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WEST BENGAL (/wɛst bɛŋˈɡɔːl/ ) is an Indian state located in Eastern India
India
on the Bay of Bengal . It is India's fourth-most populous state, with over 91 million inhabitants (as of 2011). It has an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north; it borders five Indian states, Odisha , Jharkhand , Bihar , Sikkim and Assam . The state capital is Kolkata
Kolkata
(Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India
India
. The geography of West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in its extreme north, the Ganges delta , the Rarh region and the coastal Sundarbans . The main ethnic group are the Bengalis , with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.

Ancient Bengal was the site of several major _janapadas _. In the 2nd century BCE, the region was conquered by the emperor Ashoka . In the 4th century CE, it was absorbed into the Gupta Empire . From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans , powerful Hindu states and Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century. The British East India
India
Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India
India
. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in expansion of Western education, culminating in development in science, institutional education, and social reforms of the region, including what became known as the Bengal Renaissance . A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal —a part of the newly created Pakistan —later becoming Bangladesh in 1971. Between 1977 and 2011, the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government.

A major agricultural producer , West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributing state to India's net domestic product . The state capital Kolkata
Kolkata
is known as the "cultural capital of India". The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, ranges from notable authors in literature including Nobel-laureate Rabindranath Tagore to scores of musicians, film-makers and artists. West Bengal is also distinct from most other Indian states in its appreciation and practice of playing association football besides cricket, the national favourite sport.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient and classical period * 2.2 Medieval and early modern periods * 2.3 Colonial period * 2.4 Indian independence and afterwards

* 3 Geography and climate * 4 Flora and fauna * 5 Government and politics * 6 Districts * 7 Economy * 8 Transport * 9 Demographics

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Literature * 10.2 Music and dance * 10.3 Films * 10.4 Fine arts * 10.5 Reformist heritage * 10.6 Cuisine * 10.7 Costumes * 10.8 Weaving * 10.9 Festivals

* 11 Education * 12 Media * 13 Sports * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Names of Bengal

The origin of the name Bengal (known as _Bangla_ and _Bongo_ in Bengali language ) is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang," a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE. The word might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of _Vanga_ (or _Banga_). Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name, the region's early history is obscure.

At the end of British Rule over the Indian subcontinent , the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west. The east came to be known as East Bengal and the west came to known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state . In 2011, the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to _Poschimbongo_ (Bengali : পশ্চিমবঙ্গ _Pôshchimbônggô_). This is the native name of the state, literally meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bangal" in Hindi , "Bengal" in English and "Bangla" in Bengali . Despite the Trinamool Congress government's strong efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress , the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution, However it awaits the consent of the Indian Parliament for approval.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Bengal and History of West Bengal

ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD

An example of the Pala -Sena school of sculptural art from Bengal

Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had thought based on prior evidence. The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom , according to the Indian epic _ Mahabharata ._ Several Vedic realms were present in Bengal region, including Vanga , Rarh , Pundravardhana and the Suhma Kingdom . One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai , which was located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Peninsula , and the Sumatra ). According to the Sri Lankan chronicle _ Mahavamsa ,_ Prince Vijaya (c. 543 – c. 505 BCE), a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country.

The kingdom of Magadha was formed in 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal . It was one of the four main kingdoms of India
India
at the time of the lives of Mahavira , founder of Jainism , and Gautama Buddha , founder of Buddhism . It consisted of several janapadas or kingdoms. Under Ashoka , the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia , including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan . From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire .

Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata and Gauda – are mentioned in some texts to have appeared after the end of Gupta Empire, although details of their ruling time are uncertain. The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka , who reigned in the early 7th century. Shashanka is often recorded in Buddhist annals as an intolerant Hindu ruler who is noted for his persecution of the Buddhists. Shashanka murdered Rajyavardhana, the Buddhist King of Thanesar, and is noted for destroying the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya , and replacing Buddha statues with Shiva lingams . After a period of anarchy, :36 the Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years starting from the eighth century. It was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty .

Some areas of Bengal were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty between 1021 and 1023. Islam made its first appearance in Bengal during the 12th century when Sufi missionaries arrived. Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques , madrasas and khanqahs . Between 1202 and 1206, Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji , a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate , overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur , Bogra and the Brahmaputra River . Although he failed to bring Bengal under his control, the expedition defeated Lakshman Sen . His two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District ), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late 13th century.

MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN PERIODS

Adina Mosque The temple city of Bishnupur hosts several landmark terracotta Hindu temples

Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of Bengal Sultanate and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. The Bengal Sultanate was interrupted for 20 years by an uprising by the Hindus under Raja Ganesha . In the sixteenth century, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence of the area under the Nawabs of Murshidabad , who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi . Several independent Hindu states were established in Bengal during the Mughal period, like those of Pratapaditya of Jessore District and Raja Sitaram Ray of Bardhaman . The Koch dynasty in northern Bengal flourished during the period of 16th and the 17th centuries; it weathered the Mughals and survived till the advent of the British colonial era.

COLONIAL PERIOD

Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the "Father of the Bengali renaissance ".

Several European traders reached this area late in the fifteenth century. The British East India
India
Company defeated Siraj ud-Daulah , the last independent Nawab, In the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The company gained rights to collect revenue in Bengal subah (province) in 1765 as per the treaty between the East India
India
company and Mughal emperor following the Battle of Buxar in 1764. The Bengal Presidency was established in 1765; it later incorporated all British territories controlled north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh ), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab . The Bengal famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives due to tax policies enacted by the British company. Calcutta, the headquarters of the East India
India
company, was named in 1772 as the capital of British-held territories in India. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857 started near Calcutta and resulted in transfer of authority to the British Crown , administered by the Viceroy of India .

The Bengal Renaissance and Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements influenced the cultural and economic life of Bengal. Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones. Bengal suffered from the Great Bengal famine in 1943, which claimed 3 million lives during World War II. Bengalis played a major role in the Indian independence movement , in which revolutionary groups such as _ Anushilan Samiti _ and _ Jugantar _ were dominant. Armed attempts against the British Raj from Bengal reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army from Southeast Asia against the British.

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND AFTERWARDS

When India
India
gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to Dominion of India
India
(and was named West Bengal), while the eastern part went to Dominion of Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed as East Pakistan in 1956). The latter became independent Bangladesh in 1971. In 1950, the Princely State of Cooch Behar merged with West Bengal. In 1955, the former French enclave of Chandannagar , which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar were also subsequently merged with West Bengal. Both West and East Bengal suffered from large refugee influxes during and after the partition in 1947. Refugee resettlement and related issues continued to play a significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999

During the 1970s and 1980s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. The 1974 smallpox epidemic killed thousands. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress . The Left Front, led by Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist) , governed the state for the subsequent three decades.

The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic liberalisations were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government . This was aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services . Since mid-2000s, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state, while clashes with the administration took place at several sensitive places over the issue of industrial land acquisition, which became a crucial reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the 2011 assembly election. Although the state's GDP has risen significantly since the 1990s, West Bengal has remained affected by political instability and bad governance. The state continues to suffer from regular bandhs (strikes ), substandard healthcare services, a lack of socio-economic development, poor infrastructure, political corruption, criminalisation of politics, unemployment, poor education facilities and civil violence.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Main articles: Geography of West Bengal and Climate of West Bengal Many areas remain flooded during the heavy rains brought by monsoon

West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas in the north, to the Bay of Bengal in the south. The state has a total area of 88,752 square kilometres (34,267 sq mi). The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in the northern extreme of the state is a part of the eastern Himalayas mountain range. This region contains Sandakfu (3,636 m or 11,929 ft)—the highest peak of the state. The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal plains , which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands . A small coastal region is on the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangrove forests form a geographical landmark at the Ganges delta.

The Ganges is the main river, which divides in West Bengal. One branch enters Bangladesh as the _Padma _ or _Pôdda_, while the other flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River . The Farakka barrage over Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a source of lingering dispute between India
India
and Bangladesh. The Teesta , Torsa , Jaldhaka and Mahananda rivers are in the northern hilly region. The western plateau region has rivers such as the Damodar , Ajay and Kangsabati . The Ganges delta and the Sundarbans area have numerous rivers and creeks. Pollution of the Ganges from indiscriminate waste dumped into the river is a major problem. Damodar , another tributary of the Ganges and once known as the "Sorrow of Bengal" (due to its frequent floods), has several dams under the Damodar Valley Project . At least nine districts in the state suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater , and, as of 2006, an estimated 8.7 million people drink water containing arsenic above the World Health Organisation recommended limit of 10 µg /L.

West Bengal's climate varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The main seasons are summer, rainy season, a short autumn, and winter. While the summer in the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like northern India, with the highest day temperature ranging from 38 °C (100 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F). At nights, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. In early summer brief squalls and thunderstorms known as _Kalbaisakhi_, or Nor'westers, often occur. West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian Ocean monsoon that moves in a northwest direction. Monsoons bring rain to the whole state from June to September. Heavy rainfall of above 250 centimetres (98 in) is observed in the Darjeeling , Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar district . During the arrival of the monsoons, low pressure in the Bay of Bengal region often leads to the occurrence of storms in the coastal areas . Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of 15 °C (59 °F). A cold and dry northern wind blows in the winter, substantially lowering the humidity level. The Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall.

FLORA AND FAUNA

A Bengal tiger . Sal trees in the Arabari forest in West Midnapur .

As of 2013, recorded forest area in the state is 16,805 km2 (6,488 sq mi) which is 18.93% of the state's geographical area, compared to the national average of 21.23%. Reserves, protected and unclassed forests constitute 59.4%, 31.8% and 8.9%, respectively, of the forest area, as of 2009. Part of the world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans , is located in southern West Bengal.

WEST BENGAL STATE SYMBOLS TITLE SYMBOL IMAGE

STATE ANIMAL Fishing cat

STATE BIRD White-throated kingfisher

STATE TREE Devil tree

STATE FLOWER Night-flowering jasmine "". _The Official Website of Purulia District_. Retrieved 11 June 2017. * ^ Raychaudhuri, Baidehi Chatterjee and Roshmi. "contemporaryart-india - Art History: Bengal Region". _www.contemporaryart-india.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-05. * ^ Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif. "Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh" (PDF). Aqua KE Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006. * ^ Saha, S (18 January 2006). "Resurrected, the kathi roll – Face-off resolved, Nizam\'s set to open with food court". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph (Kolkata) . Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ "Mobile food stalls". Bangalinet.com. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh; Bagchi, Tilak; India, Anthropological Survey of (2008). _People of India: West Bengal_. Anthropological Survey of India. ISBN 9788170463009 . * ^ "Parinita – Handloom map of West Bengal". * ^ " Durga Puja". _Festivals celebrated throughout West Bengal_. Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012. * ^ " Durga Puja in India: Largest Open Air Art Expo". _kolkata.china-consulate.org_. Retrieved 25 December 2015. * ^ "Foreign bloggers and travel writers soak in Kolkata\'s festive spirit – Times of India". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 25 December 2015. * ^ "West Bengal Tourism". _www.westbengaltourism.gov.in_. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015. * ^ Choudhury, Angikaar. "In photos: Glimpses of a Bengali Christmas on Kolkata\'s Park Street". _Scroll.in_. Retrieved 25 December 2015. * ^ "Boards of secondary & senior secondary education in India". Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012. * ^ "India\'s Best Schools, 2014". _Rediff.com_. * ^ "UGC recognised Universities in West Bengal with NAAC accreditation status". Education Observer. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ "West Bengal University of Health Sciences". West Bengal University of Health Sciences. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ "List of Affiliated Colleges". University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2008. * ^ Mitra, P (31 August 2005). "Waning interest". _Careergraph_. Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ "Visva-Bharati: Facts and Figures at a Glance". Visva-Bharati Computer Centre. Retrieved 31 March 2007. * ^ "University Grants commission ::Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area". _ugc.ac.in_. Retrieved 25 July 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Some of the distinguished alumni of the University of Calcutta". University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Some of our distinguished teachers". University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012. * ^ Petitjean, Patrick; Jami, Cathérine; Moulin, Anne Marie (1992). _Science and empires: historical studies about scientific development and European expansion_. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7923-1518-6 . * ^ Frenz, Horst, ed. (1999). _Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967_. Amsterdam: World Scientific. p. 134. ISBN 978-981-02-3413-3 . Retrieved 3 February 2012. * ^ "Professor Amartya Sen". President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "General Review". Registrar of Newspapers for India. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012. * ^ "West Bengal Media". _www.mapsofindia.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-04. * ^ "Bengali News Channel took 5 months to reach no.1 position". News Center. Retrieved 7 September 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "CALCUTTA : Television, Radio Channels". Calcutta Web. Archived from the original on 3 December 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2006. * ^ Prabhakaran, Shaji (18 January 2003). " Football in India
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Eden Gardens (Kolkata)". Cricket Web. Archived from the original on 31 May 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ Raju, Mukherji (14 March 2005). "Seven Years? Head Start". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ "Famous Indian Football Players". Iloveindia.com. Retrieved 26 October 2006.

REFERENCES

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India
Rural Development Report, NIRD_. * KPMG in India
India
(December 2007). "Sustainable economic development in West Bengal – A Perspective" (PDF). Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). * Amrita Basu, V. (1997). _Two Faces of Protest: Contrasting Modes of Women\'s Activism in India_. University of California Press ltd. ISBN 0-520-06506-9 . Retrieved 16 June 2009. * Jasodhara Bagchi, Sarmistha Dutta Gupta, V. (2000). _The changing status of women in West Bengal, 1970–2000: the challenge ahead_. Saga Publication India
India
Pvt Ltd. ISBN 0-7619-3242-9 . Retrieved 16 June 2010. * Magnus Öberg, Kaare Strom, V. (2008). _Resources, governance and civil conflict_. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41671-9 . Retrieved 16 June 2004. * Atul Kohli, I. (1987). _The State and Poverty in India_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37876-5 . Retrieved 16 June 2007. * Marvin, Davis (1983). _Rank and rivalry: the politics of inequality in rural West Bengal_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. xxvii, 239. ISBN 0-521-24657-1 . * Richard Maxwell Eaton, The rise of Islam and the Bengal frontier, 1204–1760, 1993, University of California Press, California, California,1993, ISBN 0-520-08077-7 . * Ross Mallick. (1955). Development Policy of a Communist Government: West Bengal Since 1977, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (Reprinted 2008) ISBN 978-0-521-43292-4 . * Pranab Chatterjee (2009). _A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh and West Bengal: The Rise and Fall of Bengali Elitism in South Asia_. Peter Lang Publishing; First printing edition. ISBN 978-1-4331-0820-4 . * Tapan Raychaudhuri (2002). _Europe Reconsidered: Perceptions of the West in Nineteenth-Century Bengal_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566109-5 . * Harriss-White, Barbara (editor) (2008). _Rural Commercial Capital: Agricultural Markets in West Bengal_. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-569159-8 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Raychaudhuri, Ajitava (editor); Das, Tuhin K. (editor) (2005). _West Bengal economy: some contemporary issues_. Jadavpur University Press, India. ISBN 81-7764-731-8 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Inden; Ronald B.; Ralph W (2005). _Kinship in Bengali Culture_. The University of Chicago Press, 1977. ISBN 81-8028-018-7 . * Banerjee, Anuradha (1998). _Environment, population, and human settlements of Sundarban Delta_. Ashok Kumar Mittal. ISBN 81-7022-739-9 . * Government of West Bengal , Law Department, Lagislative Notification. No. 182- L – 24 January 2013. West Bengal Act XXXVI of 2012. The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Act, 2012. * Chatterjee, Partha (1997). _The Present History of West Bengal: Essays in Political Criticism_. the University of Michigan: Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-19-563945-2 . * Chakrabarti, Ranjan (2013). _Dictionary of Historical Places: Bengal, 1757–1947_. Primus Books. p. 657. ISBN 978-93-80607-41-2 . * Chatterji, Joya (2007). _The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947–1967_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-46830-5 . * Bald, Vivek (2013). _Bengali Harlem and the Lost Histories of South Asian America_. Harvard University Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-674-07040-0 . * Sen, Raj Kumar; Dasgupta, Asis (2007). _West Bengal Today: 25 Years of Economic Development_. Deep and Deep Publications. p. 380. ISBN 978-81-7629-984-8 . * Sen, Jyotirmoy (1988). _Land Utilisation and Population Distribution: A Case Study of West Bengal, 1850–1985_. Daya Books. p. 227. ISBN 978-81-7035-043-9 . * Roy, Dayabati (2013). _Rural Politics in India: Political Stratification and Governance in West Bengal_. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-107-51316-7 . * Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2009). _Decolonization in South Asia: Meanings of Freedom in Post-independence West Bengal, 1947–52_. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-134-01823-9 . * Mukherjee, Bharati (1991). _Political Culture and Leadership in India: A Study of West Bengal_. Mittal Publications. p. 403. ISBN 978-81-7099-320-9 . * Samaddar, Ranabir (1999). _The Marginal Nation: Transborder Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal_. the University of Michigan: SAGE Publications. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7619-9283-7 . * Bose, Sugata (1993). _Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital: Rural Bengal Since 1770, Volume 3_. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-521-26694-9 . * Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004). _Caste, Culture and Hegemony: Social Dominance in Colonial Bengal_. SAGE Publications India. p. 256. ISBN 978-81-321-0407-0 . * Khan, Muhammad Mojlum (2013). _The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal_. Kube Publishing Ltd. p. 384. ISBN 978-1-84774-062-5 . * Bhargava, Ed.Gopal (2008). _Encyclopaedia of Art And Culture In India
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EXTERNAL LINKS

Government

* Official Site of the Government of West Bengal, India

.