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(i) (i) (i)

Abuja , Nigeria
Nigeria
9°2′35″N 7°31′32″E / 9.04306°N 7.52556°E / 9.04306; 7.52556

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* French * English * Portuguese

MEMBERSHIP 15 members

* Benin
Benin
* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Cape Verde
Cape Verde
* The Gambia * Ghana
Ghana
* Guinea
Guinea
* Guinea-Bissau * Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Liberia
Liberia
* Mali
Mali
* Niger
Niger
* Nigeria
Nigeria
* Senegal
Senegal
* Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
* Togo
Togo

LEADERS

• CHAIRMAN Faure Gnassingbe
Faure Gnassingbe

• PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION Marcel Alain de Souza

• SPEAKER OF THE PARLIAMENT Moustapha Cissé Lô

ESTABLISHMENT

• TREATY OF LAGOS 28 May 1975

AREA

• TOTAL 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi) (7th )

POPULATION

• 2015 ESTIMATE 349,154,000 (3rd )

• DENSITY 68.3/km2 (176.9/sq mi)

GDP (PPP ) 2015 estimate

• TOTAL US$1.483 trillion (18th )

• PER CAPITA US$4,247

GDP (NOMINAL) estimate

• TOTAL

$675 billion 2015 (21st )

• PER CAPITA $1,985

CURRENCY

* Escudo (CVE) * Cedi (GHS) b * Dalasi (GMD) b * Franc (GNF) b * Dollar (LRD) c * Naira (NGN) b * Leone (SLL) c * W. African CFA franc (XOF)

TIME ZONE (UTC +0 to +1)

WEBSITE http://www.ecowas.int/

* If considered as a single entity. * To be replaced by the eco . * Liberia
Liberia
and Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
have expressed an interest in joining the eco.

The ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES, also known as ECOWAS (French : Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, CEDEAO; Portuguese : Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental, CEDEAO), is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa . Collectively, these countries comprise an area of 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi), and in 2015 had an estimated population of over 349 million.

The union was established on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos , with its stated mission to promote economic integration across the region. A revised version of the treaty was agreed and signed on 24 July 1993 in Cotonou. Considered one of the pillar regional blocs of the continent-wide African Economic Community (AEC), the states goal of ECOWAS is to achieve "collective self-sufficiency " for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc by building a full economic and trading union.

ECOWAS also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region, with member states occasionally sending joint military forces to intervene in the bloc's member countries at times of political instability and unrest. In recent years these included interventions in Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
in 2003 , Liberia
Liberia
in 2003 , Guinea-Bissau in 2012 , Mali
Mali
in 2013 , and Gambia
Gambia
in 2017 .

ECOWAS includes two sub-regional blocs:

* The West African Economic and Monetary Union
West African Economic and Monetary Union
(also known by its French-language acronym UEMOA) is an organization of eight, mainly French-speaking, states within the ECOWAS which share a customs union and currency union . Established in 1994 and intended to counterbalance the dominance of English-speaking economies in the bloc (such as Nigeria
Nigeria
and Ghana), members of UEMOA are mostly former territories of French West Africa . The currency they all use is the CFA franc , which is pegged to the euro . * The West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ), established in 2000, comprises six mainly English-speaking countries within ECOWAS which plan to work towards adopting their own common currency, the eco .

ECOWAS operates in three co-official languages—French , English , and Portuguese , and consists of two institutions to implement policies: the ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID), formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until it was renamed in 2001. A few members of the organization have come and gone over the years. In 1976 Cape Verde
Cape Verde
joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000 Mauritania
Mauritania
withdrew, having announced its intention to do so in December 1999.

In 2011, ECOWAS adopted its development blueprint for the next decade, Vision 2020, and, to accompany it, a Policy on Science and Technology ( ECOPOST ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Member states

* 2 Structure

* 2.1 President of the Commissions * 2.2 Chairpersons * 2.3 Regional security co-operation * 2.4 Community Parliament * 2.5 Expanded ECOWAS Commission * 2.6 Community Court of Justice * 2.7 Sporting and cultural exchange

* 3 Economic integration

* 3.1 West African Economic and Monetary Union
West African Economic and Monetary Union
(UEMOA)

* 3.1.1 Membership

* 3.2 West African Monetary Zone

* 3.2.1 Membership

* 4 Transport * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

MEMBER STATES

As of February 2017, ECOWAS has 15 member states, eight of these are French-speaking, five are English-speaking and two Portuguese-speaking. All current members joined the community as founding members in May 1975, except Cape Verde
Cape Verde
which joined in 1977. The only former member of ECOWAS is Arabic-speaking Mauritania
Mauritania
, which was also one of the founding members in 1975 and decided to withdraw in December 2000.

Morocco
Morocco
officially requested to join ECOWAS in February 2017. The application was endorsed at the summit of heads of state in June 2017.

Statistics for population, nominal GDP and purchase price parity GDP listed below are taken from World Bank estimates for 2015, published in December 2016. Area data is taken from a 2012 report compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division .

ECOWAS ZONE A MEMBER STATES

COUNTRY Area (km2) Population (thousands) GDP (nominal) (millions USD) GDP (PPP) (millions intl.$) CURRENCY Official language

CAPE VERDE 7003403300000000000♠4,033 7002521000000000000♠521 7003160300000000000♠1,603 7003341300000000000♠3,413 escudo Portuguese

GAMBIA 7004112950000000000♠11,295 7003199100000000000♠1,991 7002939000000000000♠939 7003334400000000000♠3,344 dalasi English

GUINEA 7005245857000000000♠245,857 7004126090000000000♠12,609 7003669900000000000♠6,699 7004152440000000000♠15,244 franc French

GUINEA-BISSAU 7004361250000000000♠36,125 7003184400000000000♠1,844 7003105700000000000♠1,057 7003268500000000000♠2,685 CFA franc Portuguese

LIBERIA 7005111369000000000♠111,369 7003450300000000000♠4,503 7003205300000000000♠2,053 7003376200000000000♠3,762 dollar English

MALI 7006124019200000000♠1,240,192 7004176000000000000♠17,600 7004127470000000000♠12,747 7004356950000000000♠35,695 CFA franc French

SENEGAL 7005196712000000000♠196,712 7004151290000000000♠15,129 7004136100000000000♠13,610 7004366250000000000♠36,625 CFA franc French

SIERRA LEONE 7004723000000000000♠72,300 7003645300000000000♠6,453 7003421500000000000♠4,215 7004101270000000000♠10,127 leone English

ECOWAS ZONE A TOTAL 7006191788300000000♠1,917,883 7004605500000000000♠60,550 7004429230000000000♠42,923 7005110895000000000♠110,895 & — & —

ECOWAS ZONE B MEMBER STATES

COUNTRY Area (km2) Population (thousands) GDP (nominal) (millions USD) GDP (PPP) (millions intl.$) CURRENCY Official language

BENIN 7005114763000000000♠114,763 7004108800000000000♠10,880 7003829100000000000♠8,291 7004223770000000000♠22,377 CFA franc French

BURKINA FASO 7005272967000000000♠272,967 7004181060000000000♠18,106 7004106780000000000♠10,678 7004307080000000000♠30,708 CFA franc French

GHANA 7005238533000000000♠238,533 7004274100000000000♠27,410 7004375430000000000♠37,543 7005115409000000000♠115,409 cedi English

IVORY COAST 7005322463000000000♠322,463 7004227020000000000♠22,702 7004317590000000000♠31,759 7004797660000000000♠79,766 CFA franc French

NIGER 7006126700000000000♠1,267,000 7004198990000000000♠19,899 7003714300000000000♠7,143 7004190130000000000♠19,013 CFA franc French

NIGERIA 7005923768000000000♠923,768 7005182202000000000♠182,202 7005481066000000000♠481,066 7006109392100000000♠1,093,921 Naira English

TOGO 7004567850000000000♠56,785 7003730500000000000♠7,305 7003408800000000000♠4,088 7004106670000000000♠10,667 CFA franc French

ECOWAS ZONE B TOTAL 7006319627900000000♠3,196,279 7005277502000000000♠277,502 7005580568000000000♠580,568 7006137186100000000♠1,371,861 & — padding:0"> Institutions

* Casablanca Group * Union of African States * Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
* African Economic Community * African Unification Front

Executive

* Assembly

* Chairperson

* Commission

* Chairperson * Conference and Events * Peace & Sec. * Pol. Affairs * Infra. & Energy * Soc. Affairs * HR, Sci., & Tech. * Trade and Industry * Rural Econ. padding:0"> Legislature

* Pan-African Parliament

* President * Bureau * Secretariat * List of members

* Permanent Committees

* Rural Econ., Agri., Resources, Environ. * Monetary & Financial * Trade, Customs, & Immigration * Cooperation, IR, & Conflict

* Transport, Industry, Communications, Energy, Science, & Tech. * Health, Labour, & Social * Educ., Culture, Tourism, & HR * Gender, Family, Youth, Disabilities * Justice & Rights * Rules, Privileges, padding:0"> Judiciary

* Sirte Declaration * Constitutive Act of the AU

* Law

* Charter on Rights * Commission on Human and Peoples\' Rights

* Court of Justice

* Court on Human and Peoples\' Rights

* List of judges

Advisory bodies

* Peace and Security Council * Economic, Social, and Cultural Council

* Specialised Technical Committees

* Rural Econ., Agri. * Monetary & Financial * Trade, Customs, and Immigration * Industry, Sci. & Tech., Energy, Natural Resources, & Environment * Transport, Comm., Tourism * Health, Labor, Social * Edu., Culture, padding:0"> Financial bodies

* AEC Pillars ( Abuja Treaty )

* CEN-SAD * COMESA * EAC

* ECCAS/CEEAC

* CEMAC

* ECOWAS

* UEMOA * WAMZ

* IGAD

* SADC

* SACU

* AMU/UMA

* African Central Bank * African Monetary Fund * African Investment Bank

* New Partnership for Africa\'s Development

* African Peer Review Mechanism

Decentralised bodies

* Agencies of the AU

Related topics

* Elections * Enlargement * Foreign relations

* Other countries * Atlas

* v * t * e

PRESIDENT COUNTRY IN OFFICE

Inaugural holder Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
January 1977 – 1985

Momodu Munu Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1985–1989

Abass Bundu Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1989–1993

Édouard Benjamin Guinea
Guinea
1993–1997

Lansana Kouyaté Guinea
Guinea
September 1997 – 31 January 2002

Mohamed Ibn Chambas Ghana
Ghana
1 February 2002 – 31 December 2007

Mohamed Ibn Chambas Ghana
Ghana
1 January 2007 – 18 February 2010

Victor Gbeho Ghana
Ghana
18 February 2010 – 1 March 2012

Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
1 March 2012 – 4 June 2016

Marcel Alain de Souza Benin
Benin
4 June 2016 – present

CHAIRPERSONS

CHAIRPERSON COUNTRY IN OFFICE

Yakubu Gowon Nigeria
Nigeria
28 May 1975 – 29 July 1975

Gnassingbé Eyadéma
Gnassingbé Eyadéma
Togo
Togo
29 July 1975 – 13 September 1977

Olusegun Obasanjo Nigeria
Nigeria
13 September 1977 – 30 September 1979

Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
Senegal
Senegal
30 September 1979 – 31 December 1980

Gnassingbé Eyadéma
Gnassingbé Eyadéma
Togo
Togo
1980–1981

Siaka Stevens Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1981–1982

Mathieu Kérékou
Mathieu Kérékou
Benin
Benin
1982–1983

Ahmed Sékou Touré Guinea
Guinea
1983–1984

Lansana Conté
Lansana Conté
Guinea
Guinea
1984–1985

Muhammadu Buhari
Muhammadu Buhari
Nigeria
Nigeria
1985 – 27 August 1985

Ibrahim Babangida
Ibrahim Babangida
Nigeria
Nigeria
27 August 1985 – 1989

Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
Gambia
Gambia
1989–1990

Blaise Compaoré
Blaise Compaoré
Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
1990–1991

Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
Gambia
Gambia
1991–1992

Abdou Diouf
Abdou Diouf
Senegal
Senegal
1992–1993

Nicéphore Soglo
Nicéphore Soglo
Benin
Benin
1993–1994

Jerry Rawlings Ghana
Ghana
1994 – 27 July 1996

Sani Abacha
Sani Abacha
Nigeria
Nigeria
27 July 1996 – 8 June 1998

Abdulsalami Abubakar Nigeria
Nigeria
9 June 1998 – 1999

Gnassingbé Eyadéma
Gnassingbé Eyadéma
Togo
Togo
1999 – 1999

Alpha Oumar Konaré
Alpha Oumar Konaré
Mali
Mali
1999 – 21 December 2001

Abdoulaye Wade
Abdoulaye Wade
Senegal
Senegal
21 December 2001 – 31 January 2003

John Kufuor Ghana
Ghana
31 January 2003 – 19 January 2005

Mamadou Tandja Niger
Niger
19 January 2005 – 19 January 2007

Blaise Compaoré
Blaise Compaoré
Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
19 January 2007 – 19 December 2008

Umaru Musa Yar\'Adua Nigeria
Nigeria
19 December 2008 – 18 February 2010

Goodluck Jonathan Nigeria
Nigeria
18 February 2010 – 17 February 2012

Alassane Ouattara Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
17 February 2012 – 17 February 2013

John Mahama Ghana
Ghana
17 February 2013 – 19 May 2015

Macky Sall
Macky Sall
Senegal
Senegal
19 May 2015 – 4 June 2016

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Liberia
Liberia
4 June 2016 – 4 June 2017

Faure Gnassingbé
Faure Gnassingbé
Togo
Togo
4 June 2017 – present

REGIONAL SECURITY CO-OPERATION

See also: Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group
Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group

The ECOWAS nations assigned a non-aggression protocol in 1990 along with two earlier agreements in 1978 and 1981. They also signed a Protocol on Mutual Defence Assistance in Freetown, Sierra Leone, on 29 May 1981, that provided for the establishment of an Allied Armed Force of the Community.

COMMUNITY PARLIAMENT

The Community Parliament consists of 115 members, distributed based on the population of each member state. This body is headed by the Speaker of the Parliament, who is above the Secretary General.

COUNTRY PARLIAMENT SEATS

Benin
Benin
5

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
6

Cape Verde
Cape Verde
5

Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
7

Gambia
Gambia
5

Ghana
Ghana
8

Guinea
Guinea
6

Guinea-Bissau 5

Liberia
Liberia
5

Mali
Mali
6

Niger
Niger
6

Nigeria
Nigeria
35

Senegal
Senegal
6

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
5

Togo
Togo
5

EXPANDED ECOWAS COMMISSION

For the third time since its inception in 1975, ECOWAS is undergoing institutional reforms. The first was when it revised its treaty on 24 July 1993; the second was in 2007 when the Secretariat was transformed into a Commission. As of July 2013, ECOWAS now has six new departments (Human Resources Management; Education, Science and Culture; Energy and Mines; Telecommunications and IT; Industry and Private Sector Promotion. Finance and Administration to Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
has been decoupled, to give the incoming Ghana
Ghana
Commissioner the new portfolio of Administration and Conferences)

COMMUNITY COURT OF JUSTICE

Main article: ECOWAS Court

The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice was created by a protocol signed in 1991 and was later included in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty of the Community in 1993. However, the Court did not officially begin operations until the 1991 protocol came into effect on 5 November 1996. The jurisdiction of the court is outlined in Article 9 and Articles 76 of the Revised Treaty and allows rulings on disputes between states over interpretations of the Revised Treaty. It also provides the ECOWAS Council with advisory opinions on legal issues (Article 10). Like its companion courts the European Court of Human Rights and East African Court of Justice , it has jurisdiction to rule on fundamental human rights breaches.

SPORTING AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE

ECOWAS nations organize a broad array of cultural and sports event under the auspices of the body, including the CEDEAO Cup
CEDEAO Cup
in football , the 2012 ECOWAS Games and the Miss CEDEAO beauty pageant .

ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

WEST AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION (UEMOA)

See also: CFA franc and Economic and monetary union UEMOA WAMZ ECOWAS only ( Cape Verde
Cape Verde
)

The West African Economic and Monetary Union
West African Economic and Monetary Union
(also known as UEMOA from its name in French , Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of eight, mainly francophone West African states within the ECOWAS, that was dominated otherwise by anglophone heavyweights like Nigeria
Nigeria
and Ghana. It was established to promote economic integration among countries that share the CFA franc as a common currency. UEMOA was created by a Treaty signed at Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal
Senegal
, on 10 January 1994, by the heads of state and governments of Benin
Benin
, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
, Côte d\'Ivoire , Mali
Mali
, Niger
Niger
, Senegal
Senegal
, and Togo
Togo
. On 2 May 1997, Guinea-Bissau , a former Portuguese colony , became the organization's eighth (and only non- Francophone ) member state.

UEMOA is a customs union and currency union between the members of ECOWAS. Its objectives include the following:

* Greater economic competitiveness, through open markets, in addition to the rationalisation and harmonisation of the legal environment * The convergence of macro-economic policies and indicators * The creation of a common market * The co-ordination of sectoral policies * The harmonisation of fiscal policies

Among its achievements, the UEMOA has successfully implemented macro-economic convergence criteria and an effective surveillance mechanism. It has adopted a customs union and common external tariff and has combined indirect taxation regulations, in addition to initiating regional structural and sectoral policies. A September 2002 IMF survey cited the UEMOA as "the furthest along the path toward integration" of all the regional groupings in Africa.

ECOWAS and UEMOA have developed a common plan of action on trade liberalisation and macroeconomic policy convergence. The organizations have also agreed on common rules of origin to enhance trade, and ECOWAS has agreed to adopt UEMOA's customs declaration forms and compensation mechanisms.

Membership

ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development headquarters in Lome.

* Benin
Benin
(Founding Member) * Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(Founding Member) * Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Founding Member) * Guinea-Bissau (Joined on 2 May 1997) * Mali
Mali
(Founding Member) * Niger
Niger
(Founding Member) * Senegal
Senegal
(Founding Member) * Togo
Togo
(Founding Member)

WEST AFRICAN MONETARY ZONE

See also: Eco (currency)
Eco (currency)

Formed in 2000, the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) is a group of six countries within ECOWAS that plan to introduce a common currency called the Eco . The six member states of WAMZ are Gambia
Gambia
, Ghana
Ghana
, Guinea
Guinea
, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
who founded the organization together in 2000 and Liberia
Liberia
who joined on 16 February 2010. Apart from Guinea, which is Francophone, they are all English-speaking countries. Along with Mauritania
Mauritania
, Guinea
Guinea
opted out of the CFA franc currency shared by all other former French colonies in West and Central Africa .

The WAMZ attempts to establish a strong stable currency to rival the CFA franc, whose exchange rate is tied to that of the Euro
Euro
and is guaranteed by the French Treasury. The eventual goal is for the CFA franc and Eco to merge, giving all of West and Central Africa a single, stable currency. The launch of the new currency is being developed by the West African Monetary Institute based in Accra
Accra
, Ghana.

Membership

* Gambia
Gambia
(Founding Member) * Ghana
Ghana
(Founding Member) * Guinea
Guinea
(Founding Member) * Liberia
Liberia
(Joined on 16 February 2010) * Nigeria
Nigeria
(Founding Member) * Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(Founding Member)

TRANSPORT

Main article: ECOWAS rail

A Trans-ECOWAS project, established in 2007, plans to upgrade railways in this zone.

SEE ALSO

* Brown card system – motor insurance scheme of ECOWAS * East African Community * Economy of Africa * Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC) * Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) * Economic Community of Central African States
Economic Community of Central African States
(ECCAS)

REFERENCES

* ^ African Union * ^ Data. "GDP, PPP (current international $) Table". World Bank. Retrieved 8 August 2014. * ^ Data. "GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) Table". World Bank. Retrieved 8 August 2014. * ^ Data. "GDP (current US$) Table". World Bank. Retrieved 8 August 2014. * ^ Adeyemi, Segun (6 August 2003). "West African Leaders Agree on Deployment to Liberia". Jane's Defence Weekly. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ "The 5 previous West African military interventions". Yahoo News. AFP. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ A B Pazzanita, Anthony (2008). Historical Dictionary of Mauritania. Scarecrow Press . pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-0-8108-6265-4 . * ^ https://www.diplomatie.ma/Politique%C3%A9trang%C3%A8re/Afrique/tabid/136/vw/1/ItemID/14476/language/en-US/Default.aspx?platform=hootsuite * ^ "Togolese president Faure Gnassingbe
Faure Gnassingbe
takes the reins of the ECOWAS Authority of Heads of State and Government". 2017-06-07. Retrieved 2017-06-15. * ^ A B C "Population 2015" (PDF). World Bank . 16 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ A B C " Gross domestic product 2015" (PDF). World Bank . 16 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ A B C " Gross domestic product 2015, PPP" (PDF). World Bank . 16 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ A B C "Demographic Yearbook – Population by sex, annual rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ "Profile: Economic Community of West African States" (PDF). Africa
Africa
Union. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010. * ^ About Us - ECOWAS Parliament, accessed 6 March 2017 * ^ Bensah, Emmanuel K. (24 July 2013). "Communicating the ECOWAS Message (4): A New Roadmap for the Ouedraogo Commission(1)". Modernghana.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014. * ^ A B ECOWAS (2007) Information Manual: The Institutions of the Community ECOWAS * ^ "Miss ECOWAS 2010". The Economist. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010. * ^ Fau-Nougaret (ed.), Matthieu (2012). "La concurrence des organisations régionales en Afrique". Paris: L'Harmattan. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND COOPERATION IN WEST AFRICA A Multidimensional Perspective, Chapter 1. Introduction: Reflections on an Agenda for Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa * ^ " Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)" fact sheet from the US Department of State's Bureau of African Affairs * ^ "Annual Report on Integration in Africa
Africa
2002" All Africa, 1 March 2002 * ^ "Common West Africa currency: ECO in 2015". MC Modern Ghana. * ^ "The Supplementary Wamz Payment System Development Project the Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia". Africa
Africa
Development Bank Group. 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011. * ^ "WAMZ gets US$7.8 million grant". Accra
Accra
Daily Mail. 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011. * ^ Proposed Ecowas railway. railwaysafrica.com.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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