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The WESTERN SATRAPS, WESTERN KSHATRAPAS, or KSHAHARATAS (35–405) were Indo-Scythian ( Saka
Saka
) rulers of the western and central part of India
India
(Saurashtra and Malwa
Malwa
: modern Gujarat
Gujarat
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). They are so named in contrast to the " Northern Satraps " who ruled around East Punjab
East Punjab
and the area of Mathura .

The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana (Andhra ) who ruled in Central India. They are called "Western" in contrast to the "Northern" Indo-Scythian satraps who ruled in the area of Mathura , such as Rajuvula , and his successors under the Kushans, the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara. Although they called themselves "Satraps" on their coins, leading to their modern designation of "Western Satraps", Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in his 2nd century "Geographia " still called them "Indo-Scythians". The power of the Saka
Saka
rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Saka
Saka
rulers were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty . Later the Saka
Saka
kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 4th century CE.

Altogether, there were 27 independent Western Satrap
Satrap
rulers during a period of about 350 years. The word Kshatrapa stands for satrap , itself descended from Old Persian and which means viceroy or governor of a province.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 First expansion: Kshaharata dynasty (1st century CE)

* 1.2 Kardamaka dynasty, family of Castana (1st–4th century)

* 1.2.1 Territory under Chastana * 1.2.2 Victory against the Satavahanas: Rudradaman I * 1.2.3 Defeat against the Satavahanas: Yajna Sri Satakarni * 1.2.4 Rudrasena II (256–278)

* 1.3 Defeat by the Guptas (c. 400)

* 2 Coinage

* 2.1 Regnal dates * 2.2 Languages * 2.3 Influences

* 3 Monuments * 4 Possible vassalage to the Kushans

* 5 Main rulers

* 5.1 Kshaharata dynasty * 5.2 Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

FIRST EXPANSION: KSHAHARATA DYNASTY (1ST CENTURY CE)

The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
are thought to have started with the rather short-lived Kshaharata dynasty (also called Chaharada, Khaharata or Khakharata depending on sources). The term Kshaharata is also known from the 6 CE Taxila copper plate inscription, in which it qualifies the Indo-Scythian ruler Liaka Kusulaka . The Nasik inscription of the 19th year of Sri Pulamavi also mentions the Khakharatavasa, or Kshaharata race. Coin of Bhumaka (?–119). OBV: Arrow, pellet, and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi inscription Chaharasada Chatrapasa Bhumakasa: "Ksaharata Satrap
Satrap
Bhumaka". REV: Capital of a pillar with seated lion with upraised paw, and wheel (dharmachakra ). Brahmi inscription: Kshaharatasa Kshatrapasa Bhumakasa.

The earliest Kshaharata for whom there is evidence is Abhiraka , whose rare coins are known. He was succeeded by Bhumaka , father of Nahapana, who only used on his coins the title of Satrap, and not that of Raja or Raño (king). Bhumaka was the father of the great ruler Nahapana
Nahapana
, according to one of the latter's coins. His coins bear Buddhist
Buddhist
symbols, such as the eight-spoked wheel (dharmachakra ), or the lion seated on a capital, a representation of a pillar of Ashoka
Ashoka
. Coin of Nahapana
Nahapana
(119–124). British Museum
British Museum
.

Nahapana
Nahapana
succeeded to him, and became a very powerful ruler. He occupied portions of the Satavahana empire in western and central India. Nahapana
Nahapana
held sway over Malwa
Malwa
, Southern Gujarat
Gujarat
, and Northern Konkan
Konkan
, from Bharuch
Bharuch
to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona
Poona
districts. His son-in-law, the Saka
Saka
Ushavadata (married to his daughter Dakshamitra), is known from inscriptions in Nasik and Karle to have been viceroy of Nahapana, ruling over the southern part of his territory.

Nahapana
Nahapana
is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea under the name Nambanus, as ruler of the area around Barigaza :

41. "Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza
Barygaza
and the coast of the country of Ariaca , which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria , but the coast is called Syrastrene . It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara , from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza." — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41 Nahapana
Nahapana
coin hoard.

Under the Western Satraps, Barigaza was one of the main centers of Roman trade with India
India
. The Periplus describes the many goods exchanged:

49. There are imported into this market-town (Barigaza), wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian ; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright-colored girdles a cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar , antimony , gold and silver coin, on which there is a profit when exchanged for the money of the country; and ointment, but not very costly and not much. And for the King there are brought into those places very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments. There are exported from these places spikenard , costus , bdellium , ivory, agate and carnelian , lycium , cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various market-towns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt make the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi." — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48. The Western Satraps under Nahapana, with their harbour of Barigaza, were among the main actors of the 1st century CE international trade according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea .

Goods were also brought down in quantity from Ujjain
Ujjain
, the capital of the Western Satraps:

48. Inland from this place and to the east, is the city called Ozene, formerly a royal capital; from this place are brought down all things needed for the welfare of the country about Barygaza, and many things for our trade : agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and mallow cloth, and much ordinary cloth. — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48.

Some ships were also fitted out from Barigaza, to export goods westward across the Indian ocean:

"Ships are also customarily fitted out from the places across this sea, from Ariaca and Barygaza, bringing to these far-side market-towns the products of their own places; wheat, rice, clarified butter, sesame oil, cotton cloth, (the monache and the sagmatogene), and girdles, and honey from the reed called sacchari. Some make the voyage especially to these market-towns, and others exchange their cargoes while sailing along the coast." — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 14.

Nahapana
Nahapana
also established the silver coinage of the Kshatrapas.

Nahapana
Nahapana
and Ushavadata were ultimately defeated by the powerful Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni . Gautramiputra drove the Sakas from Malwa
Malwa
and Western Maharashtra, forcing Nahapana
Nahapana
west to Gujarat. Gautamiputra restruck many of Nahapana's coins.

KARDAMAKA DYNASTY, FAMILY OF CASTANA (1ST–4TH CENTURY)

A new dynasty, called the Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty, was established by the "Satrap" Castana . The date of Castana is not certain, but many believe his reign started in the year 78 CE, thus making him the founder of the Saka
Saka
era . This is consistent with the fact that his descendants (who we know used the Saka
Saka
era on their coins and inscriptions) would use the date of their founder as their era. Castana was satrap of Ujjain
Ujjain
during that period. A statue found in Mathura together with statues of the Kushan king Kanishka
Kanishka
and Vima Taktu , and bearing the name "Shastana" is often attributed to Castana himself, and suggests Castana may have been a feudatory of the Kushans. Conversely, the Rabatak inscription also claims Kushan dominion over Western Satrap
Satrap
territory (by mentioning Kushan control over the capital Ujjain
Ujjain
), during the reign of Kanishka
Kanishka
(c. 127–150 CE).

Territory Under Chastana

Coin of the Western Satrap
Satrap
Chastana (c. 130 CE). Obv: King in profile. The legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit
Prakrit
Raño Kshatrapasa Castana: "King and Satrap
Satrap
Castana". Rev: Chaitya
Chaitya
with moon, star and river. Brahmi legend Rajno Mahakshatrapasa Ghsamotikaputrasa Casthanasa: "King and Great Satrap
Satrap
Chastana, son of Zamotika .

The territory of the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
at the time of Chastana is described extensively by the geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in his "Geographia", where he qualifies them as "Indo-Scythians". He describes this territory as starting from Patalene in the West, to Ujjain
Ujjain
in the east ("Ozena-Regia Tiastani", "Ozene, capital of king Chastana"), and beyond Barigaza in the south.

Moreover the region which is next to the western part of India, is called Indoscythia. A part of this region around the (Indus) river mouth is Patalena, above which is Abiria . That which is about the mouth of the Indus and the Canthicolpus bay is called Syrastrena . (...) In the island formed by this river are the cities Pantala, Barbaria . (...) The Larica region of Indoscythia is located eastward from the swamp near the sea, in which on the west of the Namadus river is the interior city of Barygaza
Barygaza
emporium. On the east side of the river (...) Ozena -Regia Tiastani (...) Minnagara ". — Ptolemy Geographia, Book Seven, Chapter I

Victory Against The Satavahanas: Rudradaman I

Silver coin of Rudradaman I (130–150). OBV: Bust of Rudradaman, with corrupted Greek legend "OVONIΛOOCVΛCHΛNO". REV: Three-arched hill or Chaitya
Chaitya
with river, crescent and sun. Brahmi legend: Rajno Ksatrapasa Jayadamasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamasa: "King and Great Satrap
Satrap
Rudradaman, son of King and Satrap Jayadaman " 16mm, 2.0 grams. Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(178–197). OBV: Bust of Rudrasimha, with corrupted Greek legend "..OHIIOIH.." ( Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
style). REV: Three-arched hill or Chaitya
Chaitya
, with river, crescent and sun, within Prakrit
Prakrit
legend in Brahmi script:Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamnaputrasa Rajna Mahaksatrapasa Rudrasihasa "King and Great Satrap
Satrap
Rudrasimha, son of King and Great Satrap
Satrap
Rudradaman ".

Around 130 CE, Rudradaman I , grandson of Chastana , took the title "Mahakshatrapa" ("Great Satrap"), and defended his kingdom from the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
. The conflict between Rudradaman and Satavahanas
Satavahanas
became so gruelling, that in order to contain the conflict, a matrimonial relationship was concluded by giving Rudradaman's daughter to the Satavahana king Vashishtiputra Satakarni .

The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
and the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
remained at war however, and Rudradaman I defeated the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
twice in these conflicts, only sparing the life of Vashishtiputra Satakarni due to their family alliance:

"Rudradaman (...) who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha , on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him." —  Junagadh rock inscription

Rudradaman regained all the previous territories held by Nahapana, except for the southern areas of Poona
Poona
and Nasik :

"Rudradaman (...) who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akaravanti (Akara : East Malwa
Malwa
and Avanti : West Malwa
Malwa
), the Anupa country, Anarta , Surashtra , Svabhra (northern Gujarat
Gujarat
), Maru ( Marwar
Marwar
), Kachchha (Cutch ), Sindhu - Sauvira ( Sindh
Sindh
and Multan districts), Kukura (Eastern Rajputana
Rajputana
), Aparanta
Aparanta
("Western Border" – Northern Konkan
Konkan
), Nishada (an aboriginal tribe, Malwa
Malwa
and parts of Central India
India
) and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of , wealth and pleasure ". —  Junagadh rock inscription. Geographical interpretations in parenthesis from Rapson.

Recently discovered pillar inscriptions describe the presence of a Western Satrap
Satrap
named Rupiamma in the Bhandara
Bhandara
district of the area of Vidarbha , in the extreme northeastern area of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, where he erected the pillars.

Rudradarman is known for his sponsoring of the arts. He is known to have written poetry in the purest of Sanskrit, and made it his court language. His name is forever attached to the inscription by Sudharshini lake.

He had at his court a Greek writer named Yavanesvara ("Lord of the Greeks"), who translated from Greek to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
the Yavanajataka ("Saying of the Greeks"), an astrological treatise and India's earliest Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work in horoscopy.

Defeat Against The Satavahanas: Yajna Sri Satakarni

The south Indian ruler Yajna Sri Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty defeated the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in the late 2nd century CE, which led to a decline in the power of the ruling dynasty.

Rudrasena II (256–278)

Coin of Rudrasena I (200–222).

The Kshatrapa dynasty seems to have reached a high level of prosperity under the rule of Rudrasena II (256–278), 19th ruler of Kshatrapa.

The last Kshatrapa ruler of the Chastana family was Visvasena (Vishwasen), brother and successor to Bhartrdaman and son of Rudrasena II. A new family took over, started by the rule of Rudrasimha II , son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman.

DEFEAT BY THE GUPTAS (C. 400)

Coin of the last Western Satrap
Satrap
ruler Rudrasimha III (388–395).

A new family took control under Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions that the Gupta king Ramagupta , the elder brother of Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in Gujarat
Gujarat
.

The campaign soon took a turn for the worse and the Gupta army was trapped. The Saka
Saka
king, Rudrasimha III, demanded that Ramagupta hand over his wife Dhruvadevi in exchange for peace. To avoid the ignominy the Guptas decide to send Madhavasena, a courtesan and a beloved of Chandragupta, disguised as the queen. However, Chandragupta changes the plan and himself goes to the Saka
Saka
King disguised as the queen. He then kills Rudrasimha and later his own brother, Ramagupta. Dhruvadevi is then married to Chandragupta.

The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were eventually conquered by emperor Chandragupta II. This brought an end to the rule of the Sakas on the subcontinent.

COINAGE

The Kshatrapas have a very rich and interesting coinage. It was based on the coinage of the earlier Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kings, with Greek or pseudo-Greek legend and stylized profiles of royal busts on the obverse. The reverse of the coins however is original and typically depict a thunderbolt and an arrow, and later, a chaitya or three-arched hill and river symbol with a crescent and the sun, within a legend in Brahmi. These coins are very informative, since they record the name of the King, of his father, and the date of issue, and have helped clarify the early history of India.

REGNAL DATES

From the reign of Rudrasimha I, the date of minting of each coin, reckoned in the Saka
Saka
era , is usually written on the obverse behind the king's head in Brahmi numerals , allowing for a quite precise datation of the rule of each king. This is a rather uncommon case in Indian numismatics. Some, such as the numismat R.C Senior considered that these dates might correspond to the much earlier Azes era instead.

Also the father of each king is systematically mentioned in the reverse legends, which allows to reconstruct the regnal succession.

LANGUAGES

Kharoshthi , a script in use in more northern territories (area of Gandhara
Gandhara
), is employed together with the Brahmi script and the Greek script on the first coins of the Western Satraps, but is finally abandoned from the time of Chastana . From that time, only the Brahmi script would remain, together with the pseudo-Greek script on the facing, to write the Prakrit
Prakrit
language employed by the Western satraps. Occasionally, the legends are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
instead.

The coins of Nahapana
Nahapana
bears the Greek script legend "PANNIΩ IAHAPATAC NAHAΠANAC", transliteration of the Prakrit
Prakrit
"Raño Kshaharatasa Nahapanasa": "In the reign of Kshaharata Nahapana". The coins of Castana also have a readable legend "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA", transliteration of the Prakrit
Prakrit
"Raño Kshatrapasa Castana": "In the reign of the Satrap
Satrap
Castana". After these two rulers, the legend in Greek script becomes denaturated, and seems to lose all signification, only retaining an esthetic value. By the 4th century, the coins of Rudrasimha II exhibit the following type of meaningless legend in corrupted Greek script: "...ΛIOΛVICIVIIIΛ...".

INFLUENCES

The Guptas imitated Western Satrap
Satrap
coins for their silver coinage. Here, a coin of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (414–455) (Western territories).

The coins of the Kshatrapas were also very influential and imitated by neighbouring or later dynasties, such as the Satavahanas, and the Guptas . Silver coins of the Gupta kings Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
and his son Kumaragupta I adopted the Western Satrap
Satrap
design (itself derived from the Indo-Greeks ) with bust of the ruler and pseudo-Greek inscription on the obverse, and a royal eagle ( Garuda
Garuda
, the dynastic symbol of the Guptas) replacing the chaitya hill with star and crescent on the reverse.

The Western Satrap
Satrap
coin design was also adopted by the subsequent dynasty of the Traikutakas (388–456).

MONUMENTS

Sudarshan Lake of Satrap
Satrap
period is mentioned in major rock edicts of Junagadh but no trace of it remains. Six inscription-stones called Lashti s of 1st century were recovered from hillock near Andhau village in Khavda region of Kutch
Kutch
and were moved to Kutch
Kutch
Museum in Bhuj . They are earliest dated monuments of Satrap
Satrap
period and were erected in the time of Rudradaman I.

POSSIBLE VASSALAGE TO THE KUSHANS

Territories under Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in 375 AD

It is still unclear whether the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were independent rulers or vassals of the Kushans. The continued use of the word " Satrap
Satrap
" on their coin would suggest a recognized subjection to a higher ruler, possibly the Kushan emperor.

Also, a statue of Chastana was found in Mathura at the Temple of Mat together with the famous statues of Vima Kadphises and Kanishka
Kanishka
. This also would suggest at least alliance and friendship, if not vassalage. Finally Kanishka
Kanishka
claims in the Rabatak inscription that his power extends to Ujjain
Ujjain
, the classical capital of the Western Satrap
Satrap
realm. This combined with the presence of the Chastana statue side-by-side with Kanishka
Kanishka
would also suggest Kushan alliance with the Western Satraps.

Finally, the " Northern Satraps " who ruled in the area of Mathura , the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara , are known from an inscription in Sarnath
Sarnath
to have been feudatories of the Kushans.

Generally the orientation taken by modern scholarship is that the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were vassals of the Kushan, at least in the early period until Rudradaman I conquered the Yaudheyas
Yaudheyas
who are usually thought themselves as Kushan vassals. The question is not considered as perfectly settled.

MAIN RULERS

HISTORY OF GUJARAT

Stone Age (Before 4000 BC)

Stone Age (Before 4000 BC)

Chalcolithic to Bronze Age (4000–1300 BC)

Chalcolithic Gujarat
Gujarat

Anarta Tradition (c. 3950–1900 BC)

– Padri Ware (3600–2000 BC)

– Pre-Prabhas Assemblage (3200–2600 BC)

– Pre Urban Harappan Sindh
Sindh
Type Pottery (3000–2600 BC)

– Black and Red Ware (3950–900 BC)

– Reserved Slip Ware (3950–1900 BC)

– Micaceous Red Ware (2600–1600 BC)

Malwa
Malwa
Ware

Jorwe
Jorwe
Ware

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

– Early Harappan (3300–2600 BC)

– Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

– Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Late cultures (2200-1700 BC)

– Prabhas Assemblage (2200–1700 BC)

– Lustrous Red Ware (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

– Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

– Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

Painted Grey Ware culture
Painted Grey Ware culture
(1200–600 BC)

Maha Janapadas (600–300 BC)

Epic India
India
(1700-300 BC)

Abhira Kingdom

Anarta Kingdom

Dwaraka Kingdom

Sindhu Kingdom

Saurashtra Kingdom

Classical Period (380 BC–AD 1206)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
(321–184 BC)

Indo-Scythians (312 BC –400 CE)

–Western Satrap
Satrap
(119 – 405 CE)

Vakataka dynasty
Vakataka dynasty
(c. 250 - c.500 CE)

Kushan Empire (30 – 375 CE)

Traikutaka dynasty (388 - 454 CE)

Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
(405-c. 730 CE)

Maitraka (475 – 767 CE)

Saindhava (c.725 - c. 950 CE)

Gurjaras of Lata (c.580 - c. 738 CE)

Empire of Harsha ( 7th century)

Gurjara-Pratihara (c.730 - c. 960 CE)

Chavda dynasty (c. 690– c. 940 CE)

Rashtrakuta dynasty (8-9th century)

Paramara dynasty (9-10th century)

Western Chalukya
Western Chalukya
(9-10th century)

Chaulukya dynasty (c. 940 -1243 CE)

Vaghela dynasty (1243-1299 CE)

Medieval and Early Modern Periods (1299–1819)

Delhi Sultanate (1298–1407)

– Khilji Sultanate (1298–1320)

– Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1407)

Gujarat
Gujarat
Sultanate (1407–1573)

Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(1573–1758)

Maratha Empire (1758-1819)

Peshwa
Peshwa

Gaekwad
Gaekwad

Cutch State (1365-1947)

Colonial period (1819–1961)

Portuguese India
India
(1534-1961)

Company Raj (1819–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

–Princely states (till 1948)

–Residencies (1819-1947)

–Agencies of British India
India
(1819-1947)

Bombay Presidency (1618-1947)

Post-independence (1947–)

Saurashtra State
Saurashtra State
(1948-1956)

Kutch
Kutch
State (1947-1956)

Bombay State (1947-1960)

Gujarat
Gujarat
(1960-)

* v * t * e

KSHAHARATA DYNASTY

* Yapirajaya * Hospises * Higaraka * Abhiraka (Aubhirakes) * Bhumaka (?–119) * Nahapana
Nahapana
(119–124)

BHADRAMUKHAS OR KARDAMAKA DYNASTY

FAMILY OF CHASTANA:

* Chastana (c. 78-130), son of Zamotika * Jayadaman , son of Chastana * Rudradaman I (c. 130–150), son of Jayadaman * Damajadasri I (170–175) * Jivadaman (175, d. 199) * Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(175–188, d. 197) * Isvaradatta (188–191) * Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(restored) (191–197) * Jivadaman (restored) (197–199) * Rudrasena I (200–222) * Samghadaman (222–223) * Damasena (223–232) * Damajadasri II (232–239) with * Viradaman (234–238) * Yasodaman I (239) * Vijayasena (239–250) * Damajadasri III (251–255) * Rudrasena II (255–277) * Visvasimha (277–282) * Bhartrdaman (282–295) * Visvasena (293–304)

FAMILY OF RUDRASIMHA II:

* Rudrasimha II , son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman (304–348) with * Yasodaman II (317–332) * Rudradaman II (332–348) * Rudrasena III (348–380) * Simhasena (380–384(5?) * Rudrasena IV (382–388) * Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
(388–395)

SEE ALSO

* History of India
India
* Indo-Greek Kingdom * Indo-Scythians * Indo-Parthians * Kushan Empire * Rulers of Malwa
Malwa

* v * t * e

Middle kingdoms of India
India

Timeline and

cultural period Northwestern India
India

( Punjab
Punjab
-Sapta Sindhu ) Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
India

Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru - Panchala ) Northern India
India

(Central Gangetic Plain) Northeastern India
India

(Northeast India
India
)

IRON AGE

CULTURE LATE VEDIC PERIOD LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Brahmin ideology)

Painted Grey Ware culture
Painted Grey Ware culture
LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)

Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
PRE-HISTORY

6TH CENTURY BC Gandhara
Gandhara
Kuru - Panchala Magadha
Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

CULTURE PERSIAN-GREEK INFLUENCES "SECOND URBANISATION "

Rise of Shramana movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika - Yoga
Yoga
PRE-HISTORY

5TH CENTURY BC (Persian rule )

Shishunaga dynasty
Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

4TH CENTURY BC (Greek conquests )

Nanda empire Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE

CULTURE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM PRE-HISTORY SANGAM PERIOD (300 BC – 200 AD)

3RD CENTURY BC MAURYA EMPIRE Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

CULTURE PRECLASSICAL HINDUISM - "HINDU SYNTHESIS" (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD) Epics - Puranas - Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
Sangam period

(continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

2ND CENTURY BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire

Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

1ST CENTURY BC

1ST CENTURY AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kuninda Kingdom

2ND CENTURY Kushan Empire

3RD CENTURY Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE "GOLDEN AGE OF HINDUISM"(ca. AD 320-650) Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
Buddhism

4TH CENTURY Kidarites GUPTA EMPIRE

Varman dynasty Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty

5TH CENTURY Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina

6TH CENTURY Nezak Huns

Kabul Shahi Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas

Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE LATE-CLASSICAL HINDUISM (ca. AD 650-1100) Advaita Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

7TH CENTURY Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty
Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

8TH CENTURY Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom
Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

9TH CENTURY

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom
Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10TH CENTURY Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

REFERENCES

* ^ Samuel * ^ Samuel * ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 * ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) * ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 * ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) * ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 * ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

SOURCES

* Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press * Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge * Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press * Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press

NOTES

* ^ A B Kharapallana and Vanaspara are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath
Sarnath
, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka
Kanishka
, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushanas. Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc." Rapson, p ciii * ^ Ptolemy, "Geographia", Chap 7 * ^ World history from early times to A D 2000 by B .V. Rao: p.97 * ^ Ancient India
India
by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p. 234 * ^ Rapson, p. CVII * ^ " Kharoshthi inscription, Taxila copper plate of Patika", Sten Konow , p25 * ^ "The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
did not hold the western Deccan for long. They were gradually pushed out of the west by the Sakas (Western Khatrapas). The Kshaharata Nahapana's coins in the Nasik area indicate that the Western Kshatrapas controlled this region by the 1st century CE. By becoming master of wide regions including Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona
Poona
districts, Nahapana
Nahapana
rose from the status of a mere Kshatrapa in the year 41 (58 AD) to that of Mahakshatrapa in the year 46 (63 AD)." in "History of the Andhras" * ^ "Catalogue of Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc." Rapson. p. LVII * ^ "History of the Andhras", Durga Prasad Source * ^ Source * ^ A B C Source * ^ A. Jha and D. Rajgor: Studies in the Coinage of the Western Ksatraps, Nashik: Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies, 1992, p. 7. * ^ A B Source * ^ Rapson, "Indian coins of the British Museum" p.lx * ^ " Vidarbha also was under the rule of another Mahakshatrapa named Rupiamma, whose pillar inscription was recently discovered at Pavni in the Bhandara
Bhandara
district . It records the erection of a chhaya-stambha or sculptured pillar at the place. The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
had, Therefore, to leave Western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Vidarbha. They seem to have repaired to their capital Pratishthana where they continued to abide waiting for a favourable opportunity to oust the Shaka invaders." Source * ^ Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", p385 ("The