WEST JAVA (Indonesian : Jawa Barat, abbreviated as "Jabar", Sundanese
: Jawa Kulon) is a province of
Indonesia . It is located in the
western part of the island of
Java and its capital and largest urban
Bandung , although much of its population in the northwest
corner of the province live in areas suburban to the even larger urban
Jakarta , even though that city itself lies outside the
administrative province. The province's population is 46.3 million (in
2014) and it is the most populous and most densely populated of
The central areas of
Bogor , a city in West Java, has one of the
highest population density worldwide , while
respectively the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world
Tangerang in adjacent
Banten province is the 9th); in 2014
Depok 1,869,681 inhabitants. All these cities are
suburban to Jakarta.
* 1 History
* 2 Administrative divisions
* 3 Geography
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Colonial period
* 4.2 Post independence
* 4.3 Tourism
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Etnhnic and linguistic composition
* 5.2 Religion
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Music
* 6.1.2 Zither ensembles
* 6.1.3 Bamboo ensembles
* 6.2 Puppetry
* 6.3 Dance
* 6.4 Folktales and legend stories
* 6.5 Literature
Human Development Index
Human Development Index
* 8 Natural resources
* 9 Transportation
* 9.1 Toll roads
* 9.2 Railways
* 10 Education
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 External links
Rice fields terrace in
Priangan highland, West Java, Dutch East
Indies . In/before 1926.
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg
Bogor ), c. 1865–1872
The oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region
were unearthed in
Anyer (the western coast of Java) with evidence of
bronze and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium
AD. The prehistoric
Buni culture (near present-day
Bekasi ) clay
pottery were later developed with evidence found in
Artefacts (dated from 400 BC — AD 100), such as food and drink
containers, were found mostly as burial gifts. There is also
archaeological evidence in
Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from
the 2nd century and, according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of
Bandung Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya,
Karawang , West
Java was also built around this time.
One of the earliest known recorded history in
Indonesia is from the
Tarumanagara kingdom, where seven fourth century stones are
inscribed in Wengi letters (used in the Indian
Pallava period) and in
Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom Tarumanagara. Records of
Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which
coincides with the attack of
Srivijaya , as stated in the Kota Kapur
inscription (AD 686).
Sunda Kingdom subsequently became the ruling power of the region,
as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription (AD 932).
Sunan Gunung Jati , settled in
Cirebon , with the intention
of spreading the word of
Islam in the pagan town. In the meantime, the
Sultanate of Demak in central
Java grew to an immediate threat against
the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa
Jayaperkosa signed a treaty (known as the
Luso-Sundanese Treaty ) with
the Portuguese in 1512. In return, the Portuguese were granted an
accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as
form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international
treaty of West
Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the
placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung
River in 1522.
Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it
could not come to realization.
Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the
alliance of the
Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Cirebon
(former vassal state of Sunda kingdom) in 1524, after their troops
under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In
1524/1525, their troops under
Sunan Gunung Jati also seized the port
Banten and established the Sultanate of
Banten which was
affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak. The war between the Sunda
kingdom with Demak and
Cirebon sultanates then continued for five
years until a peace treaty were made in 1531 between King Surawisesa
and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja
Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the Sunda kingdom declined,
essentially under the pressure from Sultanate of Banten. After 1576,
the kingdom could not maintain its capital at
Pakuan Pajajaran (the
Bogor ) and gradually the Sultanate of
Banten took over
the former Sunda kingdom's region. The
Mataram Sultanate from central
Java also seized the
Priangan region, the southeastern part of the
In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies
established their trading ships in West
Java after the falldown of
Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies ' administration. West
Java was officially
declared as a province of
Indonesia in 1950, referring to a statement
from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide
Banten was separated from West
made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename
the province PASUNDAN ("Land of the Sundanese ") after the historical
name for West Java.
Since the creation of West
Bandung Regency in 2008, the Province of
Java has been subdivided into 9 cities (Indonesian : Kota) and 17
regencies (Indonesian: Kabupaten). These 26 cities and regencies are
divided into 620 districts (Indonesian: Kecamatan), which comprise
1,576 urban villages (Indonesian: Kelurahan) and 4,301 rural villages
(Indonesian: Desa). An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 -
Pangandaran Regency - from the southern half of
Ciamis Regency; and on
25 October 2013 the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began
reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies
(and 8 new provinces), including a further three regencies in West
Java - South Garut (Garut Selatan), North
Bogor Barat) - but none of these three new regencies
are shown separately on the map below, nor in the following table.
CITIES AND REGENCIES OF WEST JAVA
in Square km Population
2005 estimate Population
2010 Census Population
2015 estimate HDI
0.801 (Very high)
Bandung Barat) Ngamprah (id)
* - the 2005 population is included in the total for
of which West
Bandung Regency was formerly part.
** - the figures for
Ciamis Regency include those for the new
Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012.
View of the mount and the crater of Tangkuban Parahu,
Tea plantations in Malabar , southern Bandung.
are common sight across mountainous West
Banten province to the west, and
Java to the east. To the north is the
Java Sea . To the south
Indian Ocean . Unlike most other provinces in
have their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung,
is located in the mountainous area in the centre of the province.
Banten Province was formerly part of West
Java Province but was
created a separate province in 2000. West Java, in the densely
populated western third of Java, is home to almost 1 out of every 5
Banten provinces, as a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire
, have more mountains and volcanoes than any of the other provinces in
Indonesia. The vast volcanic mountainous region of inland West
traditionally known as
Parahyangan (also known as
Priangan or Preanger
) which means "The abode of hyangs (gods)". It is considered as the
heartland of the Sundanese people. The highest point of West
Mount Cereme (3,078 meters) bordering
Majalengka Regencies. West
Java has rich and fertile volcanic soil.
Agriculture, especially traditional dry rice cultivation (known as
ladang or huma), has become the main way of life of traditional
Sundanese people. Since the colonial VOC and
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies era,
Java has been known as a productive plantation area for coffee,
tea, quinine, and many other cash crops. The mountainous region of
Java is also a major producer of vegetables and decorative
flowering plants. Sunny tropical sites with a cool atmosphere and
beautiful scenery are frequently across almost all of West
Banten except in the northern parts ( the
Java sea beaches). The
landscape of the province is one of volcanic mountains, steep terrain,
forest, mountains, rivers, fertile agricultural land, and natural sea
Bandung Basin to the northeast is
Citarum River , the
longest and most important river in the province. This 300-km long
river is the site of 3 dams, namely
Cirata Dam ,
Saguling Dam , and
Jatiluhur Dam . The river is heavily polluted by industrial and
household sewage to the point that it has been called as 'the world's
dirtiest river' by some.
Initially, the economy of the
Sundanese people in West
heavily on rice cultivation. Ancient kingdoms established in West Java
such as the
Sunda Kingdom are known to have relied on
rice taxes and agriculture revenues. The cycle of life of the ancient
Sundanese people revolved around the rice crop cycle. Traditional rice
harvest festivals such as the
Seren Taun were important. The ancient
goddess of rice, Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri , is revered in Sundanese
Sundanese people often used dry rice
cultivation (ladang). After the Mataram expanded to the
in the early 17th century following the
Sultan Agung campaign against
Dutch Batavia, sawah (wet rice cultivation) began to be adopted in the
northern lowlands of West Java. Regencies such as
Indramayu , Cirebon
, Subang ,
Bekasi are now well known as key rice
producing areas. The mountainous region of West
vegetables, flower and many horticultural produce to
Bandung. Animal farms in West
Java produce dairy products and meats.
Dutch East India Company (VOC) and
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies era,
Java fell under Dutch administration centered in Batavia . The
Dutch colonial government introduced cash crops such as tea , coffee ,
and quinine . Since the 18th century, West
Java (known as "De
Preanger") was known as a productive plantation area, and became
integrated with global trade and economy. Services such as
transportation and banking were provided to cater for wealthy Dutch
plantation owners. West
Java is known as one of the earliest developed
regions in the Indonesian archipelago. In the early 20th century, the
Dutch colonial government developed infrastructures for economic
purposes, especially to support Dutch plantations in the region. Roads
and railways were constructed to connect inland plantations area with
urban centers such as
Bandung and port of Batavia.
After Indonesian independence in 1945, West
Java became a supporting
region for Jakarta, the Indonesian capital.
Jakarta remained as the
business and political center of Indonesia. Several regencies and
cities in West
Java such as
Depok were developed as
supporting areas for
Jakarta and came to form the Greater
or Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor,
Depok and Bekasi). The northern area
Java has become a major industrial area. Areas such as Bekasi,
Karawang are sprawling with factories and industries. The
area in and around
Bandung also developed as industrial area.
Endowed with natural beauty and rich culture, tourism is also an
important industry in West Java. The
Puncak area and
Bandung have long
been known as popular weekend destinations for Jakartans. Today
Bandung has developed into a chic and fashionable shopping
destination, popular not only among local Indonesian especially
Jakartans, but also a popular shopping destination for neighboring
Malaysian and Singaporeans. The ancient coastal city of
also popular as cultural tourism destination since the city has
several kratons and many historical sites such as Gua Sunyaragi. Other
popular tourism destinations include the
Bogor Botanical Garden ,
Tangkuban Perahu crater, Ciater hot springs,
Kawah Putih crater to the south of Bandung,
Pangandaran beach, and
various mountain resorts in Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya, and Kuningan.
2000 Census decline due to
Banten split. Source: Statistics
Indonesia 2010, Ministry of Health 2014 Estimate
The population of West
Java was put at 43,054,000 in mid-2010 making
it the most populous province of Indonesia, home to 18% of the
national total on 1.8% of the national land. Aside from the special
Jakarta , it is the most densely populated province in the
country with an average of 1,236 people per km² (2010 data). The
population growth rate recorded in the ten years to 2010 was 1.9%,
ETNHNIC AND LINGUISTIC COMPOSITION
Java is the native homeland of
Sundanese people which forms the
largest ethnic group in West Java, followed by Javanese who migrated
to the province centuries ago. Since
Jakarta and the surrounding area,
including West Java, is the business and political center of
Indonesia, the province has attracted various people from throughout
Native Indonesian ethnic groups such as Minangkabau ,
Batak , Malay , Madurese , Balinese ,
Ambonese and many other
Indonesians who migrated to and settled in West
Java cities can also
be easily found. West
Java urban areas also have a significant
population of Chinese Indonesians .
In addition to Indonesian , the official national language, the other
widely spoken language in the province is Sundanese . In some areas
near the southern borders with Central
Java , Javanese is also spoken.
The main language spoken in
Cirebon and nearby areas (
Sumber ) is
Cirebonese , a dialect of Javanese with
Indonesian is widely spoken as a second language.
RELIGION IN WEST JAVA (2010 CENSUS)
other, not stated or not asked
The Sundanese share
Java island with the
Javanese people and
primarily live in West Java. Although the Sundanese live in the same
island as the Javanese, their culture is distinct and they likewise
consider themselves to live in a separate cultural area called
Pasundan or Tatar Sunda. Someone moving from West
Java Province to
Central or East
Java Provinces is literally said to be moving from
Java worlds. Bandung, the capital city of West Java, is
considered as the cultural heartland of Sundanese people. Many
indigenous Sundanese artforms were developed in this city. The nearby
province of Banten, which was formerly part of West
Java before it
became its own province, is similar in this regard and is also
considered to be part of
Pasundan as well.
Gamelan Degung Orchestra
The musical arts of Sunda, which is an expression of the emotions of
Sundanese culture, express politeness and grace of Sundanese. Degung
orchestra consists of Sundanese gamelan .
In addition to the Sundanese forms of
Gamelan in Parahyangan, the
Cirebon retains its own distinct musical traditions. Amongst
Gamelan ensembles the two most frequently heard are
Gamelan Pelog (a non-equidistant heptatonic tuning system) and Gamelan
Prawa (a semi-equidistant pentatonic tuning system).
Gamelan Pelog is
traditionally reserved for Tayuban, Wayang Cepak, and for listening
and dance music of the Kratons in Cirebon. Whereas
Gamelan Prawa is
traditionally reserved for Wayang Purwa.
Cirebon also retains specialized
Gamelan ensembles including:
Sekaten, which is played in the Kratons to mark important times in the
Islamic calendar. Denggung, also a Kraton ensemble which is believed
to have a number of "supernatural powers". And Renteng, an ensemble
found in both
Parahyangan that is known for its loud and
energetic playing style.
Tembang Sunda is a genre of Sundanese vocal music accompanied by a
core ensemble of two kacapi (zither) and a suling (bamboo flute).
Tembang means song or poem and Sunda is a geographical, historical,
and cultural construct which signifies home for the Sundanese people
of Indonesia. The music and poetry of tembang Sunda are closely
associated with the
Parahyangan (literally the abode of the gods), the
highland plateau that transverses the central and southern parts of
Sunda. The natural beauty of Priangan, a lush agricultural region
surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, politeness and grace of
Sundanese is reflected in many songs of the tembang Sunda.
Kacapi suling is tembang Sunda minus vocal.
Tarawangsa is a genuine popular art is performed on ensemble consists
of tarawangsa (a violin with an end pin) and the jentreng (a kind of
seven-stringed zither). It is accompanied by a secret dance called
Jentreng. The dance is a part of a ritual celebrating the goddess of
paddy Dewi Sri. Its ceremonial significance is associated with a
ritual of thanksgiving associated with the rice harvest. Tarawangsa
can also be played for healing or even purely for entertainment.
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of
The three main types of Sundanese bamboo ensembles are angklung ,
calung , and arumba. The exact features of each ensemble vary
according to context, related instruments, and relative popularity.
Angklung is a generic term for sets of tuned, shaken bamboo rattles.
Angklung consists of a frame upon which hang several different lengths
of hollow bamboo. Angklungs are played like handbells, with each
instrument played to a different note.
Angklung rattles are played in
interlocking patterns, usually with only one or two instruments played
per person. The ensemble is used in Sundanese processions, sometimes
with trance or acrobatics. Performed at life-cycle rituals and feasts
(hajat), angklung is believed to maintain balance and harmony in the
village. In its most modern incarnation, angklung is performed in
schools as an aid to learning about music.
Angklung got more international attention when Daeng Soetigna,
from Bandung, West Java, expanded the angklung notations not only to
play traditional pélog or sléndro scales, but also diatonic scale in
1938. Since then, angklung is often played together with other western
music instruments in an orchestra. One of the first well-known
performances of angklung in an orchestra was during the Bandung
Conference in 1955.
Like those in angklung, the instruments of the calung ensemble are of
bamboo, but each consists of several differently tuned tubes fixed
onto a piece of bamboo; the player holds the instrument in his left
hand and strikes it with a beater held in his right. The
highest-pitched calung has the greatest number of tubes and the
densest musical activity; the lowest-pitched, with two tubes, has the
Calung is nearly always associated with earthy humor, and is
played by men.
Arumba refers to a set of diatonically tuned bamboo xylophones, often
played by women. It is frequently joined by modern instruments,
including a drum set, electric guitar, bass, and keyboards.
Wayang Golek , traditional Sundanese puppetry.
Wayang golek is a traditional form of puppetry from Sunda. Unlike the
better-known leather shadow puppets (wayang kulit ) found in the rest
Java and Bali, wayang golek puppets are made from wood and are
three-dimensional, rather than two. They use a banana palm in which
the puppets stand, behind which one puppeteer (dalang) is accompanied
by his gamelan orchestra with up to 20 musicians. The gamelan uses a
five-note scale as opposed to the seven-note western scale. The
musicians are guided by the drummer, who in turn is guided by signals
from the puppet master dalang gives to change the mood or pace
required. Wayang golek are used by the Sundanese to tell the epic play
"Mahabarata" and various other morality type plays.
Sundanese dance shows the influence of the many groups that have
traded and settled in the area over the centuries, but remains
uniquely distinctive, with its variation from graceful to dynamic
syncopated drumming patterns, quick wrist flicks, sensual hip
movements, and fast shoulder and torso isolations.
probably the most popular traditional social dance of Sundanese
people. It can be performed in solo, in group, or in pair. The Tari
Merak (Peafowl Dance ) is a female dance inspired by the movements of
a peafowl and its feathers blended with the classical movements of
Sundanese dance. The Tari Merak symbolises the beauty of nature.
FOLKTALES AND LEGEND STORIES
Nyai Loro Kidul .
There are stories and folktales transcribed from Pantun Sunda
stories. Among the most well known folktale and stories are:
Mundinglaya Dikusumah , which tells of Mundinglaya visiting
Jabaning Langit to find layang Salaka Domas. It is a symbolic story of
Surawisesa visiting Malaka to establish a peace treaty with the
Portuguese before 1522.
Lutung Kasarung , tells the life of a beautiful princess, in the
era of Pasir Batang kingdom, a vassal of Sunda kingdom. She faces the
evil of her older sister willing to seize her right as a queen.
Ciung Wanara , tells of the fight of two princes of Sunda kingdom
and the history of Cipamali river (present-day
Brebes river) as a
boundary between Sundanese and Javanese territories.
Sangkuriang , which tells the story of the creation of Mount
Tangkuban Parahu and the ancient lake
Nyai Loro Kidul (also spelled Nyi Roro Kidul) is a legendary
female spirit or deity , known as the Queen of the Southern Sea of
Indian Ocean or Samudra Kidul south of
Java island ) in
Sundanese as well in Javanese mythology.
Old Sundanese literature, among others, are:
Bujangga Manik , which was written on 29 palm leaves and kept in
the Bodleian Library in Oxford since 1627, mentioning more than 450
names of places, regions, rivers and mountains situated on Java
Bali island and
Parahyangan , telling Sundanese kings and kingdoms from the
Siksakandang Karesian , providing the reader with all kinds of
religious and moralistic rules, prescriptions and lessons.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
Cities and Regencies in West
Java range high to medium Human
Development Index (HDI).
CITY / REGENCY
HDI (2016 DATA)
Comparable Country (2016 UNDP Data )
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Kawah Putih Rancabali
Based on the data from
Indonesia State Secretary, the total area of
rice fields in West
Java Province in 2006 was 9,488,623 km which
produced 9,418,882 tons of paddy in 2006, consisting of 9,103,800 tons
rice field paddy and 315,082 tons farmland paddy. Palawija (non-rice
food) production, reached 2,044,674 tons with productivity 179.28
quintal per ha. Nevertheless, the widest plant's width is for corn
commodity which reaches 148,505 ha, West
Java also produce
horticulture consists of 2,938,624 tons vegetables, 3,193,744 tons
fruits, and 159,871 tons medicines plants/ bio pharmacology.
Forest in West
Java covers 764,387.59 ha or 20.62% from total size of
the province. It consists of productive forest 362,980.40 ha (9.79%),
protected forest 228,727.11 ha (6.17%), and conservation forest
172,680 ha (4.63%). Mangrove forest reaches 40,129.89 ha, and spread
in 10 regencies where coasts are available. Besides, there is also
another protected forest of about 32,313.59 ha organized by Perum
Perhutani Unit III West
Java and Banten.
From the productive forest, in 2006 West
Java harvested crop of about
200,675 m³ wood, although the need of wood in this province every
year is about 4 million m³. Until 2006, populace forest's width
214,892 ha with wood production is about 893,851.75 m³. West Java
also produce non-forest's crop which is potential enough to be
developed as forestry work, such as silk, mushroom, pine, dammar,
maleleuca, rattan, bamboo, and swallow bird's nest.
In fishery sector, the excellent commodities are goldfish, nila fish,
milkfish, freshwater catfish, windu shrimp, green mussel, gouramy,
patin, seaweed and vaname shrimp. In 2006, this province harvested
560,000 tons fish from fishery cultivation crop and brackish or 63.63%
from fishery production total in West Java.
In the poultry field, dairy cow, domestic poultry, and ducks are
excellent commodities in West Java. 2006 data stated that there are
96,796 dairy cows (25% of the national population), 4,249,670 sheep,
28,652,493 domestic poultries, and 5,596,882 ducks (16% of the
national population). Now there are only 245,994 beef cattle in West
Java (3% national population), whereas the need every year is about
300,000 beef cattle.
This province has many plantation crops, such as tea, cloves,
coconut, rubber, cacao, tobacco, coffee, sugar, palm and akar wangi
Chrysopogon zizanioides ). From all those commodities, cloves,
coconut, rubber, cocoa, tobacco, and coffee are of noted excellent
commodities from West Java. From area side, the best productivity,
that is plan area's width equals with plant's width that produces
tobacco and sugar palm commodities. From production side, the highest
productivity is oil palm (6.5 tons per ha) and sugar palm (5.5 tons
Java also produces excellent mine production. In 2006, it
contributes 5,284 tons zeolite, 47,978 tons bentonite, iron sand,
pozzolan cement, feldspar, and jewel barn/ gemstone. Precious stone
mining potential generally are found in Garut, Tasikmalaya, Kuningan,
Sukabumi Regency areas.
As consequences of has many volcanoes, West
Java is potential of
Geothermal energy . There are 11 points of geothermal energy and 3
Papandayan , Ceremai and
Gede Pangrango have conducted
Raw natural resources include chalk , several offshore oilfields in
Java Sea , and lumber. Most of the province is very fertile, with
a mix of small farms and larger plantations. There are several
hydropower dams, including Jatiluhur , Saguling , Cirata , and
Jagorawi Toll Road.
Due to its proximity to the capital city and its growing population
and industry, West
Java has the longest tolled highway road of any
provinces. As of April 2015, there are several toll roads in West Java
Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road (73 km)
Cipularang Toll Road
Cipularang Toll Road (58.5 km)
Padaleunyi Toll Road (33 km)
Jagorawi Toll Road (46 km)
Palimanan–Kanci Toll Road (28.8 km)
Bogor Ring Road (partially built)
* Cinere–Jagorawi first section (3.7 km, as part of
Ring Road 2 )
Kanci–Pejagan Toll Road (35 km)
* Cikampek–Palimanan toll road (116 km)
In addition to completed highways there are some highways that are
being built, one of them is Cileunyi–Sumedang–Dawuan (Cisumdawu)
with length 60.1 kilometres.
Several other proposed toll roads are Soreang–Pasirkoja, Bandung
Intra-Urban Toll Road, Ciawi–Sukabumi, Cileunyi–Tasikmalaya, and
Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 (a section of this road has been built).
Most cities and towns in West
Java are served with narrow-gauge
(mainly 1067mm ) lines and connected to other provinces on Java
A high-speed railway is now under construction, connecting Jakarta
Students in University of
Java is one of the most popular destinations for higher
education in Indonesia. It has many well-known universities joined by
many students from the entire country. Some of which are:
Bandung Institute of Technology
* University of
Bogor Agricultural University
Indonesia University of Education
* Institute of Internal Affairs Governance
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* ^ Taylor (2003), p. 123.
* ^ Data is from the 2010 Indonesian national census.
* ^ As between the 2000 and 2010 national censuses.
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Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Jawa Barat". jabar.bps.go.id.
* ^ W
Java to explore eleven geothermal spots - ANTARA News
* Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale
University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5 .