The Info List - Western Christianity

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Western Christianity
is the type of Christianity
which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.[1] Western Christianity consists of the Latin Rite
Latin Rite
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(in contrast to the Eastern rites in communion with Rome) and a wide variety of Protestant denominations. The name "Western Christianity" is applied in order to distinguish these from Eastern Christianity. With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, Western Christianity
spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, and throughout Australia
and New Zealand. Thus, when used for historical periods after the 16th century, the term "Western Christianity" does not refer to a particular geographical area, but is rather used as a collective term for the Catholic Church, the Protestant denominations, and the other forms of Christianity
that trace their lineage to Western Europe. Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity
is not nearly as absolute as in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, due to the spread of missionary activities, migrations, and globalisation. The adjectives "Western Christianity" and "Eastern Christianity" are typically used to refer to historical origins and differences in liturgy, rather than present geographical locations.


1 History 2 Features

2.1 Original sin 2.2 Filioque
clause 2.3 Date of Easter

3 Western denominations 4 See also 5 References


Title page of the Lutheran Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae.

Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schaal and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu

For most of its history the church in Europe
has been culturally divided between the Latin-speaking west, whose centre was Rome, and the Greek-speaking east, whose centre was Constantinople. Cultural differences and political rivalry created tensions between the two churches, leading to disagreement over doctrine and ecclesiology and ultimately to schism.[2] Like Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity
traces its roots directly to the apostles and other early preachers of the religion. In Western Christianity's original area Latin
was the principal language. Christian writers in Latin
had more influence there than those who wrote in Greek, Syriac, or other Eastern languages. Though the first Christians in the West used Greek (such as Clement of Rome), by the fourth century Latin
had superseded it even in the cosmopolitan city of Rome, while there is evidence of a Latin
translation of the Bible in the 2nd century (see also Vetus Latina) in southern Gaul and the Roman province of Africa.[3] With the decline of the Roman Empire, distinctions appeared also in organization, since the bishops in the West were not dependent on the Emperor in Constantinople
and did not come under the influence of the Caesaropapism in the Eastern Church. While the see of Constantinople became dominant throughout the Emperor's lands, the West looked exclusively to the see of Rome, which in the East was seen as that of one of the five patriarchs of the Pentarchy, "the proposed government of universal Christendom
by five patriarchal sees under the auspices of a single universal empire. Formulated in the legislation of the emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565), especially in his Novella 131, the theory received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo (692), which ranked the five sees as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem."[4] Over the centuries, disagreements separated Western Christianity
from the various forms of Eastern Christianity: first from East Syrian Christianity
after the Council of Ephesus (431), then from that of Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
after the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
(451), and then from Eastern Orthodoxy with the East-West Schism
East-West Schism
of 1054. With the last-named form of Eastern Christianity, reunion agreements were signed at the Second Council of Lyon
Second Council of Lyon
and the Council of Florence, but these proved ineffective. The rise of Protestantism
led to major divisions within Western Christianity, which still persist, and wars—for example, the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604 had religious as well as economic causes. In and after the Age of Discovery, Europeans spread Western Christianity
to the New World
New World
and elsewhere. Roman Catholicism came to the Americas
(especially South America), Africa, Asia, Australia
and the Pacific. Protestantism, including Anglicanism, came to North America, Australia-Pacific and some African locales. Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity
is now much less absolute, due to the great migrations of Europeans across the globe, as well as the work of missionaries worldwide over the past five centuries. Features[edit]

Catholic St.Martin´s cathedral in Spišské Podhradie
Spišské Podhradie
(Slovakia). Behind the cathedral there is the gothic Spiš Castle.

Saint Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
was one of the great Western scholars of the Medieval period.

Original sin[edit] Although "original sin" can be taken to mean the sin that Adam committed, it is usually understood as a consequence of the first sin, the hereditary stain with which we are born on account of our origin or descent from Adam. With the exception of tendencies such as Pelagianism, Western Christianity
is thought to hold this doctrine, which was championed especially by Saint Augustine, who wrote: "The deliberate sin of the first man is the cause of original sin" (De nupt. et concup., II, xxvi, 43).[5] Filioque
clause[edit] See also: Filioque Most Western Christians use a version of the Nicene Creed
that states that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and the Son", where the original text as adopted by the First Council of Constantinople
had "proceeds from the Father" without the addition of either "and the Son" or "alone". This Western version also has the additional phrase "God from God" (in Latin
Deum de Deo), which was in the Creed
as adopted by the First Council of Nicaea, but which was dropped by the First Council of Constantinople. Date of Easter[edit] Main article: Easter controversy The date of Easter usually differs between Eastern and Western Christianity, because the calculations are based on the Julian calendar and Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
respectively. However, before the Council of Nicea various dates including Jewish Passover were observed. Nicea "Romanized" the date for Easter and anathematized a "Judaized" (i.e. Passover date for) Easter. The date of observance of Easter has only differed in modern times since the promulgation of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
in 1582; and further, the Western Church did not universally adopt the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
at once, so that for some time the dates of Easter differed as between the Eastern Church and the Roman Catholic Church, but not necessarily as between the Eastern Church and the Western Protestant churches. For example, the Church of England continued to observe Easter on the same date as the Eastern Church until 1753. Even the dates of other Christian holidays differ between Eastern and Western Christianity. Western denominations[edit] Today, Western Christianity
makes up close to 90% of Christians worldwide with the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
accounting for over half and various Protestant denominations making up another 40%. Hussite
movements of 15th century Bohemia
preceded the main Protestant uprising by 100 years and evolved into several small Protestant churches, such as the Moravian Church. Waldensians
survived also, but blended into the Reformed tradition.

Major branches and movements within Protestantism.

See also[edit]

Holy Roman Empire List of Christian denominations Protestant Reformation Reformed theology Western churches Western religion Western Rite Orthodoxy Eastern Orthodox – Catholic theological differences Eastern Orthodox – Catholic ecclesiastical differences


^ " Christianity
in the Roman Empire". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2018-02-09.  ^ "General Essay on Western Christianity", Overview Of World Religions. Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. © 1998/9 ELMAR Project. Accessed 1 April 2012. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Christian Church
(Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article "Latin" ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Pentarchy ^ Harent, Stéphane. "Original Sin." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 7 June 2009.

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