* French * English * Portuguese
MEMBERSHIP 15 members
• CHAIRMAN Faure Gnassingbe
• PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION Marcel Alain de Souza
• SPEAKER OF THE PARLIAMENT Moustapha Cissé Lô
• TREATY OF LAGOS 28 May 1975
• TOTAL 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi) (7th )
• 2015 ESTIMATE 349,154,000 (3rd )
• DENSITY 68.3/km2 (176.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP ) 2015 estimate
• TOTAL US$1.483 trillion (18th )
• PER CAPITA US$4,247
GDP (NOMINAL) estimate
$675 billion 2015 (21st )
• PER CAPITA $1,985
* Escudo (CVE) * Cedi (GHS) b * Dalasi (GMD) b * Franc (GNF) b * Dollar (LRD) c * Naira (NGN) b * Leone (SLL) c * W. African CFA franc (XOF)
TIME ZONE (UTC +0 to +1)
The ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES, also known as ECOWAS
(French : Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest,
CEDEAO; Portuguese : Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África
Ocidental, CEDEAO), is a regional economic union of fifteen countries
The union was established on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos , with its stated mission to promote economic integration across the region. A revised version of the treaty was agreed and signed on 24 July 1993 in Cotonou. Considered one of the pillar regional blocs of the continent-wide African Economic Community (AEC), the states goal of ECOWAS is to achieve "collective self-sufficiency " for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc by building a full economic and trading union.
ECOWAS also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region, with member
states occasionally sending joint military forces to intervene in the
bloc's member countries at times of political instability and unrest.
In recent years these included interventions in
ECOWAS includes two sub-regional blocs:
West African Economic and Monetary Union
ECOWAS operates in three co-official languages—French , English ,
and Portuguese , and consists of two institutions to implement
policies: the ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and
Development (EBID), formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until
it was renamed in 2001. A few members of the organization have come
and gone over the years. In 1976
In 2011, ECOWAS adopted its development blueprint for the next decade, Vision 2020, and, to accompany it, a Policy on Science and Technology ( ECOPOST ).
* 1 Member states
* 2 Structure
* 2.1 President of the Commissions * 2.2 Chairpersons * 2.3 Regional security co-operation * 2.4 Community Parliament * 2.5 Expanded ECOWAS Commission * 2.6 Community Court of Justice * 2.7 Sporting and cultural exchange
* 3.1.1 Membership
* 3.2.1 Membership
* 4 Transport
* 5 Controversies
* 5.1 NSA surveillance
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
As of February 2017 ECOWAS has 15 member states, eight of these are
French-speaking, five are English-speaking and two
Portuguese-speaking. All current members joined the community as
founding members in May 1975, except
Statistics for population, nominal GDP and purchase price parity GDP listed below are taken from World Bank estimates for 2015, published in December 2016. Area data is taken from a 2012 report compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division .
COUNTRY Area (km2) Population (thousands) GDP (nominal) (millions USD) GDP (PPP) (millions intl.$) CURRENCY Official language
BENIN 7005114763000000000♠114,763 7004108800000000000♠10,880 7003829100000000000♠8,291 7004223770000000000♠22,377 CFA franc French
BURKINA FASO 7005272967000000000♠272,967 7004181060000000000♠18,106 7004106780000000000♠10,678 7004307080000000000♠30,708 CFA franc French
CAPE VERDE 7003403300000000000♠4,033 7002521000000000000♠521 7003160300000000000♠1,603 7003341300000000000♠3,413 escudo Portuguese
GAMBIA 7004112950000000000♠11,295 7003199100000000000♠1,991 7002939000000000000♠939 7003334400000000000♠3,344 dalasi English
GHANA 7005238533000000000♠238,533 7004274100000000000♠27,410 7004375430000000000♠37,543 7005115409000000000♠115,409 cedi English
GUINEA 7005245857000000000♠245,857 7004126090000000000♠12,609 7003669900000000000♠6,699 7004152440000000000♠15,244 franc French
GUINEA-BISSAU 7004361250000000000♠36,125 7003184400000000000♠1,844 7003105700000000000♠1,057 7003268500000000000♠2,685 CFA franc Portuguese
IVORY COAST 7005322463000000000♠322,463 7004227020000000000♠22,702 7004317590000000000♠31,759 7004797660000000000♠79,766 CFA franc French
LIBERIA 7005111369000000000♠111,369 7003450300000000000♠4,503 7003205300000000000♠2,053 7003376200000000000♠3,762 dollar English
MALI 7006124019200000000♠1,240,192 7004176000000000000♠17,600 7004127470000000000♠12,747 7004356950000000000♠35,695 CFA franc French
NIGER 7006126700000000000♠1,267,000 7004198990000000000♠19,899 7003714300000000000♠7,143 7004190130000000000♠19,013 CFA franc French
NIGERIA 7005923768000000000♠923,768 7005182202000000000♠182,202 7005481066000000000♠481,066 7006109392100000000♠1,093,921 naira English
SENEGAL 7005196712000000000♠196,712 7004151290000000000♠15,129 7004136100000000000♠13,610 7004366250000000000♠36,625 CFA franc French
SIERRA LEONE 7004723000000000000♠72,300 7003645300000000000♠6,453 7003421500000000000♠4,215 7004101270000000000♠10,127 leone English
TOGO 7004567850000000000♠56,785 7003730500000000000♠7,305 7003408800000000000♠4,088 7004106670000000000♠10,667 CFA franc French
ECOWAS TOTAL 7006511416200000000♠5,114,162 7005349154000000000♠349,154 7005623491000000000♠623,491 7006148275600000000♠1,482,756 & — padding:0"> Institutions
* Chairperson * Conference and Events * Peace & Sec. * Pol. Affairs * Infra. & Energy * Soc. Affairs * HR, Sci., & Tech. * Trade and Industry * Rural Econ. padding:0"> Legislature
* President * Bureau * Secretariat * List of members
* Permanent Committees
* Rural Econ., Agri., Resources, Environ. * Monetary & Financial * Trade, Customs, & Immigration * Cooperation, IR, & Conflict
* Transport, Industry, Communications, Energy, Science, & Tech. * Health, Labour, & Social * Educ., Culture, Tourism, & HR * Gender, Family, Youth, Disabilities * Justice & Rights * Rules, Privileges, padding:0"> Judiciary
* Sirte Declaration * Constitutive Act of the AU
* Charter on Rights * Commission on Human and Peoples\' Rights
* Court of Justice
* Court on Human and Peoples\' Rights
* List of judges
* Specialised Technical Committees
* Rural Econ., Agri. * Monetary & Financial * Trade, Customs, and Immigration * Industry, Sci. & Tech., Energy, Natural Resources, & Environment * Transport, Comm., Tourism * Health, Labor, Social * Edu., Culture, padding:0"> Financial bodies
* AEC Pillars (
* CEN-SAD * COMESA * EAC
* UEMOA * WAMZ
* New Partnership for Africa\'s Development
* Agencies of the AU
* Elections * Enlargement * Foreign relations
* Other countries * Atlas
* v * t * e
PRESIDENT COUNTRY IN OFFICE
CHAIRPERSON COUNTRY IN OFFICE
Umaru Musa Yar\'Adua
REGIONAL SECURITY CO-OPERATION
The ECOWAS nations assigned a non-aggression protocol in 1990 along with two earlier agreements in 1978 and 1981. They also signed a Protocol on Mutual Defence Assistance in Freetown, Sierra Leone, on 29 May 1981, that provided for the establishment of an Allied Armed Force of the Community.
The Community Parliament consists of 115 members, distributed based on the population of each member state. This body is headed by the Speaker of the Parliament, who is above the Secretary General.
COUNTRY PARLIAMENT SEATS
EXPANDED ECOWAS COMMISSION
For the third time since its inception in 1975, ECOWAS is undergoing
institutional reforms. The first was when it revised its treaty on 24
July 1993; the second was in 2007 when the Secretariat was transformed
into a Commission. As of July 2013, ECOWAS now has six new departments
(Human Resources Management; Education, Science and Culture; Energy
and Mines; Telecommunications and IT; Industry and Private Sector
Promotion. Finance and Administration to
COMMUNITY COURT OF JUSTICE
Main article: ECOWAS Court
The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice was created by a protocol signed in 1991 and was later included in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty of the Community in 1993. However, the Court did not officially begin operations until the 1991 protocol came into effect on 5 November 1996. The jurisdiction of the court is outlined in Article 9 and Articles 76 of the Revised Treaty and allows rulings on disputes between states over interpretations of the Revised Treaty. It also provides the ECOWAS Council with advisory opinions on legal issues (Article 10). Like its companion courts the European Court of Human Rights and East African Court of Justice , it has jurisdiction to rule on fundamental human rights breaches.
SPORTING AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE
WEST AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION (UEMOA)
West African Economic and Monetary Union
UEMOA is a customs union and currency union between the members of ECOWAS. Its objectives include the following:
* Greater economic competitiveness, through open markets, in addition to the rationalisation and harmonisation of the legal environment * The convergence of macro-economic policies and indicators * The creation of a common market * The co-ordination of sectoral policies * The harmonisation of fiscal policies
Among its achievements, the UEMOA has successfully implemented macro-economic convergence criteria and an effective surveillance mechanism. It has adopted a customs union and common external tariff and has combined indirect taxation regulations, in addition to initiating regional structural and sectoral policies. A September 2002 IMF survey cited the UEMOA as "the furthest along the path toward integration" of all the regional groupings in Africa.
ECOWAS and UEMOA have developed a common plan of action on trade liberalisation and macroeconomic policy convergence. The organizations have also agreed on common rules of origin to enhance trade, and ECOWAS has agreed to adopt UEMOA's customs declaration forms and compensation mechanisms.
ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development headquarters in Lome.
WEST AFRICAN MONETARY ZONE
See also: Eco (currency)
Formed in 2000, the
West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) is a group of
six countries within ECOWAS that plan to introduce a common currency
called the Eco . The six member states of WAMZ are
The WAMZ attempts to establish a strong stable currency to rival the
CFA franc, whose exchange rate is tied to that of the
Main article: ECOWAS rail
A Trans-ECOWAS project, established in 2007, plans to upgrade railways in this zone.
Further information: Global surveillance disclosure
Documents leaked by
Edward Snowden showed in December 2013 that
British and American intelligence agencies surveillance targets with
National Security Agency (NSA) included organizations such
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the United
Nations Development Programme , the UN's children's charity
* Brown card system – motor insurance scheme of ECOWAS
East African Community
Economy of Africa
Southern African Development Community
* ^ African Union
* ^ Data. "GDP, PPP (current international $) Table". World Bank.
Retrieved 8 August 2014.
* ^ Data. "GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) Table".
World Bank. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
* ^ Data. "GDP (current US$) Table". World Bank. Retrieved 8
* ^ Adeyemi, Segun (6 August 2003). "West African Leaders Agree on
Deployment to Liberia". Jane's Defence Weekly. access-date= requires
url= (help )
* ^ "The 5 previous West African military interventions". Yahoo
News. AFP. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
* ^ A B Pazzanita, Anthony (2008). Historical Dictionary of
Scarecrow Press . pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-0-8108-6265-4 .
* ^ "Togolese president
Faure Gnassingbe takes the reins of the
ECOWAS Authority of Heads of State and Government". 2017-06-07.
* ^ A B "Population 2015" (PDF).
World Bank . 16 December 2016.
Retrieved 27 January 2017.
* ^ A B "
Gross domestic product 2015" (PDF).
World Bank . 16
December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
* ^ A B "
Gross domestic product 2015, PPP" (PDF).
World Bank . 16
December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
* ^ A B "Demographic Yearbook – Population by sex, annual rate of
population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations
Statistics Division. 2012. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
* ^ "Profile: Economic Community of West African States" (PDF).