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Western Romance languages
Romance languages
are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages
Romance languages
based on the La Spezia–Rimini line. They include the Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Romance
and Iberian-Romance branches as well as northern Italian. The subdivision is based solely on the use of the "s" for pluralization and the weakening of some consonants, but that makes the categorization highly problematic because there is much higher lexical similarity between all dialects of Italian and French than between French and Spanish. There is also much higher morphological similarity between Spanish and Italian dialects than between Italian and French. Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby counts a dozen languages: Portuguese, Spanish, Asturian-Leonese, Aragonese, Catalan, Gascon, Provençal, Gallo-Wallon, French, Franco-Provençal, Romansh, and Ladin.[2] This classification criterion is however problematic, due to the much higher levels of mutual intelligibility between Italic and Iberian languages than between either of these with Gallo-Romance languages.[3] Some classifications include Italo-Dalmatian; the resulting clade is generally called Italo-Western Romance. Other classifications place Italo-Dalmatian with Eastern Romance. Sardinian does not fit into either Western or Eastern Romance, and may have split off before either. Today the four most-widely spoken standardized Western Romance languages are Spanish (c. 410 million native speakers), Portuguese (c. 220 million native, another 45 million or so second-language speakers, mainly in Lusophone Africa), French (c. 80 million native speakers, another 70 million or so second-language speakers, mostly in Francophone Africa), and Catalan (c. 7.2 million native). Many of these languages have large numbers of non-native speakers; this is especially the case for French, in widespread use throughout West Africa as a lingua franca. Gallo-Romance[edit] Main article: Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Romance
languages Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Romance
includes:[4]

The Langues d'oïl, or Oïl languages. These include Standard French, Picard, Walloon, Lorrain and Norman. The Arpitan language, also known as Franco-Provençal. It shares features of both French and the Provençal dialect of Occitan. Sometimes included in the Oïl languages.

Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Romance
can include:

The Occitano- Romance languages
Romance languages
of Southern France
France
and East Iberia, includes Occitan and Catalan. Occitano- Romance languages
Romance languages
can be classified as Gallo-Romance, Iberian-Romance, or as an independent branch of the Western Romance languages.

The Occitan language, or langue d'oc, has dialects such as Provençal dialect, and Gascon-Aranese dialect. The Catalan language
Catalan language
has standard forms of Catalan and Valencian. Can be classified as East Iberian.

The Rhaeto-Romance languages. They include Romansh of Switzerland, Ladin of the Dolomites area, Friulian of Friuli. Rhaeto-Romance languages can be classified as Gallo-Romance, or as an independent branch of the Western Romance languages. The Gallo-Italic languages. They include Piedmontese, Ligurian, Lombard, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Gallo-Italic of Sicily
Gallo-Italic of Sicily
and Gallo-Italic of Basilicata. Gallo- Italic languages
Italic languages
can be classified as Gallo-Romance.

The Oïl languages, Arpitan and Rhaeto- Romance languages
Romance languages
are sometimes called Gallo-Rhaetian, but it is difficult to exclude from this group Gallo-Italic, which according to several linguists forms a particular unity with Rhaeto-Romance.[5] Iberian-Romance[edit] Main article: Iberian Romance languages Iberian Romance languages
Romance languages
of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
include:[4]

The West Iberian languages:

The Castilian languages: includes Spanish and Judaeo-Spanish. The Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
languages: includes Portuguese, Galician, Fala and Uruguayan Portuñol. The Astur-Leonese languages: they are, from east to west, Cantabrian, central-eastern Asturian and Leonese proper. Going from north to south, they are Leonese proper, Mirandese, Extremaduran and Barranquenho.

The Pyrenean–Mozarabic
Pyrenean–Mozarabic
languages: includes Aragonese, and the extinct Mozarabic. Can be classified as West Iberian. The East Iberian language, or Catalan language: usually classified as part of Occitano-Romance, see Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Romance
above.

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Western Romance". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1] ^ [2] ^ a b Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Western Romance". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. ^ Hull, Geoffrey, The Linguistic Unity of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
and Rhaetia: Historical Grammar of the Padanian Language, Sydney: Beta Crucis, 2017. 2 vols.

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Romance languages
Romance languages
(Classification)

Western

Ibero-Romance

Galician-Portuguese

Portuguese

dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles

Galician

Eonavian/Galician-Asturian Fala

Judaeo-Portuguese Caló

Astur-Leonese

Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese

Spanish

Spanish

dialects Latin American Philippine Equatoguinean European Creoles

Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló

Others

Navarro-Aragonese

Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese

Mozarabic

Occitano- Romance

Catalan

dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian

Judaeo-Catalan Caló

Occitan

Auvergnat Gascon

Aranese

Languedocien Limousin Provençal

Niçard Mentonasc

Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló

Gallo-Romance

Langues d'oïl

Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French

dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles

Gallo Lorrain Norman

Anglo-Norman

Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin

Others

Arpitan/Franco-Provençal

Valdôtain Savoyard

North Italian dialects

Gallo-Italic

Ligurian

Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque

Lombard

Western Eastern

Emilian-Romagnol

Emilian

Bolognese Parmigiano

Romagnol

Piedmontese

Judaeo-Piedmontese

Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata

Others

Venetian

Fiuman Talian Triestine

Mediterranean Lingua Franca

Rhaeto-Romance

Rhaeto-Romance

Friulian Ladin Romansh

Central, Sardinian and Eastern

Italo-Dalmatian

Central

Italian dialects

Central Tuscan

Corsican

Gallurese

Sassarese Judaeo-Italian

Southern

Neapolitan

Northern Calabrese

Sicilian

Southern Calabrese

Others

Dalmatian Istriot

Sardinian

Sardinian

Sardinian

Campidanese Logudorese

Eastern

Romanian

Romanian

Moldovan Vlach

Others

Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian

North African

North African

African Romance

Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

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