WEST BENGAL (/wɛst bɛŋˈɡɔːl/ ) is an Indian state located in
Bengal was the site of several major _janapadas _. In the 2nd
century BCE, the region was conquered by the emperor
Ashoka . In the
4th century CE, it was absorbed into the
Gupta Empire . From the 13th
century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans , powerful
Hindu states and
Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British
rule in the 18th century. The British East
A major agricultural producer , West
Bengal is the sixth-largest
contributing state to India's net domestic product . The state
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Ancient and classical period * 2.2 Medieval and early modern periods * 2.3 Colonial period * 2.4 Indian independence and afterwards
* 3 Geography and climate * 4 Flora and fauna * 5 Government and politics * 6 Districts * 7 Economy * 8 Transport * 9 Demographics
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Literature * 10.2 Music and dance * 10.3 Films * 10.4 Fine arts * 10.5 Reformist heritage * 10.6 Cuisine * 10.7 Costumes * 10.8 Weaving * 10.9 Festivals
* 11 Education * 12 Media * 13 Sports * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 External links
Main article: Names of Bengal
The origin of the name Bengal (known as _Bangla_ and _Bongo_ in Bengali language ) is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang," a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE. The word might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of _Vanga_ (or _Banga_). Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name, the region's early history is obscure.
At the end of British Rule over the Indian subcontinent , the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west. The east came to be known as East Bengal and the west came to known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state . In 2011, the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to _Poschimbongo_ (Bengali : পশ্চিমবঙ্গ _Pôshchimbônggô_). This is the native name of the state, literally meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bangal" in Hindi , "Bengal" in English and "Bangla" in Bengali . Despite the Trinamool Congress government's strong efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress , the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution, However it awaits the consent of the Indian Parliament for approval.
ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
An example of the Pala -Sena school of sculptural art from Bengal
Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had thought based on prior evidence. The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom , according to the Indian epic _ Mahabharata ._ Several Vedic realms were present in Bengal region, including Vanga , Rarh , Pundravardhana and the Suhma Kingdom . One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai , which was located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Peninsula , and the Sumatra ). According to the Sri Lankan chronicle _ Mahavamsa ,_ Prince Vijaya (c. 543 – c. 505 BCE), a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country.
The kingdom of
Magadha was formed in 7th century BCE, consisting of
the regions now comprising
Bengal . It was one of the four
main kingdoms of
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata and Gauda – are mentioned in some texts to have appeared after the end of Gupta Empire, although details of their ruling time are uncertain. The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka , who reigned in the early 7th century. Shashanka is often recorded in Buddhist annals as an intolerant Hindu ruler who is noted for his persecution of the Buddhists. Shashanka murdered Rajyavardhana, the Buddhist King of Thanesar, and is noted for destroying the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya , and replacing Buddha statues with Shiva lingams . After a period of anarchy, :36 the Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years starting from the eighth century. It was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty .
Some areas of Bengal were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty between 1021 and 1023. Islam made its first appearance in Bengal during the 12th century when Sufi missionaries arrived. Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques , madrasas and khanqahs . Between 1202 and 1206, Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji , a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate , overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur , Bogra and the Brahmaputra River . Although he failed to bring Bengal under his control, the expedition defeated Lakshman Sen . His two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District ), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late 13th century.
MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN PERIODS
Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of Bengal Sultanate and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. The Bengal Sultanate was interrupted for 20 years by an uprising by the Hindus under Raja Ganesha . In the sixteenth century, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence of the area under the Nawabs of Murshidabad , who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi . Several independent Hindu states were established in Bengal during the Mughal period, like those of Pratapaditya of Jessore District and Raja Sitaram Ray of Bardhaman . The Koch dynasty in northern Bengal flourished during the period of 16th and the 17th centuries; it weathered the Mughals and survived till the advent of the British colonial era.
Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the "Father of the Bengali renaissance ".
Several European traders reached this area late in the fifteenth
century. The British East
The Bengal Renaissance and Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements influenced the cultural and economic life of Bengal. Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones. Bengal suffered from the Great Bengal famine in 1943, which claimed 3 million lives during World War II. Bengalis played a major role in the Indian independence movement , in which revolutionary groups such as _ Anushilan Samiti _ and _ Jugantar _ were dominant. Armed attempts against the British Raj from Bengal reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army from Southeast Asia against the British.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND AFTERWARDS
During the 1970s and 1980s, severe power shortages, strikes and a
Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure,
leading to a period of economic stagnation. The
War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West
Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. The 1974
smallpox epidemic killed thousands. West
Bengal politics underwent a
major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election,
defeating the incumbent
Indian National Congress . The Left Front, led
Communist Party of
The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic liberalisations were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government . This was aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services . Since mid-2000s, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state, while clashes with the administration took place at several sensitive places over the issue of industrial land acquisition, which became a crucial reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the 2011 assembly election. Although the state's GDP has risen significantly since the 1990s, West Bengal has remained affected by political instability and bad governance. The state continues to suffer from regular bandhs (strikes ), substandard healthcare services, a lack of socio-economic development, poor infrastructure, political corruption, criminalisation of politics, unemployment, poor education facilities and civil violence.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas in the north, to the Bay of Bengal in the south. The state has a total area of 88,752 square kilometres (34,267 sq mi). The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in the northern extreme of the state is a part of the eastern Himalayas mountain range. This region contains Sandakfu (3,636 m or 11,929 ft)—the highest peak of the state. The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal plains , which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands . A small coastal region is on the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangrove forests form a geographical landmark at the Ganges delta.
Ganges is the main river, which divides in West Bengal. One
Bangladesh as the _Padma _ or _Pôdda_, while the other
flows through West
Bengal as the
Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River .
Farakka barrage over
Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river
by a feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a source of
lingering dispute between
West Bengal's climate varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The main seasons are summer, rainy season, a short autumn, and winter. While the summer in the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like northern India, with the highest day temperature ranging from 38 °C (100 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F). At nights, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. In early summer brief squalls and thunderstorms known as _Kalbaisakhi_, or Nor'westers, often occur. West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian Ocean monsoon that moves in a northwest direction. Monsoons bring rain to the whole state from June to September. Heavy rainfall of above 250 centimetres (98 in) is observed in the Darjeeling , Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar district . During the arrival of the monsoons, low pressure in the Bay of Bengal region often leads to the occurrence of storms in the coastal areas . Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of 15 °C (59 °F). A cold and dry northern wind blows in the winter, substantially lowering the humidity level. The Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall.
FLORA AND FAUNA
As of 2013, recorded forest area in the state is 16,805 km2 (6,488 sq mi) which is 18.93% of the state's geographical area, compared to the national average of 21.23%. Reserves, protected and unclassed forests constitute 59.4%, 31.8% and 8.9%, respectively, of the forest area, as of 2009. Part of the world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans , is located in southern West Bengal.
WEST BENGAL STATE SYMBOLS TITLE SYMBOL IMAGE
STATE ANIMAL Fishing cat
STATE BIRD White-throated kingfisher
STATE TREE Devil tree
"". _The Official Website of
Purulia District_. Retrieved 11 June
* ^ Raychaudhuri, Baidehi Chatterjee and Roshmi.
"contemporaryart-india - Art History:
_www.contemporaryart-india.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-05.
* ^ Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif. "Development of freshwater fish
farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh" (PDF).
Aqua KE Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November
2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
* ^ Saha, S (18 January 2006). "Resurrected, the kathi roll –
Face-off resolved, Nizam\'s set to open with food court". Calcutta,
The Telegraph (Kolkata) . Retrieved 26 October 2006.
* ^ "Mobile food stalls". Bangalinet.com. Retrieved 26 October
* ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh; Bagchi, Tilak; India, Anthropological
Survey of (2008). _People of India: West Bengal_. Anthropological
Survey of India. ISBN 9788170463009 .
* ^ "Parinita – Handloom map of West Bengal".
* ^ "
Durga Puja". _Festivals celebrated throughout West Bengal_.
Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the
original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
* ^ "
Durga Puja in India: Largest Open Air Art Expo".
_kolkata.china-consulate.org_. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
* ^ "Foreign bloggers and travel writers soak in Kolkata\'s festive
spirit – Times of India". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 25
* ^ "West
Bengal Tourism". _www.westbengaltourism.gov.in_. Archived
from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
* ^ Choudhury, Angikaar. "In photos: Glimpses of a Bengali
Christmas on Kolkata\'s Park Street". _Scroll.in_. Retrieved 25
* ^ "Boards of secondary & senior secondary education in India".
Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human
Resource Development, Government of India. Archived from the original
on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
* ^ "India\'s Best Schools, 2014". _Rediff.com_.
* ^ "UGC recognised Universities in West
Bengal with NAAC
accreditation status". Education Observer. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
* ^ "West
Bengal University of Health Sciences". West Bengal
University of Health Sciences. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
* ^ "List of Affiliated Colleges". University of Calcutta. Archived
from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
* ^ Mitra, P (31 August 2005). "Waning interest". _Careergraph_.
Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
* ^ "Visva-Bharati: Facts and Figures at a Glance". Visva-Bharati
Computer Centre. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
* ^ "University Grants commission ::Centre with Potential for
Excellence in Particular Area". _ugc.ac.in_. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Some of the distinguished alumni of the
University of Calcutta". University of Calcutta. Archived from the
original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Some of our distinguished teachers". University of
Calcutta. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 29
* ^ Petitjean, Patrick; Jami, Cathérine; Moulin, Anne Marie
(1992). _Science and empires: historical studies about scientific
development and European expansion_. Dordrecht, The Netherlands:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7923-1518-6 .
* ^ Frenz, Horst, ed. (1999). _Nobel Lectures, Literature
1901–1967_. Amsterdam: World Scientific. p. 134. ISBN
978-981-02-3413-3 . Retrieved 3 February 2012.
* ^ "Professor Amartya Sen". President and Fellows of Harvard
College, Harvard University. Archived from the original on 31 January
2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "General Review". Registrar of Newspapers for
India. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 6
* ^ "West
Bengal Media". _www.mapsofindia.com_. Retrieved
* ^ "Bengali News Channel took 5 months to reach no.1 position".
News Center. Retrieved 7 September 2006.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "CALCUTTA : Television, Radio Channels". Calcutta
Web. Archived from the original on 3 December 2006. Retrieved 7
* ^ Prabhakaran, Shaji (18 January 2003). "
* Baxter, Craig (1997). _Bangladesh: From a Nation to a State_.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 1-85984-121-X .
* Hindle, Jane, ed. (1996). _London Review of Books: An Anthology_.
Alan Bennett . London: Verso. pp. 63–70. ISBN
* Roy, Ananya ; AlSayyad, Nezar (2004). _Urban Informality:
Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and
South Asia_. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0741-0 .
Bengal Human Development Report, 2004_ (PDF). Kolkata:
Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. May
2004. ISBN 81-7955-030-3 .
* _Impact of Social Sector Development in West Bengal_. Planning
Commission, Government of India. 2009.
* Klass, L; Morton, S (1996). _Community Structure and
industrialization in West Bengal_. University Press of America Inc.
ISBN 0-7618-0420-X .
* Sunny, C (1999). "Poverty and social development in west bengal"