which represents these two historic state parts of North Rhine-Westphalia.

The coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
uses the Westphalian Steed to represent Westphalia
Westphalia
as one of its parts alongside with the Lippish Rose representing Lippe
Lippe
and the Rhine
Rhine
River representing the Northern Rhineland
Rhineland

Previous Use

Prussia
Prussia
already used the Westphalian Steed in the coat of arms of its Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
.

Similar Versions

The coat of arms of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state also covers large parts of the Old Saxons' duchy.

FLAG

Current Use

The colors of Westphalia
Westphalia
are white and red. The flag of the Westphalia- Lippe
Lippe
Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center.

The flag of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
is a combination of the Northern Rhineland's colors green/white and the Westphalian white/red.

Previous Use

The flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
already displayed the colors white and red.

Similar Versions

The flag of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
shows the colors of Germany
Germany
and the Saxon Steed.

ANTHEM

Composed in Iserlohn
Iserlohn
in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus , the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia.

IDENTITY

Dialects in North Rhine-Westphalia: Franconian dialects in red, West Low German
West Low German
dialects in blue. Westphalian (German) ladies peasant costume – illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906.

While the Northern Rhineland, Westphalia
Westphalia
and Lippe
Lippe
are different historic territories of today's North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
, the old border between the former Rhine Province
Rhine Province
and the Province of Westphalia
Westphalia
is also a language border. While in Westphalia
Westphalia
and Lippe, people tend to speak the West Low German
West Low German
and especially the Westphalian variant of the German language, Franconian dialects are being spoken in the Northern Rhineland.

In addition to the historic and lingual aspects, there are some differences in culture and mentality. That is why many of the citizens of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
rather see themselves either as “Rhinelanders”, “Westphalians” or “Lippers” rather than as “North Rhine-Westphalians”. These different identities often still aligning along borders and divisions that are now defunct. The Catholic Münsterland is still heavily influenced by the existence of the Archbishopric of Münster while near Paderborn
Paderborn
the same is true for the Archbishopric of Paderborn. Lippe
Lippe
which retained its independence into the 1940s (and still retains its ruling family) remains distinct within North-Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
but also distinct from nearby Ostwestfalen which fell under Prussian control in 1620s. Often those prior allegiances can also be traced through religious affiliation with Paderborn
Paderborn
and the Münsterland still widely regarded as 'black', that is catholic and former Prussian and Lippisch areas Protestant and reformed.

HISTORY

See also: History of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and History of Germany
Germany

Westphalia
Westphalia
is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years\' War , as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück .

It is one of the regions that were part of all incarnations of the German state since the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
: the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the Confederation of the Rhine
Rhine
, the German Confederation , the North German Confederation , the German Empire
German Empire
, the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and National Socialist Germany
Germany
. After World War II
World War II
it was a part of the British occupation zone which merged with the American zone to become the Bizone
Bizone
in 1947 and again merged with the French zone to become the Trizone in 1948. The current Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
was founded on these territories making Westphalia
Westphalia
a part of West Germany
Germany
. It is a part of united Germany
Germany
since 1990.

ROMAN INCURSION

Around 1 A.D. there were numerous incursions through Westphalia
Westphalia
and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück, which at this time was a place of settlement of the Westphalians, who were a part of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons
Saxons
. Some of the tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia.

CHARLEMAGNE

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts. His Saxon Wars
Saxon Wars
also partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia
Westphalia
today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Bielefeld, Lemgo, Osnabrück and other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger
Enger
, which is also a subject of a legend.

MIDDLE AGES

Westphalia
Westphalia
within Saxony circa 1000 CE Westphalia
Westphalia
Other parts of Saxony Rest of the German Kingdom

Along with Eastphalia , Angria
Angria
and Nordalbingia , Westphalia (Westfalahi) was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
. At the time, large portions of its territory in the north lay in what today is Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
. Following the deposition of the Saxon duke Henry the Lion in 1180 and the subsequent belittlement of the duchy, Westphalia was elevated to a duchy in its own right by Emperor Barbarossa . The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area south of the Lippe River .

Modern Westphalia
Westphalia
was a part of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, which comprised territories of Lower Lorraine , Frisia
Frisia
and parts of the former Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
.

EARLY MODERN ERA

Ratification of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 in Münster by Gerard Terborch (1617–1681)

As a result of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
, there was no dominant religion in Westphalia. Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism
Lutheranism
were on a relatively equal footing. Lutheranism
Lutheranism
was strong in the eastern and northern parts with numerous free churches. Münster and especially Paderborn
Paderborn
were thought of to be Catholic. Osnabrück was divided almost equally between Catholicism and Protestantism.

Parts of Westphalia
Westphalia
came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, but most of it remained divided by duchies and other areas of feudal power. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years\' War . The concept of nation-state sovereignty resulting from the treaty became known as “ Westphalian sovereignty ”.

PRUSSIA

See also: Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
Prussian Westphalia
Westphalia
edged in red, the Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Westphalia
edged in green with the territorial overlap of former Minden-Ravensberg , pasted over today's borders with North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in dark grey.

After the defeat of the Prussian Army by the French at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt , the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 made the easternmost portion of today's Westphalia
Westphalia
part of the French client Kingdom of Westphalia
Westphalia
until 1813. While this state shared its name with the historical region, it only contained a relatively small part of Westphalia, rather consisting of mostly Hessian and Eastphalian regions.

Following to the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
, Prussia
Prussia
received a large amount of territories in the Westphalian region and created the Province of Westphalia
Westphalia
in 1815. After in 1816, the former Duchy of Westphalia and the counties of Wittgenstein and in 1851 the condominium of Lippstadt had joined the province, Westphalia
Westphalia
had received its modern territorial shape.

In 1816, the governmental districts of Arnsberg, Minden and Münster were created.

MODERN WESTPHALIA

After World War II
World War II
in 1946, the present state of North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
was created by the British military government from the former Prussian Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
and the northern half of the former Prussian Rhine Province
Rhine Province
. The old governmental districts of 1816 stayed in place. When in 1947 the former Free State of Lippe with its capital Detmold joined North Rhine-Westphalia, the “Governmental District of Minden” was enlarged by this territory and renamed “Governmental District of Detmold.” In total, North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
is subdivided into five governmental districts (Regierungsbezirke ). Westphalia
Westphalia
today consists of the old governmental districts of Arnsberg and Münster and of Detmold except of the District of Lippe
Lippe
which is a separate historical region and state part of North Rhine-Westphalia. Inhabitants of the region call themselves Westphalians and their home region Westphalia
Westphalia
even though there is no administrative division by that name.

ECONOMY

Westphalia
Westphalia
is home to the headquarters of Westfalia-Werke , the contractor that built the Volkswagen Westfalia Campers .

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Candide : The protagonist of Voltaire\'s novella of the same name, resides in Westphalia
Westphalia
in the beginning of the story.

Monty Python\'s Flying Circus – Series 4, Episode 3 – includes a sketch that discusses a questionable map showing a Basingstoke
Basingstoke
in Westphalia
Westphalia
(as opposed to the better-known Basingstoke
Basingstoke
in south-central England
England
).

SEE ALSO

* NRW portal

* Westphalian ham
Westphalian ham

REFERENCES

* ^ LWL: Zum Mittelpunkt Westfalens * ^ LWL: Territorien > Preußische Provinz Westfalen * ^ LWL: Die Westfalen als Teil der Sachsen * ^ LWL: Westfalen in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit * ^ IT.NRW: Bevölkerungszahlen auf Basis des Zensus vom 9. Mai 2011 (Bevölkerung der Regierungsbezirke Arnsberg, Detmold ohne den Kreis Lippe
Lippe
und Münster) * ^ Deutsches Kaiserreich: Provinz Westfalen * ^ LWL: Die westfälischen Territorien 1789 * ^ LWL: Die Region Westfalen-Lippe * ^ LWL: Die westfälischen Territorien 1789 * ^ Deutsches Kaiserreich: Provinz Westfalen * ^ LWL: Niederdeutsche Sprache – westfälische Mundarten * ^ LWL: Die Region Westfalen-Lippe * ^ LWL: Gewässerbildung und Systeme der natürlichen Fließgewässer in Westfalen * ^ LWL: Die Westfalen als Teil der Sachsen * ^ RP online: Jeder kennt Westfalen - gibt es auch Ostfalen? * ^ IT.NRW: Bevölkerungszahlen auf Basis des Zensus vom 9. Mai 2011 * ^ IT.NRW: Bevölkerungszahlen auf Basis des Zensus vom 9. Mai 2011 * ^ IT.NRW: Bevölkerungszahlen auf Basis des Zensus vom 9. Mai 2011 * ^ Hauptsatzung des LWL * ^ Landtag NRW: Das Wappen des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen * ^ Hauptsatzung des LWL * ^ MIK NRW: Landesflagge * ^ LWL: Niederdeutsche Sprache – westfälische Mundarten * ^ LWL: Mundartenregionen Westfalens * ^ LWL: Westfalen zur Zeit der Germanen und Römer * ^ LWL: Die Zeit der römischen Feldzüge in Germanien (12 v.-16 n. Chr.) * ^ LWL: Die Westfalen als Teil der Sachsen * ^ LWL: Die Westfalen als Teil der Sachsen * ^ LWL: Westfalen im konfessionellen Zeitalter * ^ LWL: Westfalen im konfessionellen Zeitalter * ^ LWL: Vom feudalen zum modernen Westfalen 1770-1815 * ^ LWL: Vom feudalen zum modernen Westfalen 1770-1815 * ^ LWL: Territorien > Preußische Provinz Westfalen * ^ LWL: Vom feudalen zum modernen Westfalen 1770-1815 * ^ LWL: Territorien > Preußische Provinz Westfalen * ^ LWL: Westfalen in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit * ^ Westfalia – Company history * ^ MPFC episode 42: The Light Entertainment War (transcript)

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to WESTPHALIA .

* Internet-Portal

.