Lysander (nickname the 'Lizzie') is a British army
co-operation and liaison aircraft produced by
Westland Aircraft used
immediately before and during the Second World War. After becoming
obsolete in the army co-operation role, the aircraft's exceptional
short-field performance enabled clandestine missions using small,
improvised airstrips behind enemy lines to place or recover agents,
particularly in occupied France with the help of the French
Resistance. British army air co-operation aircraft were named after
mythical or historical military leaders; in this case the Spartan
Lysander was chosen.
1 Design and development
2 Operational history
2.1 United Kingdom
2.2 Free French
2.4 Other countries
2.5 Civilian use
6 Surviving aircraft
7 Specifications (
Lysander Mk III)
8 See also
10 External links
Design and development
In 1934 the
Air Ministry issued Specification A.39/34 for an army
co-operation aircraft to replace the Hawker Hector. Initially Hawker
Avro and Bristol were invited to submit designs, but after
some debate within the Ministry, a submission from Westland was
invited as well. The Westland design, internally designated P.8, was
the work of Arthur Davenport under the direction of "Teddy" Petter. It
was Petter's second aircraft design and he spent considerable time
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force pilots to find out what they wanted from
such an aircraft. Less clear was whether he or the pilots understood
the army co-operation role and what the army wanted, which was
tactical reconnaissance and artillery reconnaissance capability –
photographic reconnaissance and observation of artillery fire in
daylight – up to about 15,000 yards (14 km) behind the enemy
front. The result of Petter's pilot enquiries suggested that field of
view, low-speed handling characteristics and
STOL performance were the
most important requirements.
Lysander Mk III (SD), the type used for special missions into
occupied France during World War II.
Davenport and Petter designed an aircraft to incorporate these
features with unconventional results. The
Lysander was powered by a
Bristol Mercury air-cooled radial engine and had high wings and a
fixed conventional landing gear mounted on an innovative inverted U
square-section tube that supported wing struts at the apex, was in
itself resilient, and contained (internal) springs for the faired
wheels. The large streamlined spats also each contained a mounting for
a Browning machine gun and for small, removable stub wings that could
be used to carry light bombs or supply canisters. The wings had a
reverse taper towards the root, which gave the impression of a bent
gull wing from some angles, although the spars were straight. It had a
girder type construction faired with a light wood stringers to give
the aerodynamic shape. The forward fuselage was duralumin tube joined
with brackets and plates, and the after part was welded stainless
steel tubes. Plates and brackets were cut from channel extrusions
rather than being formed from sheet steel. The front spar and lift
struts were extrusions. The wing itself was fabric covered, and its
thickness was maximized at the lift strut anchorage location, similar
to that of later marks of the
Stinson Reliant high-winged transport
Despite its appearance, the
Lysander was aerodynamically advanced;
being equipped with fully automatic wing slots and slotted flaps
and a variable incidence tailplane. These refinements gave the
Lysander a stalling speed of only 65 mph (104 km/h, 56.5
knots). It also featured the largest Elektron alloy extrusion made
at the time: the one-piece frame already mentioned that supporting the
wings and wheels. (This was a feature of British-built aircraft only
– Canadian-built machines had a conventionally fabricated assembly
due to the difficulties involved in manufacturing such a large
Air Ministry requested two prototypes of the P.8 and
the competing Bristol Type 148, quickly selecting the Westland
aircraft for production and issuing a contract in September 1936.
December 1942. Four
Lysander Mk IIIAs of No. 1433 Flight RAF, based at
Ivato, over a typical
Madagascar landscape, shortly after the official
end of the
Madagascar campaign. (Photographer: Sgt J.D. Morris).
The first Lysanders entered service in June 1938, equipping squadrons
for army co-operation and were initially used for message-dropping and
artillery spotting. When war broke out in Europe, the earlier Mk Is
had been largely replaced by Mk IIs, the older machines heading for
the Middle East. Some of these aircraft, now designated type L.1,
operated with the
Chindits of the
British Indian Army
British Indian Army in the Burma
Campaign of the Second World War.
Four regular squadrons equipped with Lysanders accompanied the British
Expeditionary Force to France in October 1939, and were joined by a
further squadron early in 1940. Following the German invasion of
France and the low countries on 10 May 1940, Lysanders were put into
action as spotters and light bombers. In spite of occasional victories
against German aircraft, they made very easy targets for the Luftwaffe
even when escorted by Hurricanes. Withdrawn from France during
the Dunkirk evacuation, they continued to fly supply-dropping missions
to Allied forces from bases in England; on one mission to drop
supplies to troops trapped at Calais, 14 of 16 Lysanders and Hawker
Hectors that set out were lost. 118 Lysanders were lost in or over
France and Belgium in May and June 1940, of a total of 175
deployed. With the fall of France, it was clear that the type
was unsuitable for the coastal patrol and army co-operation role,
being described by
Air Marshal Arthur Barratt, commander-in-chief of
the British Air Forces in France as "quite unsuited to the task; a
faster, less vulnerable aircraft was required." The view of Army
AOP pilots was that the
Lysander was too fast for artillery spotting
purposes, too slow and unmanoeuverable to avoid fighters, too big to
conceal quickly on a landing field, too heavy to use on soft ground
and had been developed by the RAF without ever asking the Army what
was needed. Nevertheless, throughout the remainder of 1940,
Lysanders flew dawn and dusk patrols off the coast and in the
event of an invasion of Britain, they were tasked with attacking the
landing beaches with light bombs and machine guns. They were
replaced in the home-based army co-operation role from 1941 by
camera-equipped fighters such as the Curtiss Tomahawk and North
American Mustang carrying out reconnaissance operations, while light
aircraft such as the
Taylorcraft Auster were used to direct
artillery. Some UK-based Lysanders went to work operating air-sea
rescue, dropping dinghies to downed RAF aircrew in the English
Channel. Fourteen squadrons and flights were formed for this role
in 1940 and 1941.
Lysander in Italy used to evacuate an American OSS officer, who was
wounded while leading a Greek guerilla group in a sabotage attack.
In August 1941 a new squadron, No. 138 (
Special Duties), was formed to
undertake missions for the
Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive to maintain
clandestine contact with the French Resistance.
Among its aircraft were
Lysander Mk IIIs, which flew over and landed
in occupied France. While general supply drops could be left to the
rest of No. 138's aircraft, the
Lysander could insert and remove
agents from the continent or retrieve Allied aircrew who had been shot
down over occupied territory and had evaded capture.
For this role the Mk IIIs were fitted with a fixed ladder over the
port side to hasten access to the rear cockpit and a large drop tank
under the belly. In order to slip in unobtrusively
Lysanders were painted matte black (some early examples had
brown/green camouflaged upper surfaces and later examples had
grey/green upper surfaces); operations almost always
took place within a week of a full moon, as moonlight was essential
for navigation. The aircraft undertook such duties until the
liberation of France in 1944.
Lysanders flew from secret airfields at Newmarket and later Tempsford,
but used regular RAF stations to fuel-up for the actual crossing,
particularly RAF Tangmere. Flying without any navigation equipment
other than a map and compass, Lysanders would land on short strips of
land, such as fields, marked out by four or five torches. Or to avoid
having to land, the agent, wearing a special padded suit, stepped off
at very low altitude and rolled to a stop on the field. They were
originally designed to carry one passenger in the rear cockpit, but
for SOE use the rear cockpit was modified to carry two passengers in
extreme discomfort in case of urgent necessity. The pilots of No.
138 and from early 1942, No. 161 Squadron transported 101 agents to
and recovered 128 agents from Nazi-occupied Europe. The Germans
knew little about the British aircraft and wished to study one.
Soldiers captured an intact
Lysander in March 1942 when its pilot was
unable to destroy it after a crash, but a train hit the truck carrying
the Lysander, destroying the cargo.
Lysanders also filled other less glamorous roles, such as service as
target-towing and communication aircraft. Two aircraft (T1443 and
T1739) were transferred to the British Overseas Airways Corporation
(BOAC) for training and 18 were used by the Royal Navy′s Fleet Air
Arm. All British Lysanders were withdrawn from
service in 1946.
Lysander also joined the ranks of the Forces Aériennes Françaises
Libres (Free French Air Force, FAFL) when Groupe Mixte de Combat (GMC)
1, formed at
RAF Odiham on 29 August 1940, was sent to French
North-West Africa in order to persuade the authorities in countries
such as Gabon, Cameroon and Chad, which were still loyal to Vichy
France, to join the
Gaullist cause against the Axis powers, and to
attack Italian ground forces in Libya. As with all FAFL aircraft,
Lysanders sported the
Cross of Lorraine
Cross of Lorraine insignia on the fuselage and
the wings instead of the French tricolor roundel first used in 1914,
to distinguish their aircraft from those flying for the Vichy French
Air Force. Lysanders were mostly employed on reconnaissance missions,
but were also used to carry out occasional attacks. In all, 24
Lysanders were used by the FAFL.
Lysander II of 110 (AC) Squadron RCAF, in silver delivery scheme at
RCAF Station Rockcliffe, Ontario.
Lysander IIT target tug of No.3 OTU
RCAF in 1944 with black
and yellow stripes.
One hundred and four British-built Lysanders were delivered to Canada
supplementing 225 that were built under license by National Steel Car
Ontario (near Toronto) with production starting in October
1938 and the first aircraft flying in August 1939. The
operated Lysanders in the army co-operation role, where they
represented a major improvement over the antiquated Westland Wapiti
which could trace its origins back to 1916.
Initial training was conducted at
RCAF Station Rockcliffe (near
Ottawa, Ontario) with No. 123 Squadron running an army co-operation
school there. Units that operated the
Lysander for training in this
Canada include 2 Squadron, 110 Squadron (which became 400
Squadron overseas) and No. 112 Squadron.
No. 414 squadron formed overseas and joined 110 Squadron and 112
Squadron with Lysanders. Prior to going overseas 2 Squadron was
disbanded and its airmen reassigned to 110 and 112 Squadrons to bring
them up to war establishment (2 Squadron would later reform in England
Hawker Hurricane unit and eventually be renumbered as 402
Squadron). In all there were three squadrons ready to begin operations
against the Axis Powers. Although
Operation Sea Lion
Operation Sea Lion – the planned
German invasion of
Great Britain – was averted by the British
victory in the
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain in 1940, the high losses suffered by
RAF Lysanders in the
Battle of France
Battle of France resulted in any plans for
cross-channel offensive operations by Lysanders being put on hold,
although the Canadian squadrons continued training with the Lysanders
until suitable replacements were available.
No. 118 Squadron and No. 122 Squadron were the only Canadian units to
use their Lysanders on active-duty operations – 118 in Saint John,
New Brunswick, and 122 at various locations on Vancouver Island, where
they performed anti-submarine patrols and conducted search-and-rescue
operations. During the same period, No. 121 Squadron and several
Operational Training Units (OTUs) used Lysanders – painted in a
high-visibility yellow-and-black-striped scheme – for target towing
For a brief period in 1940 when every available Hurricane fighter had
been sent overseas to fight in the Battle of Britain, leaving the RCAF
without a modern fighter aircraft at home in Canada, two RCAF
Lysander-equipped squadrons which were supposed to convert to fighter
aircraft but had none to convert to were re-designated as operational
fighter squadrons. 111 Squadron, a coastal artillery squadron which
earlier had replaced its
Avro trainers with Lysanders and been
reclassified as an army co-operation unit, was again reclassified as a
fighter squadron – the only one on the Canadian west coast – in
June 1940. Lysander-equipped 118 Squadron also was redesignated as a
fighter squadron. The
Lysander completely lacked the capability to
operate in a fighter role, and neither squadron saw action as a
fighter unit while equipped with Lysanders, but their designation as
fighter squadrons did allow
RCAF fighter pilots to work up at a
critical time without having to wait for the arrive of true fighter
aircraft. No. 118 Squadron was disbanded in September 1940, and when
it reformed in December 1940, still as a fighter squadron, it was
equipped with 15 old, otherwise unwanted Grumman Goblin fighters
produced by Canadian Car and Foundry. Both 111 and 118 Squadrons soon
re-equipped with the Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, bringing the brief
service of Lysanders in fighter squadrons to an end.
By late 1944 all Canadian Lysanders had been withdrawn from flying
Other export customers for the
Lysander included the Finnish Air Force
(which received four Mk I and nine Mk III aircraft), the Irish Air
Corps (which took delivery of six Mk II aircraft), the Turkish Air
Force (which received 36 Mk IIs), the
Portuguese Air Force
Portuguese Air Force (which took
delvery of eight Mk IIIA aircraft), the
United States Army Air Forces
(which received 25), the
Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force (which took delivery of 22)
Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force (which received 20). Egyptian Lysanders
were the last to see active service, against
Israel in the Israeli War
of Independence in 1948.
After the war a number of surplus ex-Royal Canadian Air Force
Lysanders were employed as aerial applicators with Westland Dusting
Service, operating in
Alberta and western Canada. Two of these
were saved for inclusion in Lynn Garrison's collection for display in
Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
A total of 1,786 Lysanders were built, including 225 manufactured
under licence by
National Steel Car in Toronto, Ontario,
the late 1930s.
Lysander IIIA preserved at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
Powered by one 890 hp (664 kW)
Bristol Mercury XII radial piston
engine. Two forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns in
wheel fairings and one pintle-mounted 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis or
Vickers K machine gun
Vickers K machine gun in rear cockpit. Optional spat-mounted stub
wings carried 500 lb (227 kg) of bombs. Four 20 lb (9 kg) bombs could
be carried under rear fuselage.
Lysander TT Mk I
Lysander Mk Is converted into target tugs.
Lysander Mk II
Powered by one 905 hp (675 kW)
Bristol Perseus XII sleeve valve radial
Lysander TT Mk II
Target tug conversion of the
Lysander Mk III
Powered by one 870 hp (649 kW)
Bristol Mercury XX or 30 radial piston
engine, 350 delivered from July 1940. Twin 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning
guns in rear cockpit.
Lysander Mk IIIA
Similar to the
Lysander Mk I. Mercury 20 engine. Twin 0.303 in (7.7
mm) Lewis guns in rear cockpit.
Lysander Mk III SCW (
Special Contract Westland)
Special version for clandestine operations. No armament, long-range
150 gallon fuel tank, fixed external ladder.
Lysander TT Mk III
Lysander Mk Is, Mk IIs and Mk IIIs converted into target tugs.
Lysander TT Mk IIIA
100 dedicated target tugs.
(Unofficially referred to as the Westland Wendover)
Adaptation of a
Lysander II as a turret fighter, its standard wing
retained but with a twin tailed Delanne type rear wing and 4-gun Nash
& Thomson power-operated tail gun turret replacing the empennage.
It flew well but did not proceeded past trials with turret
In 1940 at least one standard
Lysander was tested with a pair of
20 mm cannon mounted on the undercarriage, replacing the stub
wings; the intention was to use the aircraft for ground attack
missions against the threatened German invasion of Britain.
Main article: List of Westland
Lysander Mk.III flown by the Canadian Warplane Heritage
Museum in Hamilton, Ontario
Lysander at the Shuttleworth annual air show at
Old Warden in
A number of Lysanders are preserved in museums in Canada, the United
Kingdom, the United States, Belgium, and elsewhere.
RCAF 1589 –
Lysander IIIA on static display at the Indian Air Force
Museum in Palam, Delhi. It is painted in spurious colours. It is
possible that this is the one that
Canada traded for a B-24 Liberator
bomber in the late 1960s.
RCAF 2349 –
Lysander III on display at the Canadian Museum of Flight
in Langley, British Columbia. It is displayed without most of its
fabric covering. This one was restored for
Expo 86 in Vancouver,
British Columbia. The wings came from Cliff Douglas in Coutenay, B.C.
The fuselage was found in the Prairies. The first fuselage was
destroyed en route to British Columbia in a vehicle accident and
another one was obtained.
RCAF 2363 –
Lysander IIIA under restoration to airworthy condition
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Hamilton, Ontario. It
flew for the first time following its restoration a few weeks before
the Museum's Flyfest on 20–21 June 2009. It is finished in a
yellow & black 'bumblebee' target tug scheme.
RCAF 2365 –
Lysander IIIA airworthy at the Vintage Wings of Canada
in Gatineau, Quebec. It is painted in No. 400 "City of Toronto"
RCAF Squadron markings, and is doped silver overall with
number 416. After a full restoration, it first flew 18 June 2010 in
RCAF 2442 –
Lysander III under restoration to airworthy condition
with Sabena Old Timers in Zaventem, Flemish Brabant.
T1562 or V9562 –
Lysander TT III on static display at the Royal
Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels.
Previously registered as OO-SOP, it was restored from 1983 to 1988,
and again by December 2010 following a forced landing.[citation
Lysander III on static display at the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force Museum
London in London. It is painted in the early war brown and
green temperate land scheme marked LX-L R9125 of No. 225 Squadron
V9552 – Airworthy as of 2017 as part of The Shuttleworth Collection,
Bedfordshire in the UK. It is currently painted in the all
black scheme of the clandestine
Special Duties aircraft of No.161 RAF
Squadron, bearing the serial V9367 (flown by Pilot Officer Peter
Vaughan-Fowler, DSO, DFC and bar, AFC.)
Lysander III on static display at the
and Space Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. This example was a composite,
restored from three aircraft by the
RCAF as a centennial project in
1967 and is painted in the early war temperate land scheme (dark earth
and dark green over sky).
Lysander IIIA on static display at the Steven F.
Udvar-Hazy Center of the
National Air and Space Museum
National Air and Space Museum in Chantilly,
Virginia. It is painted in a night finish with grey and green
topsides, and marked as AC-B N7791, a
No. 138 Squadron RAF
No. 138 Squadron RAF aircraft
famous for spy-dropping missions in wartime Europe.
Lysander IIIA on static display at the Imperial War Museum
Duxford in Duxford, Cambridgeshire. It is painted similarly to the
NASM example but marked as MA-J V9673 also of No. 161 Squadron
Lysander IIIA on display at the
Florida Air Museum
Florida Air Museum in
Lakeland, Florida. On loan from the
Fantasy of Flight
Fantasy of Flight in Polk City,
Florida. It is painted in a temperate sea scheme (extra dark sea
grey and dark slate grey over sky) and marked as BA-C serial
V9545. It was previously owned by Wessex Aviation and
Unknown – Unknown in storage with the Musée de l’air et de
l’espace in Paris, Île-de-France. It was previously owned by the
Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum
Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum and the Museu do Ar. It was
painted in "trainer" yellow.
Lysander Mk III)
Orthographic projection of the
Lysander Mk I, with profile view of the
Mk.III(SD) covert operations aircraft.
Westland Aircraft since 1915
Crew: One, pilot
Capacity: 1 passenger (or observer)
Length: 30 ft 6 in (9.29 m)
Wingspan: 50 ft 0 in (15.24 m)
Height: 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m)
Wing area: 260 ft² (24.2 m²)
Empty weight: 4,365 lb (1,984 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 6,330 lb (2,877 kg)
Powerplant: 1 ×
Bristol Mercury XX radial engine, 870 hp (649 kW)
Maximum speed: 212 mph (184 knots, 341 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1,520 m)
Range: 600 miles (522 nmi, 966 km)
Service ceiling: 21,500 ft (6,550 m)
Climb to 10,000 ft (3,050 m): 8 min
Take-off run to 50 ft (15 m): 305 yards (279 m)
Guns: Two forward-firing .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns in
wheel fairings and two more for the observer
Bombs: Four 20 lb (9 kg) bombs under rear fuselage and 500 lb (227 kg)
of bombs on stub wings if fitted
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Curtiss O-52 Owl
Fieseler Fi 156
Fieseler Fi 156 Storch
Henschel Hs 126
North American O-47
List of aircraft of World War II
List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force
List of aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm
List of aircraft of Canada's air forces
List of military aircraft of Finland
List of aircraft of the Royal Australian Air Force
List of military aircraft of the United States
^ a b Davies, Glyn (2014). Teddy Petter Aircraft Designer. Stroud,
Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press. p. 24. ISBN 978 0
7524 9211 7.
^ Flight 1938 p. 572
^ Taylor 1969, p. 443.
^ Masters, John. The Road Past Mandalay. London: Bengal-Rockland,
1961. ISBN 0-304-36157-7.
^ Air International, January 1984, pp. 26–27.
^ a b March 1998, p. 243.
^ James 1991, p. 247.
Air International January 1984, p. 27.
^ Munro, Ronald Lyell. Above the Battle: An Air Observation Pilot at
War (Kindle ed.). Pen and Sword. p. Kindle location 239.
^ Rickard, J. "No. 613 Squadron (RAF): Second World War",
HistoryOfWar.org, 6 April 2012.
^ "RAF Museum: Westland
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force Museum, 2012.
Retrieved: 23 December 2012.
Air International February 1984, p. 81.
Air International February 1984, p. 82.
^ Josephine Butler
^ Griffiths, Frank, Winged Hours, 1981, p. 12.
^ Gunston, Bill. Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways. London:
Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
^ Breuer 2000, pp. 135–137.
^ a b Kostenuk and Griffin 1977, p. 56.
^ Milberry 1979, pp. 98, 213.
^ Milberry 1979, p. 116.
^ Bowers 1984 p.34-5
^ James 1991 pp.243–4
^ "Airframe Dossier – Westland
Lysander IIIA, s/n 1589 RCAF". Aerial
Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
^ "Westland Lysander". The Canadian Museum of Flight. Canadian Museum
of Flight. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
Lysander Mk. IIIA". Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Flyfest Hamilton, Ontario,
20–21 June 2009." Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. World
Airshow News. Retrieved: 4 September 2009.
^ "The Sergeant Clifford Stewart Westland
Lysander IIIA". Vintage
Wings of Canada. Vintage Wings of Canada. Retrieved 20 December
^ "It's Official; She's Airborne!". Vintage Wings of Canada. 18 June
2010. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
Lysander Mk III". Sabena Old Timers (in French). Retrieved
21 December 2016.
^ "Airframe Dossier – Westland
Lysander III, s/n 2442 RCAF, c/r
OO-SOT". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 21 December
^ "News 14/11/2009 : Westland
Lysander T1562 V9562 in restoration
fo". bamf & bamrs diary. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 21 December
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force Museum. Trustees of the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
^ Simpson, Andrew (2013). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY" (PDF). Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
The Shuttleworth Collection
The Shuttleworth Collection –
Lysander Retrieved: 09 March 2017
^ "WESTLAND LYSANDER III".
Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Canada
Science and Technology Museums Corporation. Retrieved 20 December
Lysander IIIa". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.
Retrieved 20 December 2016.
Lysander IIIA". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 20
^ "Airframe Dossier – WestlandLysander, c/n 1244". Aerial Visuals.
AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
^ James 1991, pp. 252–253.
Bowers, Peter M. (1984). Unconventional Aircraft. Blue Ridge Summit:
Tab Books Inc. ISBN 0 8306 2384 1.
Breuer, William B. Top Secret Tales of World War II. New York: Wiley,
2000. ISBN 0-471-35382-5.
Donald, David and Jon Lake, eds. Encyclopedia of World Military
Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
"For Army Co-operation." Flight, 9 June 1938, pp. 569–576.
Griffiths, Frank. Winged Hours. London: William Kimber, 1981.
Hall, Alan W. Westland Lysander, Warpaint Series No. 48. Luton,
Bedfordshire, UK: Warpaint Books Ltd., 2005. OCLC 78987749.
James, Derek N.
Westland Aircraft since 1915. London: Putnam, 1991.
James, Derek N. Westland: A History. Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus
Publishing Ltd, 2002. ISBN 0-7524-2772-5.
Kightly, James. Westland Lysander. Redbourn, UK: Mushroom Model
Publications, 2006. ISBN 83-917178-4-4.
Kostenuk, Samuel and John Griffin.
RCAF Squadron Histories and
Aircraft: 1924–1968. Toronto, Ontario: Samuel Stevens Hakkert &
Company, 1977. ISBN 0-88866-577-6.
March, Daniel J. British Warplanes of World War II. London:Aerospace
Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-874023-92-1.
Mason, Francis K. The Westland Lysander, Aircraft in Profile Number
159. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile Publications, 1967. No ISBN.
Milberry, Larry. Aviation in Canada. Toronto: McGrawHill Ryerson
Limited, 1979. ISBN 0-07-082778-8.
Mondey, David. Westland (Planemakers 2). London: Jane's Publishing
Company, 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0134-4.
Ovčáčík, Michal and Karel Susa. Westland
Lysander Mks.I, II,
III/IIIA, III(SD)/IIIA(SD), TT Mks. I, II, III. Prague, Czech
Republic: Mark 1 Ltd., 1999. ISBN 80-902559-1-4.
Lysander Special. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan
Ltd., 1977. ISBN 0-7110-0764-0.
"Some talk of Alexander..." Part 1. Air International, January 1984,
Vol. 26, No. 1. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 21–28.
"Some talk of Alexander" Part 2. Air International, February 1984,
Vol. 26, No. 2. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 80–87.
Taylor, John W.R. "Westland Lysander." Combat Aircraft of the World
from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Westland Lysander.
Lysander in detail
Lysander aircraft profile. Aircraft database of the Fleet Air
Arm Archive 1939–1945
Lysander II in
Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force Service
Army Co-operation Flight 1955
Westland Aircraft / Westland Helicopters
Fixed wing fighters
COW Gun Fighter