Java (Indonesian: Jawa Barat, abbreviated as Jabar; Sundanese:
ᮏᮝ ᮊᮥᮜᮧᮔ᮪ Jawa Kulon) is a province of Indonesia. It
is located in the western part of the island of
Java and its capital
and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population
in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the
even larger urban area of Jakarta, even though that city itself lies
outside the administrative province. The province's population is 46.3
million (in 2014) and it is the most populous of Indonesia's
The central areas of Bogor, a city in West Java, has one of the
highest population density worldwide, while
respectively the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world
Tangerang in adjacent
Banten province is the 9th); in 2014
Depok 1,869,681 inhabitants. All these cities are
suburban to Jakarta.
2 Administrative divisions
4.1 Colonial period
4.2 Post independence
5.1 Ethnic and linguistic composition
6.1.2 Zither ensembles
6.1.3 Bamboo ensembles
6.4 Folktales and legend stories
7 Human Development Index
8 Natural resources
9.1 Toll roads
13 External links
Rice fields terrace in
Priangan highland, West Java, Dutch East
Indies. In/before 1926.
Parahyangan highland near
Buitenzorg (Bogor), c. 1865–1872
The oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were
Anyer (the western coast of Java) with evidence of bronze
and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium AD.
Buni culture (near present-day Bekasi) clay pottery
were later developed with evidence found in
Anyer to Cirebon.
Artefacts (dated from 400 BC — AD 100), such as food and drink
containers, were found mostly as burial gifts. There is also
archaeological evidence in
Batujaya Archaeological Site
Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from
the 2nd century and, according to Dr Tony
Djubiantono, the head of
Bandung Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in
Batujaya, Karawang, West
Java was also built around this
One of the earliest known[clarification needed] recorded history in
Indonesia is from the former
Tarumanagara kingdom, where seven fourth
century stones are inscribed in Wengi letters (used in the Pallava
period) and in Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom
Tarumanagara. Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until
the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya, as
stated in the
Kota Kapur inscription
Kota Kapur inscription (AD 686).
Sunda Kingdom subsequently became the ruling power of the region,
as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription (AD 932).
An Ulama, Sunan Gunung Jati, settled in Cirebon, with the intention of
spreading the word of
Islam in the pagan town. In the meantime, the
Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak in central
Java grew to an immediate threat against
the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa
Jayaperkosa signed a treaty (known as the Luso-Sundanese Treaty) with
the Portuguese in 1512. In return, the Portuguese were granted an
accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as
form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international
treaty of West
Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the
placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung
River in 1522.
Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it could
not come to realization.
Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the alliance
Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of
Cirebon (former vassal
state of Sunda kingdom) in 1524, after their troops under Paletehan
alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops
Sunan Gunung Jati
Sunan Gunung Jati also seized the port of
Banten and established
the Sultanate of
Banten which was affiliating with the Sultanate of
Demak. The war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon
sultanates then continued for five years until a peace treaty was made
in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to
1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the
Sunda kingdom declined, essentially under the pressure from Sultanate
of Banten. After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at
Pakuan Pajajaran (the present-day Bogor) and gradually the Sultanate
Banten took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram
Sultanate from central
Java also seized the
Priangan region, the
southeastern part of the kingdom.
In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies
established their trading ships in West
Java after the falldown of
Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West
under the Dutch East Indies' administration. West
Java was officially
declared as a province of
Indonesia in 1950, referring to a statement
from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide
Banten was separated from West
made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename
Pasundan ("Land of the Sundanese") after the historical
name for West Java.
Since the creation of West
Bandung Regency in 2008, the Province of
Java has been subdivided into 9 cities (Indonesian: Kota) and 17
regencies (Indonesian: Kabupaten). These 26 cities and regencies are
divided into 620 districts (Indonesian: Kecamatan), which comprise
1,576 urban villages (Indonesian: Kelurahan) and 4,301 rural villages
(Indonesian: Desa). An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 -
Pangandaran Regency - from the southern half of
Ciamis Regency; and on
25 October 2013 the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began
reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies
(and 8 new provinces), including a further three regencies in West
Java - South Garut (Garut Selatan), North
Bogor Barat) - but none of these three new regencies
are shown separately on the map below, nor in the following table.
Cities and Regencies of West Java
in Square km
0.801 (Very high)
* - the 2005 population is included in the total for
of which West
Bandung Regency was formerly part.
** - the figures for
Ciamis Regency include those for the new
Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012.
View of the mount and the crater of Tangkuban Parahu, Bandung
Tea plantations in Malabar, southern Bandung.
Tea plantations are
common sight across mountainous West Java
Banten province to the west, and Central
Java to the east. To the north is the
Java Sea. To the south is the
Indian Ocean. Unlike most other provinces in
Indonesia which have
their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung, is
located in the mountainous area in the centre of the province. Banten
Province was formerly part of West
Java Province but was created a
separate province in 2000. West Java, in the densely populated western
third of Java, is home to almost 1 out of every 5 Indonesians.
Banten provinces, as a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire,
have more mountains and volcanoes than any of the other provinces in
Indonesia. The vast volcanic mountainous region of inland West
traditionally known as
Parahyangan (also known as
Preanger) which means "The abode of hyangs (gods)". It is considered
as the heartland of the Sundanese people. The highest point of West
Java is the stratovolcano
Mount Cereme (3,078 meters) bordering
Majalengka Regencies. West
Java has rich and fertile
volcanic soil. Agriculture, especially traditional dry rice
cultivation (known as ladang or huma), has become the main way of life
of traditional Sundanese people. Since the colonial VOC and Dutch East
Indies era, West
Java has been known as a productive plantation area
for coffee, tea, quinine, and many other cash crops. The mountainous
region of West
Java is also a major producer of vegetables and
decorative flowering plants. Sunny tropical sites with a cool
atmosphere and beautiful scenery are frequently across almost all of
Banten except in the northern parts ( the
beaches). The landscape of the province is one of volcanic mountains,
steep terrain, forest, mountains, rivers, fertile agricultural land,
and natural sea harbours.
Bandung Basin to the northeast is Citarum River, the
longest and most important river in the province. This 300-km long
river is the site of 3 dams, namely Cirata Dam, Saguling Dam, and
Jatiluhur Dam. The river is heavily polluted by industrial and
household sewage to the point that it has been called as 'the world's
dirtiest river' by some.
Initially, the economy of the
Sundanese people in West
heavily on rice cultivation. Ancient kingdoms established in West Java
such as the
Sunda Kingdom are known to have relied on
rice taxes and agriculture revenues. The cycle of life of the ancient
Sundanese people revolved around the rice crop cycle. Traditional rice
harvest festivals such as the
Seren Taun were important. The ancient
goddess of rice, Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri, is revered in Sundanese
Sundanese people often used dry rice
cultivation (ladang). After the Mataram expanded to the
in the early 17th century following the
Sultan Agung campaign against
Dutch Batavia, sawah (wet rice cultivation) began to be adopted in the
northern lowlands of West Java. Regencies such as Indramayu, Cirebon,
Bekasi are now well known as key rice producing
areas. The mountainous region of West
Java supplies vegetables, flower
and many horticultural produce to
Jakarta and Bandung. Animal farms in
Java produce dairy products and meats.
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company (VOC) and
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies era,
Java fell under Dutch administration centered in Batavia. The
Dutch colonial government introduced cash crops such as tea, coffee,
and quinine. Since the 18th century, West
Java (known as "De
Preanger") was known as a productive plantation area, and became
integrated with global trade and economy. Services such as
transportation and banking were provided to cater for wealthy Dutch
plantation owners. West
Java is known as one of the earliest developed
regions in the Indonesian archipelago. In the early 20th century, the
Dutch colonial government developed infrastructures for economic
purposes, especially to support Dutch plantations in the region. Roads
and railways were constructed to connect inland plantations area with
urban centers such as
Bandung and port of Batavia.
After Indonesian independence in 1945, West
Java became a supporting
region for Jakarta, the Indonesian capital.
Jakarta remained as the
business and political center of Indonesia. Several regencies and
cities in West
Java such as Bogor,
Depok were developed as
supporting areas for
Jakarta and came to form the Greater
or Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor,
Depok and Bekasi). The northern area
Java has become a major industrial area. Areas such as Bekasi,
Karawang are sprawling with factories and industries. The
area in and around
Bandung also developed as industrial area.
Endowed with natural beauty and rich culture, tourism is also an
important industry in West Java. The
Puncak area and
Bandung have long
been known as popular weekend destinations for Jakartans. Today
Bandung has developed into a chic and fashionable shopping
destination, popular not only among local Indonesian especially
Jakartans, but also a popular shopping destination for neighboring
Malaysian and Singaporeans. The ancient coastal city of
also popular as cultural tourism destination since the city has
several kratons and many historical sites such as Gua Sunyaragi. Other
popular tourism destinations include the
Bogor Botanical Garden, Taman
Tangkuban Perahu crater, Ciater hot springs, Kawah
Putih crater to the south of Bandung,
Pangandaran beach, and various
mountain resorts in Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya, and Kuningan.
2000 Census decline due to
Banten split. Source: Statistics Indonesia
2010, Ministry of Health 2014 Estimate
The population of West
Java was put at 43,054,000 in mid-2010 making
it the most populous province of Indonesia, home to 18% of the
national total on 1.8% of the national land. Aside from the
special district of Jakarta, it is the most densely populated province
in the country with an average of 1,236 people per km² (2010 data).
The population growth rate recorded in the ten years to 2010 was
Ethnic and linguistic composition
Java is the native homeland of
Sundanese people which forms the
largest ethnic group in West Java, followed by Javanese who migrated
to the province centuries ago. Since
Jakarta and the surrounding area,
including West Java, is the business and political center of
Indonesia, the province has attracted various people from throughout
Native Indonesian ethnic groups such as Minangkabau,
Batak, Malay, Madurese, Balinese,
Ambonese and many other Indonesians
who migrated to and settled in West
Java cities can also be easily
Java urban areas also have a significant population of
In addition to Indonesian, the official national language, the other
widely spoken language in the province is Sundanese. In some areas
near the southern borders with Central Java, Javanese is also spoken.
The main language spoken in
Cirebon and nearby areas (Majalengka,
Indramayu, Sumber) is Cirebonese, a dialect of Javanese with Sundanese
Indonesian is widely spoken as a second language.
Religion in West
Java (2010 census)
other, not stated or not asked
The Sundanese share
Java island with the
Javanese people and primarily
live in West Java. Although the Sundanese live in the same island as
the Javanese, their culture is distinct and they likewise consider
themselves to live in a separate cultural area called
Tatar Sunda. Someone moving from West
Java Province to Central or East
Java Provinces is literally said to be moving from Sunda to Java
worlds. Bandung, the capital city of West Java, is considered as the
cultural heartland of Sundanese people. Many indigenous Sundanese
artforms were developed in this city. The nearby province of Banten,
which was formerly part of West
Java before it became its own
province, is similar in this regard and is also considered to be part
Pasundan as well.
Gamelan Degung Orchestra
The musical arts of Sunda, which is an expression of the emotions of
Sundanese culture, express politeness and grace of Sundanese. Degung
orchestra consists of Sundanese gamelan.
In addition to the Sundanese forms of
Gamelan in Parahyangan, the
Cirebon retains its own distinct musical traditions. Amongst
Gamelan ensembles the two most frequently heard are
Gamelan Pelog (a non-equidistant heptatonic tuning system) and Gamelan
Prawa (a semi-equidistant pentatonic tuning system).
Gamelan Pelog is
traditionally reserved for Tayuban, Wayang Cepak, and for listening
and dance music of the Kratons in Cirebon. Whereas
Gamelan Prawa is
traditionally reserved for Wayang Purwa.
Cirebon also retains specialized
Gamelan ensembles including: Sekaten,
which is played in the Kratons to mark important times in the Islamic
calendar. Denggung, also a Kraton ensemble which is believed to have a
number of "supernatural powers". And Renteng, an ensemble found in
Parahyangan that is known for its loud and energetic
Tembang Sunda is a genre of Sundanese vocal music accompanied by a
core ensemble of two kacapi (zither) and a suling (bamboo flute).
Tembang means song or poem and Sunda is a geographical, historical,
and cultural construct which signifies home for the Sundanese people
of Indonesia. The music and poetry of tembang Sunda are closely
associated with the
Parahyangan (literally the abode of the gods), the
highland plateau that transverses the central and southern parts of
Sunda. The natural beauty of Priangan, a lush agricultural region
surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, politeness and grace of
Sundanese is reflected in many songs of the tembang Sunda.
Kacapi suling is tembang Sunda minus vocal.
Tarawangsa is a genuine popular art is performed on ensemble consists
of tarawangsa (a violin with an end pin) and the jentreng (a kind of
seven-stringed zither). It is accompanied by a secret dance called
Jentreng. The dance is a part of a ritual celebrating the goddess of
paddy Dewi Sri. Its ceremonial significance is associated with a
ritual of thanksgiving associated with the rice harvest. Tarawangsa
can also be played for healing or even purely for entertainment.
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
The three main types of Sundanese bamboo ensembles are angklung,
calung, and arumba. The exact features of each ensemble vary according
to context, related instruments, and relative popularity.
Angklung is a generic term for sets of tuned, shaken bamboo rattles.
Angklung consists of a frame upon which hang several different lengths
of hollow bamboo. Angklungs are played like handbells, with each
instrument played to a different note.
Angklung rattles are played in
interlocking patterns, usually with only one or two instruments played
per person. The ensemble is used in Sundanese processions, sometimes
with trance or acrobatics. Performed at life-cycle rituals and feasts
(hajat), angklung is believed to maintain balance and harmony in the
village. In its most modern incarnation, angklung is performed in
schools as an aid to learning about music.
Angklung got more international attention when Daeng Soetigna,
from Bandung, West Java, expanded the angklung notations not only to
play traditional pélog or sléndro scales, but also diatonic scale in
1938. Since then, angklung is often played together with other western
music instruments in an orchestra. One of the first well-known
performances of angklung in an orchestra was during the Bandung
Conference in 1955.
Like those in angklung, the instruments of the calung ensemble are of
bamboo, but each consists of several differently tuned tubes fixed
onto a piece of bamboo; the player holds the instrument in his left
hand and strikes it with a beater held in his right. The
highest-pitched calung has the greatest number of tubes and the
densest musical activity; the lowest-pitched, with two tubes, has the
Calung is nearly always associated with earthy humor, and is
played by men.
Arumba refers to a set of diatonically tuned bamboo xylophones, often
played by women. It is frequently joined by modern instruments,
including a drum set, electric guitar, bass, and keyboards.
Wayang Golek, traditional Sundanese puppetry.
Wayang golek is a traditional form of puppetry from Sunda. Unlike the
better-known leather shadow puppets (wayang kulit) found in the rest
Java and Bali, wayang golek puppets are made from wood and are
three-dimensional, rather than two. They use a banana palm in which
the puppets stand, behind which one puppeteer (dalang) is accompanied
by his gamelan orchestra with up to 20 musicians. The gamelan uses a
five-note scale as opposed to the seven-note western scale. The
musicians are guided by the drummer, who in turn is guided by signals
from the puppet master dalang gives to change the mood or pace
required. Wayang golek are used by the Sundanese to tell the epic play
"Mahabarata" and various other morality type plays.
Main article: Sundanese dance
Sundanese dance shows the influence of the many groups that have
traded and settled in the area over the centuries, but remains
uniquely distinctive, with its variation from graceful to dynamic
syncopated drumming patterns, quick wrist flicks, sensual hip
movements, and fast shoulder and torso isolations.
probably the most popular traditional social dance of Sundanese
people. It can be performed in solo, in group, or in pair. The Tari
Merak (Peafowl Dance) is a female dance inspired by the movements of a
peafowl and its feathers blended with the classical movements of
Sundanese dance. The Tari Merak symbolises the beauty of nature.
Folktales and legend stories
Nyai Loro Kidul.
There are stories and folktales transcribed from Pantun Sunda
stories. Among the most well known folktale and stories are:
Mundinglaya Dikusumah, which tells of Mundinglaya visiting Jabaning
Langit to find layang Salaka Domas. It is a symbolic story of
Surawisesa visiting Malaka to establish a peace treaty with the
Portuguese before 1522.
Lutung Kasarung, tells the life of a beautiful princess, in the era of
Pasir Batang kingdom, a vassal of Sunda kingdom. She faces the evil of
her older sister willing to seize her right as a queen.
Ciung Wanara, tells of the fight of two princes of Sunda kingdom and
the history of Cipamali river (present-day
Brebes river) as a boundary
between Sundanese and Javanese territories.
Sangkuriang, which tells the story of the creation of Mount Tangkuban
Parahu and the ancient lake Bandung.
Nyai Loro Kidul
Nyai Loro Kidul (also spelled Nyi Roro Kidul) is a legendary female
spirit or deity, known as the Queen of the Southern Sea of Java
Indian Ocean or Samudra Kidul south of
Java island) in Sundanese as
well in Javanese mythology.
Old Sundanese literature, among others, are:
Bujangga Manik, which was written on 29 palm leaves and kept in the
Bodleian Library in Oxford since 1627, mentioning more than 450 names
of places, regions, rivers and mountains situated on
Java island, Bali
Carita Parahyangan, telling Sundanese kings and kingdoms from the
Siksakandang Karesian, providing the reader with all kinds of
religious and moralistic rules, prescriptions and lessons.
Human Development Index
Cities and Regencies in West
Java range high to medium Human
Development Index (HDI).
City / Regency
HDI (2016 data)
Comparable Country (2016 UNDP Data)
Very high human development
High human development
Medium human development
Based on the data from
Indonesia State Secretary, the total area of
rice fields in West
Java Province in 2006 was 9,488,623 km which
produced 9,418,882 tons of paddy in 2006, consisting of
9,103,800 tons rice field paddy and 315,082 tons farmland
paddy. Palawija (non-rice food) production, reached
2,044,674 tons with productivity 179.28 quintal per ha.
Nevertheless, the widest plant's width is for corn commodity which
reaches 148,505 ha, West
Java also produce horticulture consists of
2,938,624 tons vegetables, 3,193,744 tons fruits, and
159,871 tons medicines plants/ bio pharmacology.
Forest in West
Java covers 764,387.59 ha or 20.62% from total size of
the province. It consists of productive forest 362,980.40 ha (9.79%),
protected forest 228,727.11 ha (6.17%), and conservation forest
172,680 ha (4.63%). Mangrove forest reaches 40,129.89 ha, and spread
in 10 regencies where coasts are available. Besides, there is also
another protected forest of about 32,313.59 ha organized by Perum
Perhutani Unit III West
Java and Banten.
From the productive forest, in 2006 West
Java harvested crop of about
200,675 m³ wood, although the need of wood in this province
every year is about 4 million m³. Until 2006, populace
forest's width 214,892 ha with wood production is about
893,851.75 m³. West
Java also produce non-forest's crop which is
potential enough to be developed as forestry work, such as silk,
mushroom, pine, dammar, maleleuca, rattan, bamboo, and swallow bird's
In fishery sector, the excellent commodities are goldfish, nila fish,
milkfish, freshwater catfish, windu shrimp, green mussel, gouramy,
patin, seaweed and vaname shrimp. In 2006, this province harvested
560,000 tons fish from fishery cultivation crop and brackish or
63.63% from fishery production total in West Java.
In the poultry field, dairy cow, domestic poultry, and ducks are
excellent commodities in West Java. 2006 data stated that there are
96,796 dairy cows (25% of the national population), 4,249,670 sheep,
28,652,493 domestic poultries, and 5,596,882 ducks (16% of the
national population). Now there are only 245,994 beef cattle in West
Java (3% national population), whereas the need every year is about
300,000 beef cattle.
This province has many plantation crops, such as tea, cloves, coconut,
rubber, cacao, tobacco, coffee, sugar, palm and akar wangi
(Chrysopogon zizanioides). From all those commodities, cloves,
coconut, rubber, cocoa, tobacco, and coffee are of noted excellent
commodities from West Java. From area side, the best productivity,
that is plan area's width equals with plant's width that produces
tobacco and sugar palm commodities. From production side, the highest
productivity is oil palm (6.5 tons per ha) and sugar palm
(5.5 tons per ha).
Java also produces excellent mine production. In 2006, it
contributes 5,284 tons zeolite, 47,978 tons bentonite, iron
sand, pozzolan cement, feldspar, and jewel barn/ gemstone. Precious
stone mining potential generally are found in Garut, Tasikmalaya,
Sukabumi Regency areas.
As consequences of has many volcanoes, West
Java is potential of
Geothermal energy. There are 11 points of geothermal energy and 3
points, i.e. Papandayan, Ceremai and
Gede Pangrango have conducted
Raw natural resources include chalk, several offshore oilfields in the
Java Sea, and lumber. Most of the province is very fertile, with a mix
of small farms and larger plantations. There are several hydropower
dams, including Jatiluhur, Saguling, Cirata, and Jatigede.
Jagorawi Toll Road.
Due to its proximity to the capital city and its growing population
and industry, West
Java has the longest tolled highway road of any
provinces. As of April 2015, there are several toll roads in West Java
Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road (73 km)
Cipularang Toll Road
Cipularang Toll Road (58.5 km)
Padaleunyi Toll Road (33 km)
Jagorawi Toll Road
Jagorawi Toll Road (46 km)
Palimanan–Kanci Toll Road (28.8 km)
Bogor Ring Road (partially built)
Cinere–Jagorawi first section (3.7 km, as part of
Ring Road 2)
Kanci–Pejagan Toll Road (35 km)
Cikampek–Palimanan toll road (116 km)
In addition to completed highways there are some highways that are
being built, one of them is Cileunyi–Sumedang–Dawuan (Cisumdawu)
with length 60.1 kilometres.
Several other proposed toll roads are Soreang–Pasirkoja, Bandung
Intra-Urban Toll Road, Ciawi–Sukabumi, Cileunyi–Tasikmalaya, and
Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 (a section of this road has been built).
Most cities and towns in West
Java are served with narrow-gauge
(mainly 1067mm) lines and connected to other provinces on
A high-speed railway is now under construction, connecting
Students in University of Indonesia
Java is one of the most popular destinations for higher education
in Indonesia. It has many well-known universities joined by many
students from the entire country. Some of which are:
Bandung Institute of Technology
University of Indonesia
Bogor Agricultural University
Indonesia University of Education
Institute of Internal Affairs Governance
General Achmad Yani University
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^ "Aher-Demiz Resmi Jadi Gubernur/Wagub Jabar". June 13, 2013.
^ a b "Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014
Kementerian Kesehatan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20
February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
^ a b c d Zahorka, Herwig (2007). The Sunda Kingdoms of West Java,
Pakuan Pajajaran with Royal Center of Bogor, Over
1000 Years of Propsperity and Glory. Yayasan cipta Loka Caraka.
^ "Tokoh Jawa Barat siapkan deklarasi Provinsi Pasundan." Okezome.com
News. 29 October 2009. (in Indonesian)
^ "Deklarasi Provinsi Pasundan."[dead link] Radar
Cirebon Online. (in
^ a b Governance of West Java. West
Java Government. 2008.
Jakarta Post, 14 November 2013
^ BPS - Jumlah Penduduk dan Jenis Kelamin Menurut Kabupaten/Kota di
Provinsi Jawa Barat, 2015
^ BPS - Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (IPM) Provinsi Jawa Barat Menurut
Kabupaten/Kota serta Komponennya 2015-2016
^ Taylor (2003), p. 123.
^ Data is from the 2010 Indonesian national census.
^ As between the 2000 and 2010 national censuses.
^ Cohen, Matthew Isaac (March 2005). "The Arts of Cirebon". Seleh
Notes. 12 #2: 6.
^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
^ Zanten, Wim van (1989). Sundanese Music in the Cianjuran Style.
^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press.
^ Eringa, F. S. (1949). Loetoeng kasaroeng: een mythologisch verhaal
uit West-Jawa. Verhanddelingen va heit KITL, Leiden.
^ Terada, Alice M. (1994). "The Story of Sangkuriang," The Magic
Crocodile and Other Folktales from Indonesia. University of Hawaii
Press. pp. 60–64.
^ a b c Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV
Badan Pusat Statistik
Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Jawa Barat". jabar.bps.go.id.
Java to explore eleven geothermal spots - ANTARA News
Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University
Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Western Java.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to West Java.
Places adjacent to West Java
Regencies and cities of West Java
See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Provinces of Indonesia
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
GRP per ca