HOME
The Info List - West Java


--- Advertisement ---



West Java
Java
(Indonesian: Jawa Barat, abbreviated as Jabar; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ ᮊᮥᮜᮧᮔ᮪ Jawa Kulon) is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western part of the island of Java
Java
and its capital and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the even larger urban area of Jakarta, even though that city itself lies outside the administrative province. The province's population is 46.3 million (in 2014) and it is the most populous of Indonesia's provinces. The central areas of Bogor, a city in West Java, has one of the highest population density worldwide, while Bekasi
Bekasi
and Depok
Depok
are respectively the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world ( Tangerang
Tangerang
in adjacent Banten
Banten
province is the 9th); in 2014 Bekasi
Bekasi
had 2,510,951 and Depok
Depok
1,869,681 inhabitants.[3] All these cities are suburban to Jakarta.

Contents

1 History 2 Administrative divisions 3 Geography 4 Economy

4.1 Colonial period 4.2 Post independence 4.3 Tourism

5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnic and linguistic composition 5.2 Religion

6 Culture

6.1 Music

6.1.1 Gamelan
Gamelan
orchestra 6.1.2 Zither ensembles 6.1.3 Bamboo ensembles

6.2 Puppetry 6.3 Dance 6.4 Folktales and legend stories 6.5 Literature

7 Human Development Index 8 Natural resources 9 Transportation

9.1 Toll roads 9.2 Railways

10 Education 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

Rice
Rice
fields terrace in Priangan
Priangan
highland, West Java, Dutch East Indies. In/before 1926.

Parahyangan
Parahyangan
highland near Buitenzorg
Buitenzorg
(Bogor), c. 1865–1872

The oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were unearthed in Anyer
Anyer
(the western coast of Java) with evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium AD.[4] The prehistoric Buni culture
Buni culture
(near present-day Bekasi) clay pottery were later developed with evidence found in Anyer
Anyer
to Cirebon. Artefacts (dated from 400 BC — AD 100), such as food and drink containers, were found mostly as burial gifts.[4] There is also archaeological evidence in Batujaya Archaeological Site
Batujaya Archaeological Site
dating from the 2nd century[citation needed] and, according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung
Bandung
Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya, Karawang, West Java
Java
was also built around this time.[citation needed] One of the earliest known[clarification needed] recorded history in Indonesia
Indonesia
is from the former Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
kingdom, where seven fourth century stones are inscribed in Wengi letters (used in the Pallava period) and in Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom Tarumanagara.[4] Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya, as stated in the Kota Kapur inscription
Kota Kapur inscription
(AD 686). The Sunda Kingdom
Sunda Kingdom
subsequently became the ruling power of the region, as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription (AD 932).[4] An Ulama, Sunan Gunung Jati, settled in Cirebon, with the intention of spreading the word of Islam
Islam
in the pagan town. In the meantime, the Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak
in central Java
Java
grew to an immediate threat against the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa signed a treaty (known as the Luso-Sundanese Treaty) with the Portuguese in 1512. In return, the Portuguese were granted an accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international treaty of West Java
Java
with the Europeans was commemorated by the placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung River in 1522. Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it could not come to realization. Sunda Kalapa
Sunda Kalapa
harbour fell under the alliance of the Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak
and the Sultanate of Cirebon
Cirebon
(former vassal state of Sunda kingdom) in 1524, after their troops under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops under Sunan Gunung Jati
Sunan Gunung Jati
also seized the port of Banten
Banten
and established the Sultanate of Banten
Banten
which was affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak. The war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon sultanates then continued for five years until a peace treaty was made in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the Sunda kingdom declined, essentially under the pressure from Sultanate of Banten. After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at Pakuan Pajajaran
Pakuan Pajajaran
(the present-day Bogor) and gradually the Sultanate of Banten
Banten
took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram Sultanate from central Java
Java
also seized the Priangan
Priangan
region, the southeastern part of the kingdom. In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies established their trading ships in West Java
Java
after the falldown of Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West Java
Java
fell under the Dutch East Indies' administration. West Java
Java
was officially declared as a province of Indonesia
Indonesia
in 1950, referring to a statement from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide political decentralization, Banten
Banten
was separated from West Java
Java
and made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename the province Pasundan
Pasundan
("Land of the Sundanese") after the historical name for West Java.[5][6] Administrative divisions[edit] Since the creation of West Bandung
Bandung
Regency in 2008,[7] the Province of West Java
Java
has been subdivided into 9 cities (Indonesian: Kota) and 17 regencies (Indonesian: Kabupaten). These 26 cities and regencies are divided into 620 districts (Indonesian: Kecamatan), which comprise 1,576 urban villages (Indonesian: Kelurahan) and 4,301 rural villages (Indonesian: Desa).[7] An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 - Pangandaran Regency
Pangandaran Regency
- from the southern half of Ciamis Regency; and on 25 October 2013 the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies (and 8 new provinces),[8] including a further three regencies in West Java
Java
- South Garut (Garut Selatan), North Sukabumi
Sukabumi
( Sukabumi
Sukabumi
Utara) and West Bogor
Bogor
( Bogor
Bogor
Barat) - but none of these three new regencies are shown separately on the map below, nor in the following table.

Cities and Regencies of West Java

Cities

Bekasi Depok Bogor Sukabumi Cimahi Bandung Tasikmalaya Banjar Cirebon

Regencies

Bogor
Bogor
Regency Sukabumi
Sukabumi
Regency Cianjur
Cianjur
Regency Bandung
Bandung
Regency West Bandung
Bandung
Regency Garut Regency Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
Regency Ciamis Regency Kuningan Regency Cirebon
Cirebon
Regency Majalengka
Majalengka
Regency Sumedang
Sumedang
Regency Indramayu
Indramayu
Regency Subang Regency Purwakarta
Purwakarta
Regency Karawang
Karawang
Regency Bekasi
Bekasi
Regency Pangandaran
Pangandaran
Regency

Name Capital Area in Square km Population 2005 estimate Population 2010 Census Population 2015 estimate[9] HDI[10] 2016 Estimates

Bandung
Bandung
City 167.27 2,288,570 2,394,873 2,575,478 0.801 (Very high)

Banjar City 113.49 162,383 175,157 188,365 0.700 (High)

Bekasi
Bekasi
City 206.61 1,993,478 2,334,871 2,510,951 0.799 (High)

Bogor
Bogor
City 118.50 891,467 950,334 1,022,002 0.745 (High)

Cimahi
Cimahi
City 39.27 546,879 541,177 581,989 0.760 (High)

Cirebon
Cirebon
City 37.36 308,771 296,389 318,741 0.737 (High)

Depok
Depok
City 200.29 1,374,903 1,738,570 1,869,681 0.796 (High)

Sukabumi
Sukabumi
City 48.25 291,277 298,681 321,205 0.723 (High)

Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
City 171.61 582,423 635,464 683,386 0.705 (High)

Bandung
Bandung
Regency Soreang 1,767.96 4,037,274 3,178,543 3,418,246 0.706 (High)

Bekasi
Bekasi
Regency Cikarang 1,224.88 1,983,815 2,630,401 2,828,767 0.718 (High)

Bogor
Bogor
Regency Cibinong 2,710.62 3,829,053 4,771,932 5,131,798 0.683 (Medium)

Ciamis Regency Ciamis 1,433.87 1,511,942 1,532,504 1,648,075 0.684 (Medium)

Cianjur
Cianjur
Regency Cianjur 3,840.16 2,079,770 2,171,281 2,335,024 0.629 (Medium)

Cirebon
Cirebon
Regency Sumber 984.52 2,044,257 2,067,196 2,223,089 0.667 (Medium)

Garut Regency Tarogong Kidul 3,074.07 2,196,422 2,404,121 2,585,423 0.636 (Medium)

Indramayu
Indramayu
Regency Indramayu 2,040.11 1,689,247 1,663,737 1,789,204 0.647 (Medium)

Karawang
Karawang
Regency Karawang 1,652.20 1,926,471 2,127,791 2,288,254 0.681 (Medium)

Kuningan Regency Kuningan 1,110.56 1,045,691 1,035,589 1,113,686 0.675 (Medium)

Majalengka
Majalengka
Regency Majalengka 1,204.24 1,167,566 1,166,473 1,254,440 0.652 (Medium)

Pangandaran
Pangandaran
Regency Parigi 1,680 ** 379,518 390,483 0.657 (Medium)

Purwakarta
Purwakarta
Regency Purwakarta 825.74 753,306 852,521 916,812 0.685 (Medium)

Subang Regency Subang 1,893.95 1,380,047 1,465,157 1,575,649 0.671 (Medium)

Sukabumi
Sukabumi
Regency Palabuhanratu 4,145.70 2,168,892 2,341,409 2,517,982 0.651 (Medium)

Sumedang
Sumedang
Regency Sumedang 1,518.33 1,014,019 1,093,602 1,176,074 0.694 (Medium)

Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
Regency Singaparna 2,552.19 1,619,052 1,675,675 1,802,043 0.635 (Medium)

West Bandung
Bandung
Regency ( Bandung
Bandung
Barat) Ngamprah (id) 1,305.77 ** 1,510,284 1,624,179 0.658 (Medium)

Totals

35,377.76 38,886,975 43,053,732 46,300,543 0.700 (High)

Notes

* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung
Bandung
Regency, of which West Bandung
Bandung
Regency was formerly part. ** - the figures for Ciamis Regency
Ciamis Regency
include those for the new Pangandaran
Pangandaran
Regency, created in 2012. Geography[edit]

View of the mount and the crater of Tangkuban Parahu, Bandung

Tea
Tea
plantations in Malabar, southern Bandung. Tea
Tea
plantations are common sight across mountainous West Java

West Java
Java
borders Jakarta
Jakarta
and Banten
Banten
province to the west, and Central Java
Java
to the east. To the north is the Java
Java
Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean. Unlike most other provinces in Indonesia
Indonesia
which have their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung, is located in the mountainous area in the centre of the province. Banten Province was formerly part of West Java
Java
Province but was created a separate province in 2000. West Java, in the densely populated western third of Java, is home to almost 1 out of every 5 Indonesians. West Java
Java
and Banten
Banten
provinces, as a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, have more mountains and volcanoes than any of the other provinces in Indonesia. The vast volcanic mountainous region of inland West Java
Java
is traditionally known as Parahyangan
Parahyangan
(also known as Priangan
Priangan
or Preanger) which means "The abode of hyangs (gods)". It is considered as the heartland of the Sundanese people. The highest point of West Java
Java
is the stratovolcano Mount Cereme
Mount Cereme
(3,078 meters) bordering Kuningan and Majalengka
Majalengka
Regencies. West Java
Java
has rich and fertile volcanic soil. Agriculture, especially traditional dry rice cultivation (known as ladang or huma), has become the main way of life of traditional Sundanese people. Since the colonial VOC and Dutch East Indies era, West Java
Java
has been known as a productive plantation area for coffee, tea, quinine, and many other cash crops. The mountainous region of West Java
Java
is also a major producer of vegetables and decorative flowering plants. Sunny tropical sites with a cool atmosphere and beautiful scenery are frequently across almost all of West Java
Java
and Banten
Banten
except in the northern parts ( the Java
Java
sea beaches). The landscape of the province is one of volcanic mountains, steep terrain, forest, mountains, rivers, fertile agricultural land, and natural sea harbours.[11] Flowing through Bandung
Bandung
Basin to the northeast is Citarum River, the longest and most important river in the province. This 300-km long river is the site of 3 dams, namely Cirata Dam, Saguling Dam, and Jatiluhur Dam. The river is heavily polluted by industrial and household sewage to the point that it has been called as 'the world's dirtiest river' by some. Economy[edit] Initially, the economy of the Sundanese people
Sundanese people
in West Java
Java
relied heavily on rice cultivation. Ancient kingdoms established in West Java such as the Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
and Sunda Kingdom
Sunda Kingdom
are known to have relied on rice taxes and agriculture revenues. The cycle of life of the ancient Sundanese people
Sundanese people
revolved around the rice crop cycle. Traditional rice harvest festivals such as the Seren Taun
Seren Taun
were important. The ancient goddess of rice, Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri, is revered in Sundanese culture. Traditionally, Sundanese people
Sundanese people
often used dry rice cultivation (ladang). After the Mataram expanded to the Priangan
Priangan
area in the early 17th century following the Sultan Agung
Sultan Agung
campaign against Dutch Batavia, sawah (wet rice cultivation) began to be adopted in the northern lowlands of West Java. Regencies such as Indramayu, Cirebon, Subang, Karawang
Karawang
and Bekasi
Bekasi
are now well known as key rice producing areas. The mountainous region of West Java
Java
supplies vegetables, flower and many horticultural produce to Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bandung. Animal farms in West Java
Java
produce dairy products and meats. Colonial period[edit] During the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) and Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
era, West Java
Java
fell under Dutch administration centered in Batavia. The Dutch colonial government introduced cash crops such as tea, coffee, and quinine. Since the 18th century, West Java
Java
(known as "De Preanger") was known as a productive plantation area, and became integrated with global trade and economy. Services such as transportation and banking were provided to cater for wealthy Dutch plantation owners. West Java
Java
is known as one of the earliest developed regions in the Indonesian archipelago. In the early 20th century, the Dutch colonial government developed infrastructures for economic purposes, especially to support Dutch plantations in the region. Roads and railways were constructed to connect inland plantations area with urban centers such as Bandung
Bandung
and port of Batavia. Post independence[edit] After Indonesian independence in 1945, West Java
Java
became a supporting region for Jakarta, the Indonesian capital. Jakarta
Jakarta
remained as the business and political center of Indonesia. Several regencies and cities in West Java
Java
such as Bogor, Bekasi
Bekasi
and Depok
Depok
were developed as supporting areas for Jakarta
Jakarta
and came to form the Greater Jakarta
Jakarta
area or Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok
Depok
and Bekasi). The northern area of West Java
Java
has become a major industrial area. Areas such as Bekasi, Cikarang
Cikarang
and Karawang
Karawang
are sprawling with factories and industries. The area in and around Bandung
Bandung
also developed as industrial area. Tourism[edit] Endowed with natural beauty and rich culture, tourism is also an important industry in West Java. The Puncak
Puncak
area and Bandung
Bandung
have long been known as popular weekend destinations for Jakartans. Today Bandung
Bandung
has developed into a chic and fashionable shopping destination, popular not only among local Indonesian especially Jakartans, but also a popular shopping destination for neighboring Malaysian and Singaporeans. The ancient coastal city of Cirebon
Cirebon
is also popular as cultural tourism destination since the city has several kratons and many historical sites such as Gua Sunyaragi. Other popular tourism destinations include the Bogor
Bogor
Botanical Garden, Taman Safari Indonesia, Tangkuban Perahu
Tangkuban Perahu
crater, Ciater hot springs, Kawah Putih crater to the south of Bandung, Pangandaran
Pangandaran
beach, and various mountain resorts in Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya, and Kuningan. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1971 21,623,529 —    

1980 27,453,525 +27.0%

1990 35,384,352 +28.9%

1995 39,206,787 +10.8%

2000 35,729,537 −8.9%

2010 43,053,732 +20.5%

2014 46,300,543 +7.5%

2000 Census decline due to Banten
Banten
split. Source: Statistics Indonesia 2010, Ministry of Health 2014 Estimate[3]

The population of West Java
Java
was put at 43,054,000 in mid-2010 making it the most populous province of Indonesia, home to 18% of the national total on 1.8% of the national land.[12] Aside from the special district of Jakarta, it is the most densely populated province in the country with an average of 1,236 people per km² (2010 data). The population growth rate recorded in the ten years to 2010 was 1.9%,[13] Ethnic and linguistic composition[edit] West Java
Java
is the native homeland of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
which forms the largest ethnic group in West Java, followed by Javanese who migrated to the province centuries ago. Since Jakarta
Jakarta
and the surrounding area, including West Java, is the business and political center of Indonesia, the province has attracted various people from throughout Indonesia. Other Native Indonesian
Native Indonesian
ethnic groups such as Minangkabau, Batak, Malay, Madurese, Balinese, Ambonese
Ambonese
and many other Indonesians who migrated to and settled in West Java
Java
cities can also be easily found. West Java
Java
urban areas also have a significant population of Chinese Indonesians. In addition to Indonesian, the official national language, the other widely spoken language in the province is Sundanese. In some areas near the southern borders with Central Java, Javanese is also spoken. The main language spoken in Cirebon
Cirebon
and nearby areas (Majalengka, Indramayu, Sumber) is Cirebonese, a dialect of Javanese with Sundanese influence.[14] Indonesian is widely spoken as a second language. Religion[edit]

Religion in West Java
Java
(2010 census)[15]

religion

percent

Islam

97%

Christianity

2.39%

other, not stated or not asked

0.31%

Hinduism

0.05%

Buddhism

0.22%

Confucianism

0.03%

Culture[edit] The Sundanese share Java
Java
island with the Javanese people
Javanese people
and primarily live in West Java. Although the Sundanese live in the same island as the Javanese, their culture is distinct and they likewise consider themselves to live in a separate cultural area called Pasundan
Pasundan
or Tatar Sunda. Someone moving from West Java
Java
Province to Central or East Java
Java
Provinces is literally said to be moving from Sunda to Java worlds. Bandung, the capital city of West Java, is considered as the cultural heartland of Sundanese people. Many indigenous Sundanese artforms were developed in this city. The nearby province of Banten, which was formerly part of West Java
Java
before it became its own province, is similar in this regard and is also considered to be part of Pasundan
Pasundan
as well. Music[edit] Gamelan
Gamelan
orchestra[edit]

Gamelan Degung
Gamelan Degung
Orchestra

The musical arts of Sunda, which is an expression of the emotions of Sundanese culture, express politeness and grace of Sundanese. Degung orchestra consists of Sundanese gamelan. In addition to the Sundanese forms of Gamelan
Gamelan
in Parahyangan, the region of Cirebon
Cirebon
retains its own distinct musical traditions. Amongst Cirebons' varying Gamelan
Gamelan
ensembles the two most frequently heard are Gamelan
Gamelan
Pelog (a non-equidistant heptatonic tuning system) and Gamelan Prawa (a semi-equidistant pentatonic tuning system). Gamelan
Gamelan
Pelog is traditionally reserved for Tayuban, Wayang Cepak, and for listening and dance music of the Kratons in Cirebon. Whereas Gamelan
Gamelan
Prawa is traditionally reserved for Wayang Purwa. Cirebon
Cirebon
also retains specialized Gamelan
Gamelan
ensembles including: Sekaten, which is played in the Kratons to mark important times in the Islamic calendar. Denggung, also a Kraton ensemble which is believed to have a number of "supernatural powers". And Renteng, an ensemble found in both Cirebon
Cirebon
and Parahyangan
Parahyangan
that is known for its loud and energetic playing style. Zither ensembles[edit] Tembang Sunda
Tembang Sunda
is a genre of Sundanese vocal music accompanied by a core ensemble of two kacapi (zither) and a suling (bamboo flute). Tembang means song or poem and Sunda is a geographical, historical, and cultural construct which signifies home for the Sundanese people of Indonesia. The music and poetry of tembang Sunda are closely associated with the Parahyangan
Parahyangan
(literally the abode of the gods), the highland plateau that transverses the central and southern parts of Sunda. The natural beauty of Priangan, a lush agricultural region surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, politeness and grace of Sundanese is reflected in many songs of the tembang Sunda.[16] Kacapi suling is tembang Sunda minus vocal. Tarawangsa is a genuine popular art is performed on ensemble consists of tarawangsa (a violin with an end pin) and the jentreng (a kind of seven-stringed zither). It is accompanied by a secret dance called Jentreng. The dance is a part of a ritual celebrating the goddess of paddy Dewi Sri. Its ceremonial significance is associated with a ritual of thanksgiving associated with the rice harvest. Tarawangsa can also be played for healing or even purely for entertainment. Bamboo ensembles[edit]

Angklung
Angklung
as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

The three main types of Sundanese bamboo ensembles are angklung, calung, and arumba. The exact features of each ensemble vary according to context, related instruments, and relative popularity. Angklung
Angklung
is a generic term for sets of tuned, shaken bamboo rattles. Angklung
Angklung
consists of a frame upon which hang several different lengths of hollow bamboo. Angklungs are played like handbells, with each instrument played to a different note. Angklung
Angklung
rattles are played in interlocking patterns, usually with only one or two instruments played per person. The ensemble is used in Sundanese processions, sometimes with trance or acrobatics. Performed at life-cycle rituals and feasts (hajat), angklung is believed to maintain balance and harmony in the village. In its most modern incarnation, angklung is performed in schools as an aid to learning about music. The Angklung
Angklung
got more international attention when Daeng Soetigna, from Bandung, West Java, expanded the angklung notations not only to play traditional pélog or sléndro scales, but also diatonic scale in 1938. Since then, angklung is often played together with other western music instruments in an orchestra. One of the first well-known performances of angklung in an orchestra was during the Bandung Conference in 1955. Like those in angklung, the instruments of the calung ensemble are of bamboo, but each consists of several differently tuned tubes fixed onto a piece of bamboo; the player holds the instrument in his left hand and strikes it with a beater held in his right. The highest-pitched calung has the greatest number of tubes and the densest musical activity; the lowest-pitched, with two tubes, has the least. Calung is nearly always associated with earthy humor, and is played by men. Arumba refers to a set of diatonically tuned bamboo xylophones, often played by women. It is frequently joined by modern instruments, including a drum set, electric guitar, bass, and keyboards. Puppetry[edit]

Wayang Golek, traditional Sundanese puppetry.

Wayang golek is a traditional form of puppetry from Sunda. Unlike the better-known leather shadow puppets (wayang kulit) found in the rest of Java
Java
and Bali, wayang golek puppets are made from wood and are three-dimensional, rather than two. They use a banana palm in which the puppets stand, behind which one puppeteer (dalang) is accompanied by his gamelan orchestra with up to 20 musicians. The gamelan uses a five-note scale as opposed to the seven-note western scale. The musicians are guided by the drummer, who in turn is guided by signals from the puppet master dalang gives to change the mood or pace required. Wayang golek are used by the Sundanese to tell the epic play "Mahabarata" and various other morality type plays. Dance[edit] Main article: Sundanese dance Sundanese dance
Sundanese dance
shows the influence of the many groups that have traded and settled in the area over the centuries, but remains uniquely distinctive, with its variation from graceful to dynamic syncopated drumming patterns, quick wrist flicks, sensual hip movements, and fast shoulder and torso isolations. Jaipongan
Jaipongan
is probably the most popular traditional social dance of Sundanese people. It can be performed in solo, in group, or in pair. The Tari Merak (Peafowl Dance) is a female dance inspired by the movements of a peafowl and its feathers blended with the classical movements of Sundanese dance. The Tari Merak symbolises the beauty of nature. Folktales and legend stories[edit]

Nyai Loro Kidul.

There are stories and folktales transcribed from Pantun Sunda stories.[17] Among the most well known folktale and stories are:

Mundinglaya Dikusumah, which tells of Mundinglaya visiting Jabaning Langit to find layang Salaka Domas. It is a symbolic story of Surawisesa visiting Malaka to establish a peace treaty with the Portuguese before 1522. Lutung Kasarung, tells the life of a beautiful princess, in the era of Pasir Batang kingdom, a vassal of Sunda kingdom. She faces the evil of her older sister willing to seize her right as a queen.[18] Ciung Wanara, tells of the fight of two princes of Sunda kingdom and the history of Cipamali river (present-day Brebes
Brebes
river) as a boundary between Sundanese and Javanese territories. Sangkuriang, which tells the story of the creation of Mount Tangkuban Parahu and the ancient lake Bandung.[19] Nyai Loro Kidul
Nyai Loro Kidul
(also spelled Nyi Roro Kidul) is a legendary female spirit or deity, known as the Queen of the Southern Sea of Java ( Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
or Samudra Kidul south of Java
Java
island) in Sundanese as well in Javanese mythology.

Literature[edit] Old Sundanese literature, among others, are:

Bujangga Manik, which was written on 29 palm leaves and kept in the Bodleian Library in Oxford since 1627, mentioning more than 450 names of places, regions, rivers and mountains situated on Java
Java
island, Bali island and Sumatra
Sumatra
island.[20] Carita Parahyangan, telling Sundanese kings and kingdoms from the pre-Islamic period.[20] Siksakandang Karesian, providing the reader with all kinds of religious and moralistic rules, prescriptions and lessons.[20]

Human Development Index[edit] Cities and Regencies in West Java
Java
range high to medium Human Development Index (HDI).

#   City / Regency HDI (2016 data)[21] Comparable Country (2016 UNDP Data)

Very high human development

1 Bandung
Bandung
City 0.801  Romania

High human development

2 Bekasi
Bekasi
City 0.799  Kuwait

3 Depok
Depok
City 0.796  Belarus,  Oman

4 Cimahi
Cimahi
City 0.766  Sri Lanka

5 Bogor
Bogor
City 0.745  Algeria

6 Cirebon
Cirebon
City 0.737  China

7 Sukabumi
Sukabumi
City 0.723  Dominican Republic

8 Bekasi
Bekasi
Regency 0.718 World

9 Bandung
Bandung
Regency 0.706  Belize

10 Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
City 0.705  Samoa

11 Banjar City 0.700  Uzbekistan

- West Java 0.700  Uzbekistan

Medium human development

12 Sumedang
Sumedang
Regency 0.694  Paraguay

- Indonesia 0.689

13 Purwakarta
Purwakarta
Regency 0.685  Palestine

14 Ciamis Regency 0.684  Palestine

15 Bogor
Bogor
Regency 0.683  Vietnam

16 Karawang
Karawang
Regency 0.681  Philippines

17 Kuningan Regency 0.675  Bolivia

18 Subang Regency 0.671 None

19 Cirebon
Cirebon
Regency 0.667  South Africa

20 West Bandung
Bandung
Regency 0.658 None

21 Pangandaran
Pangandaran
Regency 0.657 None

22 Majalengka
Majalengka
Regency 0.652 None

23 Sukabumi
Sukabumi
Regency 0.651 None

24 Indramayu
Indramayu
Regency 0.647  Morocco

25 Garut Regency 0.636 None

26 Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
Regency 0.635 None

27 Cianjur
Cianjur
Regency 0.629 None

Natural resources[edit]

Kawah Putih

Rancabali Bandung

Based on the data from Indonesia
Indonesia
State Secretary, the total area of rice fields in West Java
Java
Province in 2006 was 9,488,623 km which produced 9,418,882 tons of paddy in 2006, consisting of 9,103,800 tons rice field paddy and 315,082 tons farmland paddy. Palawija (non-rice food) production, reached 2,044,674 tons with productivity 179.28 quintal per ha. Nevertheless, the widest plant's width is for corn commodity which reaches 148,505 ha, West Java
Java
also produce horticulture consists of 2,938,624 tons vegetables, 3,193,744 tons fruits, and 159,871 tons medicines plants/ bio pharmacology. Forest in West Java
Java
covers 764,387.59 ha or 20.62% from total size of the province. It consists of productive forest 362,980.40 ha (9.79%), protected forest 228,727.11 ha (6.17%), and conservation forest 172,680 ha (4.63%). Mangrove forest reaches 40,129.89 ha, and spread in 10 regencies where coasts are available. Besides, there is also another protected forest of about 32,313.59 ha organized by Perum Perhutani Unit III West Java
Java
and Banten. From the productive forest, in 2006 West Java
Java
harvested crop of about 200,675 m³ wood, although the need of wood in this province every year is about 4 million m³. Until 2006, populace forest's width 214,892 ha with wood production is about 893,851.75 m³. West Java
Java
also produce non-forest's crop which is potential enough to be developed as forestry work, such as silk, mushroom, pine, dammar, maleleuca, rattan, bamboo, and swallow bird's nest. In fishery sector, the excellent commodities are goldfish, nila fish, milkfish, freshwater catfish, windu shrimp, green mussel, gouramy, patin, seaweed and vaname shrimp. In 2006, this province harvested 560,000 tons fish from fishery cultivation crop and brackish or 63.63% from fishery production total in West Java. In the poultry field, dairy cow, domestic poultry, and ducks are excellent commodities in West Java. 2006 data stated that there are 96,796 dairy cows (25% of the national population), 4,249,670 sheep, 28,652,493 domestic poultries, and 5,596,882 ducks (16% of the national population). Now there are only 245,994 beef cattle in West Java
Java
(3% national population), whereas the need every year is about 300,000 beef cattle. This province has many plantation crops, such as tea, cloves, coconut, rubber, cacao, tobacco, coffee, sugar, palm and akar wangi (Chrysopogon zizanioides). From all those commodities, cloves, coconut, rubber, cocoa, tobacco, and coffee are of noted excellent commodities from West Java. From area side, the best productivity, that is plan area's width equals with plant's width that produces tobacco and sugar palm commodities. From production side, the highest productivity is oil palm (6.5 tons per ha) and sugar palm (5.5 tons per ha). West Java
Java
also produces excellent mine production. In 2006, it contributes 5,284 tons zeolite, 47,978 tons bentonite, iron sand, pozzolan cement, feldspar, and jewel barn/ gemstone. Precious stone mining potential generally are found in Garut, Tasikmalaya, Kuningan, and Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency
areas. As consequences of has many volcanoes, West Java
Java
is potential of Geothermal energy. There are 11 points of geothermal energy and 3 points, i.e. Papandayan, Ceremai and Gede Pangrango
Gede Pangrango
have conducted pre-exploration.[22] Raw natural resources include chalk, several offshore oilfields in the Java
Java
Sea, and lumber. Most of the province is very fertile, with a mix of small farms and larger plantations. There are several hydropower dams, including Jatiluhur, Saguling, Cirata, and Jatigede. Transportation[edit] Toll roads[edit]

Jagorawi Toll Road.

Due to its proximity to the capital city and its growing population and industry, West Java
Java
has the longest tolled highway road of any provinces. As of April 2015, there are several toll roads in West Java

Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
(73 km) Cipularang Toll Road
Cipularang Toll Road
(58.5 km) Padaleunyi Toll Road (33 km) Jagorawi Toll Road
Jagorawi Toll Road
(46 km) Palimanan–Kanci Toll Road (28.8 km) Bogor
Bogor
Ring Road (partially built) Cinere–Jagorawi first section (3.7 km, as part of Jakarta
Jakarta
Outer Ring Road 2) Kanci–Pejagan Toll Road (35 km) Cikampek–Palimanan toll road (116 km)

In addition to completed highways there are some highways that are being built, one of them is Cileunyi–Sumedang–Dawuan (Cisumdawu) with length 60.1 kilometres. Several other proposed toll roads are Soreang–Pasirkoja, Bandung Intra-Urban Toll Road, Ciawi–Sukabumi, Cileunyi–Tasikmalaya, and Jakarta
Jakarta
Outer Ring Road 2 (a section of this road has been built). Railways[edit] Most cities and towns in West Java
Java
are served with narrow-gauge (mainly 1067mm) lines and connected to other provinces on Java
Java
Island. A high-speed railway is now under construction, connecting Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bandung. Education[edit]

Students in University of Indonesia

West Java
Java
is one of the most popular destinations for higher education in Indonesia. It has many well-known universities joined by many students from the entire country. Some of which are:

Padjadjaran University Bandung
Bandung
Institute of Technology University of Indonesia Bogor
Bogor
Agricultural University Indonesia
Indonesia
University of Education Institute of Internal Affairs Governance General Achmad Yani University

Notes[edit]

^ Sigar, Edi. Buku Pintar Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka Delaprasta, 1996 ^ "Aher-Demiz Resmi Jadi Gubernur/Wagub Jabar". June 13, 2013.  ^ a b "Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ a b c d Zahorka, Herwig (2007). The Sunda Kingdoms of West Java, From Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
to Pakuan Pajajaran
Pakuan Pajajaran
with Royal Center of Bogor, Over 1000 Years of Propsperity and Glory. Yayasan cipta Loka Caraka.  ^ "Tokoh Jawa Barat siapkan deklarasi Provinsi Pasundan." Okezome.com News. 29 October 2009. (in Indonesian) ^ "Deklarasi Provinsi Pasundan."[dead link] Radar Cirebon
Cirebon
Online. (in Indonesian) ^ a b Governance of West Java. West Java
Java
Government. 2008. p. 17.  ^ Jakarta
Jakarta
Post, 14 November 2013 ^ BPS - Jumlah Penduduk dan Jenis Kelamin Menurut Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jawa Barat, 2015 ^ BPS - Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (IPM) Provinsi Jawa Barat Menurut Kabupaten/Kota serta Komponennya 2015-2016 ^ Taylor (2003), p. 123. ^ Data is from the 2010 Indonesian national census. ^ As between the 2000 and 2010 national censuses. ^ Cohen, Matthew Isaac (March 2005). "The Arts of Cirebon". Seleh Notes. 12 #2: 6.  ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.  ^ Zanten, Wim van (1989). Sundanese Music in the Cianjuran Style. KITLV Press.  ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 11.  ^ Eringa, F. S. (1949). Loetoeng kasaroeng: een mythologisch verhaal uit West-Jawa. Verhanddelingen va heit KITL, Leiden.  ^ Terada, Alice M. (1994). "The Story of Sangkuriang," The Magic Crocodile and Other Folktales from Indonesia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 60–64.  ^ a b c Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press.  ^ " Badan Pusat Statistik
Badan Pusat Statistik
Provinsi Jawa Barat". jabar.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2017-05-16.  ^ W Java
Java
to explore eleven geothermal spots - ANTARA News

References[edit]

Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 

External links[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Western Java.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to West Java.

Official site

Places adjacent to West Java

 Banten  Jakarta Java
Java
Sea Java
Java
Sea

 Banten

West Java

 Central Java

Indian Ocean  Christmas Island Indian Ocean Indian Ocean

v t e

Regencies and cities of West Java

Capital: Bandung

Regencies

Bandung Bekasi Bogor Ciamis Cianjur Cirebon Garut Indramayu Karawang Kuningan Majalengka Pangandaran Purwakarta Subang Sukabumi Sumedang Tasikmalaya West Bandung

Cities

Bandung Banjar Bekasi Bogor Cimahi Cirebon Depok Sukabumi Tasikmalaya

See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia

v t e

Provinces of Indonesia

Capital: Jakarta

Sumatra

Aceh Bangka-Belitung Islands Bengkulu Jambi Lampung North Sumatra Riau Riau
Riau
Islands South Sumatra West Sumatra

Java

Banten Central Java East Java West Java Jakarta Yogyakarta

Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan East Kalimantan North Kalimantan South Kalimantan West Kalimantan

Lesser Sunda

Bali East Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara

Sulawesi

Central Sulawesi Gorontalo North Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi South Sulawesi West Sulawesi

Maluku

Maluku North Maluku

Papua

Papua West Papua

Former

Timor Timur

Lists by

GRP per ca

.