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Western Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe
Europe
include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity
Christianity
by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin
Latin
West
West
and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking
Viking
Invasions, the East- West
West
schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
as well as the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two World Wars, the Cold War, the formation of NATO
NATO
and the expansion of the EU.

Contents

1 Historical divisions

1.1 Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and medieval origins 1.2 Religion 1.3 Cold War 1.4 Western European Union

2 Modern divisions

2.1 CIA classification 2.2 Intermediate Region 2.3 Western European and Others Group

3 Climate 4 Languages 5 Economy 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Historical divisions[edit] Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and medieval origins[edit]

The Great Schism
The Great Schism
in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe
Europe
at the time.[1][2]

Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe
Europe
had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. As the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the mainly Greek-speaking eastern provinces, which had formed the highly urbanized Hellenistic civilization, and the western territories, which in contrast largely adopted the Latin
Latin
language. This cultural and linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
controlled the two divergent regions between the 3rd and the 5th century. The division between these two was enhanced during Late antiquity
Late antiquity
and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. The rise of the Carolingian Empire in the west, and in particular the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim
Muslim
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 15th century, and the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(which had replaced the Carolingian Empire), the division between Roman Catholic and Protestant became more important in Europe
Europe
than that with Eastern Orthodoxy. In East Asia, Western Europe
Europe
was historically known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West
West
became synonymous with Western Europe
Europe
in China during the Ming dynasty. The Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West
West
as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East. In Ricci's writings, Ricci referred to himself as "Matteo of the Far West".[3] The term was still in use in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Religion[edit]

Religious division in 1054[4]

The East– West
West
Schism, which has lasted since the 11th century, divided Christianity
Christianity
in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity
Christianity
and Eastern Christianity. With certain simplifications, Western Europe
Europe
is thus Catholic or Protestant and uses the Latin
Latin
alphabet. Eastern Europe
Europe
is Orthodox and uses the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
or Cyrillic script. According to this definition, Western Europe
Europe
is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, including countries which are considered part of Central Europe
Europe
now: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Switzerland
and United Kingdom. Eastern Europe, meanwhile is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, including Greece, Belarus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine
Ukraine
for instance. The schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman Catholic from the 11th century, as well as from the 16th century also Protestant) churches. This division dominated Europe
Europe
for centuries, in opposition to the rather short lived Cold War
Cold War
division of 4 decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe
Europe
has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian (many times incorrectly labeled "Greek Orthodox") churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however, often problematic; for example, Greece
Greece
is overwhelmingly Orthodox, but is very rarely included in "Eastern Europe", for a variety of reasons.[5] Cold War[edit]

Political situation in Europe
Europe
during the Cold War

During the four decades of the Cold War, the definition of East and West
West
was rather simplified by the existence of the Eastern Bloc. Historians and social scientists generally view the Cold War definition of Western and Eastern Europe
Europe
as outdated or relegating.[6][7][8][9] During the final stages of World War II, the future of Europe
Europe
was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, the U.S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Post-war Europe
Europe
would be divided into two major spheres: the Western Bloc, influenced by the United States, and the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. This term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
and later Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk
Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk
in the last days of the war; however, its use was hugely popularised by Winston Churchill, who used it in his famous "Sinews of Peace" address on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri:

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste
Trieste
in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest
Bucharest
and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.

Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their political and economic systems. This division largely defines the popular perception and understanding of Western Europe
Europe
and its borders with Eastern Europe.

Former Western European Union
Western European Union
– its members and associates

The world changed dramatically with the fall of the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
in 1989. West
West
Germany
Germany
peacefully absorbed East Germany, in the German reunification. Comecon
Comecon
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact were dissolved, and in 1991, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ceased to exist. Several countries which had been part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
regained full independence. Western European Union[edit] In 1948 the Treaty of Brussels
Treaty of Brussels
was signed between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the United Kingdom. It was further revisited in 1954 at the Paris Conference, when the Western European Union was established. It was declared defunct in 2011, after the Treaty of Lisbon, and the Treaty of Brussels
Treaty of Brussels
was terminated. When the Western European Union
Western European Union
was dissolved, it had 10 member countries, six associate member countries, five observer countries and seven associate partner countries. Modern divisions[edit] CIA classification[edit]

Regions of Europe
Europe
based on CIA world factbook. Western Europe
Europe
in light blue; Southwestern Europe
Europe
in red

The CIA classifies seven countries as belonging to "Western Europe":[10]

 Belgium  France  Ireland  Luxembourg  Monaco  Netherlands  United Kingdom

The CIA also classifies three countries as belonging to "Southwestern Europe":

 Andorra  Portugal  Spain

Intermediate Region[edit]

Geopolitical boundary of Western culture
Western culture
according to historian Dimitri Kitsikis

The Intermediate Region
Intermediate Region
is an established geopolitical model set forth in the 1970s by the Greek historian Dimitri Kitsikis. Under this model, the lands between the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and the Indus River
Indus River
form the Intermediate Region, and are considered a bridge between Western and Eastern civilisations. Western European and Others Group[edit] The Western European and Others Group
Western European and Others Group
is one of several unofficial Regional Groups in the United Nations
United Nations
that act as voting blocs and negotiation forums. Regional voting blocs were formed in 1961 to encourage voting to various UN bodies from different regional groups. The European members of the group are:[11]

 Andorra  Austria  Belgium  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Greece

 Iceland  Ireland  Italy  Liechtenstein  Luxembourg  Malta  Monaco  Netherlands

 Norway  Portugal  San Marino  Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  Turkey  United Kingdom

In addition, Australia, Canada, Israel
Israel
and New Zealand
New Zealand
are members of the group, with the United States
United States
as observer. Climate[edit] The climate of Western Europe
Europe
varies from subtropical and semi-arid in the southern coast of Spain
Spain
to polar[verification needed] in the Pyrenees. The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
of the south is dry and warm. The western and northwestern parts have a mild, generally humid climate, influenced by the North Atlantic Current. Languages[edit] Western European languages mostly fall within two Indo-European language families: the Romance languages, descended from the Latin
Latin
of the Roman Empire; and the Germanic languages, whose ancestor language (Proto-Germanic) came from southern Scandinavia.[12] Romance languages are spoken primarily in the southern and central part of Western Europe, Germanic languages
Germanic languages
in the northern part (the British Isles
British Isles
and the Low Countries), as well as a large part of Northern and Central Europe.[12] Other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
include the Celtic group (that is, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton[12]). Basque is the only currently living Western European language isolate. Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Western Europe
Europe
today. The Council of Europe
Europe
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages set up a legal framework for language rights in Europe. Economy[edit] Western Europe
Europe
is one of the richest regions of the world. Germany
Germany
has the highest GDP in Europe
Europe
and the largest financial surplus of any country, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
has the world's highest GDP per capita, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has the highest Net National Wealth of any European state. Switzerland
Switzerland
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
have the highest average wage in the world, in nominal and ppp respectively. Denmark
Denmark
ranks highest in the world on the Social Progress Index. See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal

Central Europe Eastern Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Far West Marshall Plan Eurovoc#Western Europe

References[edit]

^ "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land". Rbedrosian.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.  ^ "home.comcast.net". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.  ^ Ricci, Matteo (1610) [2009]. On Friendship: One Hundred Maxims for a Chinese Prince. Translated by Timothy Billings. Columbia University Press. pp. 19, 71, 87. ISBN 978-0231149242.  ^ Dragan Brujić (2005). "Vodič kroz svet Vizantije (Guide to the Byzantine World)". Beograd. p. 51. [dead link] ^ Peter John, Local Governance in Western Europe, University of Manchester, 2001, ISBN 9780761956372 ^ "The geopolitical conditions (...) are now a thing of the past, and some specialists today think that Eastern Europe
Europe
has outlived its usefulness as a phrase.""Regions, Regionalism, Eastern Europe
Europe
by Steven Cassedy". New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Charles Scribner's Sons. 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2010  ^ "One very common, but now outdated, definition of Eastern Europe
Europe
was the Soviet-dominated communist countries of Europe."http://www.cotf.edu/earthinfo/balkans/BKdef.html ^ "Too much writing on the region has – consciously or unconsciously – clung to an outdated image of 'Eastern Europe', desperately trying to patch together political and social developments from Budapest
Budapest
to Bukhara or Tallinn to Tashkent without acknowledging that this Cold War frame of reference is coming apart at the seams. Central Europe Review: Re-Viewing Central Europe
Europe
By Sean Hanley, Kazi Stastna and Andrew Stroehlein, 1999 ^ Berglund, Sten; Ekman, Joakim; Aarebrot, Frank H. (2004). The handbook of political change in Eastern Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing [via Google Books]. p. 2. ISBN 9781781954324. Retrieved 5 October 2011. The term 'Eastern Europe' is ambiguous and in many ways outdated.  ^ "Field listing: Location". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 30 July 2017.  ^ UNAIDS, The Governance Handbook, January 2010 (p. 29). ^ a b c "Europe". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2008. 

Sources[edit]

The Making of Europe, ISBN 0-14-015409-4, by Robert Bartlett Crescent and Cross, ISBN 1-84212-753-5, by Hugh Bicheno The Normans, ISBN 0-7524-2881-0, by Trevor Rowley 1066: The Year of the Three Battles, ISBN 0-7126-6672-9, by Frank McLynn

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Western Europe
Europe
(category)

The European sub-regions according to the UN Teaching about Western Europe

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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West
West
Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West
West
Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West
West
Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West
West
Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West
West
Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West
West
Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West
West
Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Corruption index GDP (nominal)

per capita

GDP (PPP)

per capita

GNI (nominal) per capita GNI (PPP) per capita HDI Internet users (%) Minimum wage Press Freedom Index Unemployment rate (%) Health expense per capita Military spending (%) Childhood population (%) Urban population (%) Life expectancy Electricity use per capita

Society

Etiquette Social (and financial) rankings Languages

endangered

Universities

Bologna Process Erasmus

Culture

Art

painting sculpture

Architecture Capital of Culture Cinema

film festivals

Classical music Cuisine Dance Literature Philosophy Religion

Christianity Islam Judaism

Sport Symbols

Demographics

Ageing Ethnic groups

genetic history

Immigration Life expectancy Retirement

Outline Index

Category Portal Maps

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 245653

.