WESTMINSTER ABBEY, formally titled the COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST PETER
AT WESTMINSTER, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of
Westminster , London, just to the west of the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster .
It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and
the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and,
later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the
status of a cathedral . Since 1560, however, the building is no longer
an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of
Royal Peculiar "—a church responsible directly to the
sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.
According to a tradition first reported by
Sulcard in about 1080, a
church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)
) in the 7th century, at the time of
Mellitus , a Bishop of London.
Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of
King Henry III .
Since the coronation of
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror in 1066, all
coronations of English and British monarchs have been held in
Westminster Abbey. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the
abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard
II ), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.
* 1 History
* 1.1 1042:
Edward the Confessor starts rebuilding St Peter\'s Abbey
* 1.2 Construction of the present church
* 1.3 16th and 17th centuries: dissolution and restoration
* 1.3.1 1540–1550: 10 years as a cathedral
* 1.3.2 After 1550: turbulent times
* 1.4 1722–1745: Western towers constructed
* 2 Coronations
* 3 Royal weddings
* 3.1 Chronology
* 4 Dean and Chapter
* 5 Burials and memorials
* 6 Schools
* 7 Organ
* 8 Bells
* 10 Museum
* 10.1 Exhibits
* 11 Development plans
* 12 Transport
* 13 Gallery
* 14 See also
* 15 Notes
* 16 References
* 17 External links
A late tradition claims that Aldrich, a young fisherman on the River
Thames , has a vision of
Saint Peter near the site. This seems to have
been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered
to the abbey in later years - a custom still observed annually by the
Fishmongers\' Company . The recorded origins of the
Abbey date to the
960s or early 970s, when
Saint Dunstan and King Edgar installed a
Benedictine monks on the site.
1042: EDWARD THE CONFESSOR STARTS REBUILDING ST PETER\'S ABBEY
Abbey at the time of Edward's funeral, depicted in
Between 1042 and 1052, King
Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St
Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was
the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The
building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December
1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066. A week
later, he was buried in the church; and, nine years later, his wife
Edith was buried alongside him. His successor, Harold II , was
probably crowned in the abbey, although the first documented
coronation is that of
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror later the same year.
The only extant depiction of Edward's abbey, together with the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster , is in the
Bayeux Tapestry . Some of
the lower parts of the monastic dormitory, an extension of the South
Transept, survive in the Norman undercroft of the Great School,
including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. Increased
endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in
Dunstan's original foundation, up to a maximum about eighty monks,
although there was also a large community of lay brothers who
supported the monastery's extensive property and activities.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE PRESENT CHURCH
Construction of the present church was begun in 1245 by Henry III
who selected the site for his burial. Layout plan dated 1894
North entrance of Westminster
The abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster,
the seat of government from the later 12th century, became a powerful
force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest. The abbot often was
employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the
House of Lords
House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual
leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the
mid-10th century, and occupied with the administration of great landed
properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines
achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life
of their times, and particularly with upper-class life", Barbara
Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life
provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the
Late Middle Ages .
The proximity of the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster did not extend to
providing monks or abbots with high royal connections; in social
origin the Benedictines of Westminster were as modest as most of the
order. The abbot remained
Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town
of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and
employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy,
and relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no
enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages. The abbey
built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the
The abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. None was buried
there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor,
rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French
Gothic style as a shrine to venerate
Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's
own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England. The Confessor's
shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonisation .
The work continued between 1245 and 1517 and was largely finished by
Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II . Henry III also
commissioned the unique
Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar
(the pavement has recently undergone a major cleaning and conservation
programme and was re-dedicated by the Dean at a service on 21 May
2010). The building was consecrated on 13 October 1269.
Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed
Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the _
Henry VII Chapel
Henry VII Chapel _ or the "Lady
Chapel"). Much of the stone came from
Caen , in France (
Caen stone ),
Isle of Portland (
Portland stone ) and the
Loire Valley region of
France (tuffeau limestone ).
16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES: DISSOLUTION AND RESTORATION
In 1535, the abbey's annual income of £2400–2800 (equivalent to
£1,320,000 to £1,540,000 as of 2015), during the assessment
attendant on the
Dissolution of the Monasteries rendered it second in
wealth only to Glastonbury
1540–1550: 10 Years As A Cathedral
Henry VIII assumed direct royal control in 1539 and granted the abbey
the status of a cathedral by charter in 1540, simultaneously issuing
letters patent establishing the
Diocese of Westminster . By granting
the abbey cathedral status, Henry VIII gained an excuse to spare it
from the destruction or dissolution which he inflicted on most English
abbeys during this period.
After 1550: Turbulent Times
Westminster diocese was dissolved in 1550, but the abbey was
recognised (in 1552, retroactively to 1550) as a second cathedral of
London until 1556. The already-old expression
"robbing Peter to pay Paul " may have been given a new lease of life
when money meant for the abbey, which is dedicated to
Saint Peter ,
was diverted to the treasury of St Paul\'s
Cathedral . The Nave
of Westminster Abbey.
The abbey was restored to the Benedictines under the Catholic Mary I
of England , but they were again ejected under Elizabeth I in 1559. In
1560, Elizabeth re-established Westminster as a "
Royal Peculiar " –
a church of the
Church of England
Church of England responsible directly to the
Sovereign, rather than to a diocesan bishop – and made it the
COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST PETER (that is, a non-cathedral church with an
attached chapter of canons , headed by a dean.) The last of Mary's
abbots was made the first dean.
It suffered damage during the turbulent 1640s, when it was attacked
Puritan iconoclasts , but was again protected by its close ties to
the state during the Commonwealth period.
Oliver Cromwell was given an
elaborate funeral there in 1658, only to be disinterred in January
1661 and posthumously hanged from a gibbet at
1722–1745: WESTERN TOWERS CONSTRUCTED
The abbey's two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by
Nicholas Hawksmoor , constructed from
Portland stone to an early
example of a
Gothic Revival design. Purbeck marble was used for the
walls and the floors of Westminster Abbey, even though the various
tombstones are made of different types of marble. Further rebuilding
and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert
A narthex (a portico or entrance hall) for the west front was
designed by Sir
Edwin Lutyens in the mid-20th century but was not
built. Images of the abbey prior to the construction of the towers are
scarce, though the abbey's official website states that the building
was without towers following Yevele's renovation, with just the lower
segments beneath the roof level of the
Until the 19th century, Westminster was the third seat of learning in
England, after Oxford and Cambridge. It was here that the first third
King James Bible
Old Testament and the last half of the New
Testament were translated. The
New English Bible was also put together
here in the 20th century. Westminster suffered minor damage during the
Blitz on 15 November 1940. Then on May 10/11 1941, the Westminster
Abbey precincts and roof were hit by incendiary bombs. All the bombs
were extinguished by ARP wardens, except for one bomb which ignited
out of reach among the wooden beams and plaster vault of the lantern
roof (of 1802) over the North Transept. Flames rapidly spread and
burning beams and molten lead began to fall on the wooden stalls, pews
and other ecclesiastical fixtures 130 feet below. Despite the falling
debris, the staff dragged away as much furniture as possible before
withdrawing. Finally the Lantern roof crashed down into the crossing,
preventing the fires from spreading further.
In the 1990s, two icons by the Russian icon painter Sergei Fyodorov
were hung in the abbey. On 6 September 1997, the funeral of Diana,
Princess of Wales , was held at the Abbey. On 17 September 2010, Pope
Benedict XVI became the first pope to set foot in the abbey.
Abbey with a procession of
Knights of the Bath , by
Canaletto , 1749
Flag of Westminster Abbey, featuring the Tudor arms between Tudor
Roses above the attributed arms of
Edward the Confessor
Layout of Westminster Abbey, 2008
Abbey by night, 2014
King Edward\'s Chair . Main articles: Coronation of the
British monarch and
List of British coronations
Since the coronations in 1066 of both King Harold and William the
Conqueror , every English and British monarch (except
Edward V and
Edward VIII , who were never crowned) has been crowned in Westminster
Abbey. In 1216, Henry III could not be crowned in
London when he
came to the throne, because the French prince Louis had taken control
of the city, and so the king was crowned in Gloucester
This coronation was deemed by Pope
Honorius III to be improper, and a
further coronation was held in Westminster
Abbey on 17 May 1220. The
Archbishop of Canterbury is the traditional cleric in the coronation
King Edward\'s Chair (or St Edward's Chair), the throne on which
English and British sovereigns have been seated at the moment of
crowning, is now housed within the
Abbey in St George's Chapel near
the West Door, and has been used at every coronation since 1308. From
1301 to 1996 (except for a short time in 1950 when the stone was
temporarily stolen by Scottish nationalists ), the chair also housed
Stone of Scone upon which the kings of Scots are crowned. Although
the Stone is now kept in Scotland, in
Edinburgh Castle , it is
intended that the Stone will be returned to St Edward's Chair for use
during future coronation ceremonies.
The 1382 wedding of Richard II to
Anne of Bohemia .
* 11 NOVEMBER 1100: King
Henry I of England
Henry I of England was married to Matilda
* 4 JANUARY 1243:
Richard, Earl of Cornwall (later King of Germany),
brother of King
Henry III of England , to
Sanchia of Provence (his
second wife). Sanchia was sister of
Eleanor of Provence , Henry III's
* 9 APRIL 1269: Edmund of Crouchback, 1st Earl of Leicester and
Lancaster , son of King Henry III was married to Lady
Aveline de Forz
* 30 APRIL 1290:
Joan of Acre , daughter of King Edward I , was
married to the 7th Earl of Gloucester
* 8 JULY 1290: Margaret of England , daughter of King Edward I, was
married to John II, son of Duke of Brabant
* 20 JANUARY 1382: King
Richard II of England was married to Anne of
* 18 JANUARY 1486: King
Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England was married to
Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York
* 27 FEBRUARY 1919:
Princess Patricia of Connaught was married to
Capt the Hon Alexander Ramsay
* 28 FEBRUARY 1922: The Princess Mary , daughter of King
George V ,
was married to Viscount Lascelles
* 26 APRIL 1923: The Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George
VI), second son of King George V, was married to Lady Elizabeth
Bowes-Lyon (later to become
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother )
* 29 NOVEMBER 1934: The
Prince George, Duke of Kent , son of King
George V, was married to
Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark
* 20 NOVEMBER 1947: Princess Elizabeth (now Queen
Elizabeth II ),
elder daughter of King George VI, was married to the Duke of Edinburgh
(who was Lt Philip Mountbatten until that morning)
* 6 MAY 1960: Princess Margaret , second daughter of King George VI,
was married to Antony Armstrong-Jones (later
Earl of Snowdon )
* 24 APRIL 1963: Princess Alexandra of Kent was married to the Hon
* 14 NOVEMBER 1973: Princess Anne , only daughter of Queen Elizabeth
II, was married to Captain
* 23 JULY 1986:
Prince Andrew, Duke of York , second son of Queen
Elizabeth II, was married to Miss Sarah Ferguson
* 29 APRIL 2011:
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge , grandson of
Queen Elizabeth II, was married to Miss Catherine Middleton
DEAN AND CHAPTER
Dean and Chapter of Westminster
Abbey is a collegiate church governed by the Dean and
Chapter of Westminster , as established by
Royal charter of Queen
Elizabeth I dated 21 May 1560, which created it as the Collegiate
Church of St Peter Westminster, a
Royal Peculiar under the personal
jurisdiction of the Sovereign. The members of the Chapter are the Dean
and four canons residentiary; they are assisted by the Receiver
General and Chapter Clerk. One of the canons is also Rector of St
Margaret\'s Church , Westminster, and often also holds the post of
Chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons .
In addition to the Dean and canons, there are at present three
full-time minor canons: the precentor , the sacrist and the chaplain .
The office of Priest Vicar was created in the 1970s for those who
assist the minor canons. Together with the clergy and Receiver General
and Chapter Clerk, various lay officers constitute the college,
Organist and Master of the Choristers , the Registrar,
the Auditor, the Legal Secretary, the Surveyor of the Fabric, the Head
Master of the choir school , the Keeper of the Muniments (archives)
and the Clerk of the Works, as well as 12 lay vicars, 10 choristers
and the High Steward and High Bailiff.
The 40 Queen's Scholars who are pupils at
Westminster School (the
School has its own Governing Body) are also members of the collegiate.
The three minor canons as well as the organist and Master of the
Choristers are most directly concerned with liturgical and ceremonial
BURIALS AND MEMORIALS
Main article: Burials and memorials in Westminster
Audio description of the shrine of
Edward the Confessor by John Hall
A recumbent effigy on a tomb in Westminster Abbey. The
cloister and garth .
Henry III rebuilt the abbey in honour of a royal saint, Edward the
Confessor , whose relics were placed in a shrine in the sanctuary.
Henry III himself was interred nearby, as were many of the Plantagenet
kings of England, their wives and other relatives. Until the death of
George II of Great Britain
George II of Great Britain in 1760, most kings and queens were buried
in the abbey, some notable exceptions being Henry VI , Edward IV ,
Henry VIII and Charles I who are buried in St George\'s Chapel at
Windsor Castle . Other exceptions include Edward II buried at
Cathedral and Richard III , now buried at Leicester
Cathedral , and the _de facto_ queen
Lady Jane Grey , buried in the
chapel of St Peter ad Vincula in the
London . Most monarchs
and royals who died after 1760 are buried either in St George's Chapel
Frogmore to the east of Windsor Castle.
From the Middle Ages, aristocrats were buried inside chapels, while
monks and other people associated with the abbey were buried in the
cloisters and other areas. One of these was
Geoffrey Chaucer , who was
buried here as he had apartments in the abbey where he was employed as
master of the King's Works. Other poets, writers and musicians were
buried or memorialised around Chaucer in what became known as Poets\'
Abbey musicians such as
Henry Purcell were also buried in
their place of work.
Subsequently, it became one of Britain's most significant honours to
be buried or commemorated in the abbey. The practice of burying
national figures in the abbey began under
Oliver Cromwell with the
burial of Admiral Robert Blake in 1657. The practice spread to
include generals, admirals, politicians, doctors and scientists such
Isaac Newton , buried on 4 April 1727, and
Charles Darwin , buried
26 April 1882. Another was
William Wilberforce who led the movement to
abolish slavery in the United Kingdom and the Plantations, buried on 3
August 1833. Wilberforce was buried in the north transept, close to
his friend, the former Prime Minister, William Pitt .
During the early 20th century it became increasingly common to bury
cremated remains rather than coffins in the abbey. In 1905 the actor
Henry Irving was cremated and his ashes buried in Westminster
Abbey, thereby becoming the first person ever to be cremated prior to
interment at the abbey. The majority of interments at the
of cremated remains, but some burials still take place - Frances
Challen, wife of the Rev Sebastian Charles,
Canon of Westminster , was
buried alongside her husband in the south choir aisle in 2014.
Members of the Percy Family have a family vault, The Northumberland
Vault , in St Nicholas's chapel within the abbey.
In the floor, just inside the great west door, in the centre of the
nave, is the tomb of
The Unknown Warrior
The Unknown Warrior , an unidentified British
soldier killed on a European battlefield during the
First World War
First World War .
He was buried in the abbey on 11 November 1920. This grave is the only
one in the abbey on which it is forbidden to walk.
At the east end of the Lady Chapel is a memorial chapel to the airmen
of the RAF who were killed in the
Second World War
Second World War . It incorporates a
memorial window to the
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain , which replaces an earlier
Tudor stained glass window destroyed in the war. Funeral
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales at Westminster
On Saturday September 6, 1997 the formal, though not "state" funeral
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales , was held. It was a royal ceremonial
funeral including royal pageantry and Anglican funeral liturgy. A
second public service was held on Sunday at the demand of the people.
The burial occurred privately later the same day. Diana's former
husband, sons, mother, siblings, a close friend, and a clergyman were
present. Diana's body was clothed in a black long-sleeved dress
designed by Catherine Walker , which she had chosen some weeks before.
A set of rosary beads was placed in her hands, a gift she had received
Mother Teresa . Her grave is on the grounds of her family estate,
Althorp , on a private island.
In 1998 ten vacant statue niches on the façade above the Great West
Door were filled with representative 20th century Christian martyrs of
various denominations. Those commemorated are
Maximilian Kolbe ,
Manche Masemola ,
Janani Luwum ,
Grand Duchess Elizabeth of Russia ,
Martin Luther King Jr. ,
Óscar Romero ,
Dietrich Bonhoeffer , Esther
Lucian Tapiedi , and Wang Zhiming .
On Tuesday April 9, 2002 the ceremonial Funeral of Queen Elizabeth
The Queen Mother was held in the Abbey. She was interred later the
same day in the
George VI Memorial Chapel at St George\'s Chapel,
Windsor Castle next to her husband, King
George VI , who had died 50
years previously. At the same time, the ashes of the Queen Mother's
daughter, Princess Margaret , who had died on 9 February 2002, were
also interred in a private family service.
Westminster School and Westminster
Abbey Choir School are also in the
precincts of the abbey. It was natural for the learned and literate
monks to be entrusted with education, and
Benedictine monks were
required by the Pope to maintain a charity school in 1179. The Choir
School educates and trains the choirboys who sing for services in the
See also: List of Westminster
The organ was built by Harrison "> , the
Organist and Master of the
Choristers is James O\'Donnell .
The bells at the abbey were overhauled in 1971. The ring is now made
up of ten bells, hung for change ringing , cast in 1971, by the
Whitechapel Bell Foundry , tuned to the notes: F#, E, D, C#, B, A, G,
F#, E and D. The Tenor bell in D (588.5 Hz) has a weight of 30 cwt, 1
qtr, 15 lb (3403 lb or 1544 kg).
In addition there are two service bells, cast by Robert Mot, in 1585
and 1598 respectively, a Sanctus bell cast in 1738 by Richard Phelps
and Thomas Lester and two unused bells—one cast about 1320, by the
successor to R de Wymbish, and a second cast in 1742, by Thomas
Lester. The two service bells and the 1320 bell, along with a fourth
small silver "dish bell", kept in the refectory, have been noted as
being of historical importance by the Church Buildings Council of the
Church of England.
The chapter house was built concurrently with the east parts of the
abbey under Henry III, between about 1245 and 1253. It was restored
George Gilbert Scott in 1872. The entrance is approached from
the east cloister walk and includes a double doorway with a large
Inner and outer vestibules lead to the octagonal chapter house, which
is of exceptional architectural purity. It is built in a Geometrical
Gothic style with an octagonal crypt below. A pier of eight shafts
carries the vaulted ceiling. To the sides are blind arcading, remains
of 14th-century paintings and numerous stone benches above which are
innovatory large 4-light quatre-foiled windows. These are virtually
contemporary with the
Sainte-Chapelle , Paris.
The chapter house has an original mid-13th-century tiled pavement. A
door within the vestibule dates from around 1050 and is believed to be
the oldest in England. The exterior includes flying buttresses added
in the 14th century and a leaded tent-lantern roof on an iron frame
designed by Scott. The
Chapter house was originally used in the 13th
Benedictine monks for daily meetings. It later became a
meeting place of the King's Great Council and the Commons,
predecessors of Parliament.
The Pyx Chamber formed the undercroft of the monks' dormitory. It
dates to the late 11th century and was used as a monastic and royal
treasury. The outer walls and circular piers are of 11th-century date,
several of the capitals were enriched in the 12th century and the
stone altar added in the 13th century. The term _pyx_ refers to the
boxwood chest in which coins were held and presented to a jury during
Trial of the Pyx , in which newly minted coins were presented to
ensure they conformed to the required standards.
The chapter house and Pyx Chamber at Westminster
Abbey are in the
English Heritage , but under the care and management
of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster.
English Heritage have funded a
major programme of work on the chapter house, comprising repairs to
the roof, gutters, stonework on the elevations and flying buttresses
as well as repairs to the lead light.
Abbey Museum was located in the 11th-century vaulted
undercroft beneath the former monks' dormitory in Westminster Abbey.
This is one of the oldest areas of the abbey, dating back almost to
the foundation of the church by
Edward the Confessor in 1065. This
space had been used as a museum since 1908.
The exhibits included a collection of royal and other funeral
effigies (funeral saddle, helm and shield of Henry V), together with
other treasures, including some panels of mediaeval glass,
12th-century sculpture fragments, Mary II's coronation chair and
replicas of the coronation regalia , and historic effigies of Edward
III, Henry VII and his queen,
Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York , Charles II, William
III, Mary II and Queen Anne.
Later wax effigies included a likeness of Horatio, Viscount Nelson ,
wearing some of his own clothes and another of Prime Minister William
Pitt, Earl of Chatham, modelled by the American-born sculptor Patience
Wright . During recent conservation of Elizabeth I's effigy, a unique
corset dating from 1603 was found on the figure, which was displayed
A recent addition to the exhibition was the late 13th-century
Westminster Retable , England's oldest altarpiece, which was most
probably designed for the high altar of the abbey. Although it has
been damaged in past centuries, the panel has been expertly cleaned
This Museum has now closed, and will re-open in 2018 in the Diamond
Jubilee Galleries, high up in the main
In June 2009 the first major building work at the abbey for 250 years
was proposed. A corona – a crown-like architectural feature – was
suggested to be built around the lantern over the central crossing ,
replacing an existing pyramidal structure dating from the 1950s. This
was part of a wider £23m development of the abbey expected to be
completed in 2013. On 4 August 2010 the Dean and Chapter announced
that, "fter a considerable amount of preliminary and exploratory
work", efforts toward the construction of a corona would not be
continued. In 2012, architects Panter Hudspith completed
refurbishment of the 14th-century food-store originally used by the
abbey's monks, converting it into a restaurant with English oak
furniture by Covent Garden-based furniture makers Luke Hughes and
Company . This is now the Cellarium Café and Terrace.
A project that is proceeding is the creation of The Queen's Diamond
Jubilee Galleries in the medieval triforium of the abbey. The aim is
to create a new display area for the abbey's treasures in the
galleries high up around the abbey's nave. To this end a new Gothic
access tower with lift has been designed by the abbey architect and
Surveyor of the Fabric,
Ptolemy Dean . It is planned that the new
galleries will open in 2018.
St James\'s Park
London River Services
Westminster Millennium Pier
Great West Door and towers, as seen from Tothill Street
View from the nearby
London Eye to the north east
At night, from
Dean's Yard to the south; artificial light highlights
the flying buttresses
Handel Commemoration in 1784
The Quire in 1848
Tomb of King
Henry III of England .
West face from below
Cloisters looking south west towards Victoria
North façade, built in
Exterior wall inscription
10 martyrs of the 20th century
One of the chapels
Relief of Christ (façade)
Facade by night
Coloured light projected onto the
Lumiere festival 2016
View through the gate into the Little Cloister, with St. Catherine's
Chapel garden beyond
* _Anglicanism portal
Abbot of Westminster
Dean and Chapter of Westminster
List of Deans of Westminster
Abbey _, a 1995 BBC TV documentary film
The Unknown Warrior
The Unknown Warrior
Abbey Burials and Memorials
Archdeacon of Westminster
* List of churches in
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Dimensions of Westminster Abbey" (PDF).
_westminster-abbey.org_. Dimensions of Westminster Abbey
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* ^ _A_ _B_ "Coronations".
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* ^ Harvey 1993, p. 2
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* ^ Harvey 1993
* ^ Harvey 1993, p. 6 ff.
* ^ "
Cosmati pavement". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ Westminster
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