HOME
The Info List - Wernher Von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr
Freiherr
von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later American, aerospace engineer,[3] and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the father of rocket technology and space science in the United States.[4] In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
during World War II. Following the war, von Braun was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip. He worked for the United States Army
United States Army
on an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) program and he developed the rockets that launched the United States' first space satellite Explorer 1. His group was assimilated into NASA, where he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center
Marshall Space Flight Center
and as the chief architect of the Saturn V
Saturn V
super heavy-lift launch vehicle that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon.[5][6] In 1975, von Braun received the National Medal of Science. He advocated for a human mission to Mars.

Contents

1 Early life 2 German career

2.1 Involvement with the Nazi regime

2.1.1 Party membership 2.1.2 Membership in the Allgemeine SS

2.2 Working with the Nazis 2.3 Experiments with rocket aircraft 2.4 Slave labor 2.5 Arrest and release by the Nazi regime 2.6 Surrender to the Americans

3 American career

3.1 U.S. Army career 3.2 Popular concepts for a human presence in space 3.3 Religious conversion 3.4 Concepts for orbital warfare 3.5 NASA
NASA
career 3.6 Career after NASA

4 Engineering philosophy 5 Personal life 6 Death 7 Recognition and critique 8 Summary of SS career

8.1 Dates of rank

9 Honors 10 In popular culture 11 Published works 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Early life[edit] Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
was born on March 23, 1912 in the small town of Wirsitz, in the Posen Province, in what was then the German Empire. He was the second of three sons. He belonged to a noble Lutheran family and from birth he held the title of Freiherr
Freiherr
(equivalent to Baron). The German nobility's legal privileges were abolished in 1919, although noble titles could still be used as part of the family name. His father, Magnus Freiherr
Freiherr
von Braun (1878–1972), was a civil servant and conservative politician; he served as Minister of Agriculture in the federal government during the Weimar
Weimar
Republic. His mother, Emmy von Quistorp (1886–1959), traced her ancestry through both parents to medieval European royalty and was a descendant of Philip III of France, Valdemar I of Denmark, Robert III of Scotland, and Edward III of England.[7][8] Wernher had an older brother, the West German diplomat Sigismund von Braun, who served as Secretary of State in the Foreign Office in the 1970s, and a younger brother, also named Magnus von Braun, who was a rocket scientist and later a senior executive with Chrysler.[9] After Wernher's confirmation, his mother gave him a telescope, and he developed a passion for astronomy. The family moved to Berlin in 1915, where his father worked at the Ministry of the Interior.[10] Here in 1924, the 12-year-old Wernher, inspired by speed records established by Max Valier
Max Valier
and Fritz von Opel
Fritz von Opel
in rocket-propelled cars,[11] caused a major disruption in a crowded street by detonating a toy wagon to which he had attached fireworks. He was taken into custody by the local police until his father came to collect him. Wernher was an accomplished amateur pianist who could play Beethoven and Bach from memory. He learned to play both the cello and the piano at an early age and at one time wanted to become a composer. He took lessons from the composer Paul Hindemith. The few pieces of Wernher's youthful compositions that exist are reminiscent of Hindemith's style.[12]:11 Beginning in 1925, Wernher attended a boarding school at Ettersburg Castle near Weimar, where he did not do well in physics and mathematics. There he acquired a copy of By Rocket
Rocket
into Planetary Space (Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen, 1923)[13] by rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth. In 1928, his parents moved him to the Hermann-Lietz-Internat (also a residential school) on the East Frisian North Sea
North Sea
island of Spiekeroog. Space travel had always fascinated Wernher, and from then on he applied himself to physics and mathematics to pursue his interest in rocket engineering. In 1930, von Braun attended the Technische Hochschule
Technische Hochschule
Berlin, where he joined the Spaceflight
Spaceflight
Society ( Verein für Raumschiffahrt or "VfR") and assisted Willy Ley
Willy Ley
in his liquid-fueled rocket motor tests in conjunction with Hermann Oberth.[14] In spring 1932, he graduated from the Technische Hochschule
Technische Hochschule
Berlin (now Technical University of Berlin), with a diploma in mechanical engineering.[15] His early exposure to rocketry convinced him that the exploration of space would require far more than applications of the current engineering technology. Wanting to learn more about physics, chemistry, and astronomy, von Braun entered the Friedrich-Wilhelm University of Berlin
University of Berlin
for post-graduate studies and graduated with a doctorate in physics in 1934.[16] He also studied at ETH Zürich
ETH Zürich
for a term from June to October 1931.[17] Although he worked mainly on military rockets in his later years there, space travel remained his primary interest. In 1930, von Braun attended a presentation given by Auguste Piccard. After the talk the young student approached the famous pioneer of high-altitude balloon flight, and stated to him: "You know, I plan on traveling to the Moon
Moon
at some time." Piccard is said to have responded with encouraging words.[18] He was greatly influenced by Oberth, of whom he said:

Hermann Oberth
Hermann Oberth
was the first, who when thinking about the possibility of spaceships grabbed a slide-rule and presented mathematically analyzed concepts and designs ... I, myself, owe to him not only the guiding-star of my life, but also my first contact with the theoretical and practical aspects of rocketry and space travel. A place of honor should be reserved in the history of science and technology for his ground-breaking contributions in the field of astronautics.[19]

German career[edit] According to historian Norman Davies, von Braun was only able to pursue a career as a rocket scientist in Germany due to a "curious oversight" in the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
which did not include rocketry in its list of weapons forbidden to Germany.[20] Involvement with the Nazi regime[edit]

Von Braun with Fritz Todt, who utilised forced labour for major works across occupied Europe

Party membership[edit] Von Braun had an ambivalent and complex relationship with the Nazi regime of the Third Reich. He officially applied for membership in the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
on November 12, 1937, and was issued membership number 5,738,692.[21]:96 Michael J. Neufeld, a widely published author of aerospace history and chief of the Space History Division at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, wrote that ten years after von Braun obtained his Nazi Party
Nazi Party
membership, he produced an affidavit for the U.S. Army misrepresenting the year of his membership, saying incorrectly:[21]:96

In 1939, I was officially demanded to join the National Socialist Party. At this time I was already Technical Director at the Army Rocket
Rocket
Center at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
(Baltic Sea). The technical work carried out there had, in the meantime, attracted more and more attention in higher levels. Thus, my refusal to join the party would have meant that I would have to abandon the work of my life. Therefore, I decided to join. My membership in the party did not involve any political activity.

Whether von Braun's error with regard to the year was deliberate or a simple mistake has never been ascertained, although Neufeld stated that he might have lied on the affidavit.[21]:96 Neufeld further wrote:

Von Braun, like other Peenemünders, was assigned to the local group in Karlshagen; there is no evidence that he did more than send in his monthly dues. But he is seen in some photographs with the party's swastika pin in his lapel – it was politically useful to demonstrate his membership.[21]:96

Von Braun's attitude toward the National Socialist regime in the late 1930s and early 1940s is difficult to understand. By his own account, he had been so influenced by the early Nazi promise of release from the post–World War I economic effects, that his patriotic feelings had increased.[citation needed] In a 1952 memoir article he admitted that, at that time, he "fared relatively rather well under totalitarianism".[21]:96–97 Yet, he also wrote that "to us, Hitler was still only a pompous fool with a Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
moustache"[22] and that he perceived him as "another Napoleon" who was "wholly without scruples, a godless man who thought himself the only god".[23] Membership in the Allgemeine SS[edit] Von Braun joined the SS horseback riding school on 1 November 1933 as an SS-Anwärter. He left the following year.:63 In 1940, he joined the SS[24]:47[25] and was given the rank of Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
in the Allgemeine SS
Allgemeine SS
and issued membership number 185,068.:121 In 1947, he gave the U.S. War Department this explanation:

In spring 1940, one SS-Standartenfuehrer (SS-colonel) Mueller from Greifswald, a bigger town in the vicinity of Peenemünde, looked me up in my office ... and told me that Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler had sent him with the order to urge me to join the SS. I told him I was so busy with my rocket work that I had no time to spare for any political activity. He then told me, that ... the SS would cost me no time at all. I would be awarded the rank of a[n] "Untersturmfuehrer" (lieutenant) and it were [sic] a very definite desire of Himmler that I attend his invitation to join. I asked Mueller to give me some time for reflection. He agreed. Realizing that the matter was of highly political significance for the relation between the SS and the Army, I called immediately on my military superior, Dr. Dornberger. He informed me that the SS had for a long time been trying to get their "finger in the pie" of the rocket work. I asked him what to do. He replied on the spot that if I wanted to continue our mutual work, I had no alternative but to join.

When shown a picture of himself standing behind Himmler, von Braun claimed to have worn the SS uniform only that one time,[26] but in 2002 a former SS officer at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
told the BBC
BBC
that von Braun had regularly worn the SS uniform to official meetings. He began as an Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
(Second lieutenant) and was promoted three times by Himmler, the last time in June 1943 to SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
(Major). Von Braun later claimed that these were simply technical promotions received each year regularly by mail.[27] Working with the Nazis[edit]

First rank, from left to right, General Dr Walter Dornberger (partially hidden), General Friedrich Olbricht
Friedrich Olbricht
(with Knight's Cross), Major Heinz Brandt, and Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
(in civil garment) at Peenemünde, in March 1941.

In 1933, von Braun was working on his creative doctorate when the National Socialist German Workers Party
National Socialist German Workers Party
(NSDAP, or Nazi Party) came to power in a coalition government in Germany; rocketry was almost immediately moved onto the national agenda. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, who then worked next to Dornberger's existing solid-fuel rocket test site at Kummersdorf. Von Braun was awarded a doctorate in physics[28] (aerospace engineering) on July 27, 1934, from the University of Berlin
University of Berlin
for a thesis entitled "About Combustion Tests"; his doctoral supervisor was Erich Schumann.[21]:61 However, this thesis was only the public part of von Braun's work. His actual full thesis, Construction, Theoretical, and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket
Rocket
(dated April 16, 1934) was kept classified by the German army, and was not published until 1960.[29] By the end of 1934, his group had successfully launched two liquid fuel rockets that rose to heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km (2 mi). At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddard's research. Before 1939, German scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
used Goddard's plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat (A) series of rockets. The A-4 rocket would become well known as the V-2.[30] In 1963, von Braun reflected on the history of rocketry, and said of Goddard's work: "His rockets ... may have been rather crude by present-day standards, but they blazed the trail and incorporated many features used in our most modern rockets and space vehicles."[11] Goddard confirmed his work was used by von Braun in 1944, shortly before the Nazis began firing V-2s at England. A V-2 crashed in Sweden and some parts were sent to an Annapolis lab where Goddard was doing research for the Navy. If this was the so-called Bäckebo Bomb, it had been procured by the British in exchange for Spitfires; Annapolis would have received some parts from them. Goddard is reported to have recognized components he had invented, and inferred that his brainchild had been turned into a weapon.[31] Later, von Braun would comment: "I have very deep and sincere regret for the victims of the V-2 rockets, but there were victims on both sides ... A war is a war, and when my country is at war, my duty is to help win that war."[32] In response to Goddard's claims, von Braun said "at no time in Germany did I or any of my associates ever see a Goddard patent". This was independently confirmed.[33] He wrote that claims about him lifting Goddard's work were the furthest from the truth, noting that Goddard's paper "A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes", which was studied by von Braun and Oberth, lacked the specificity of liquid-fuel experimentation with rockets.[33] It was also confirmed that he was responsible for an estimated 20 patentable innovations related to rocketry during the Volksverhetzung era, as well as receiving U.S. patents after the war concerning the advancement of rocketry.[33] Documented accounts also stated he provided solutions to a host of aerospace engineering problems in the 1950s and 60s.[33] There were no German rocket societies after the collapse of the VfR, and civilian rocket tests were forbidden by the new Nazi regime. Only military development was allowed, and to this end, a larger facility was erected at the village of Peenemünde
Peenemünde
in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea. Dornberger became the military commander at Peenemünde, with von Braun as technical director. In collaboration with the Luftwaffe, the Peenemünde
Peenemünde
group developed liquid-fuel rocket engines for aircraft and jet-assisted takeoffs. They also developed the long-range A-4 ballistic missile and the supersonic Wasserfall anti-aircraft missile.

Schematic of the A4/V2

On December 22, 1942, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
ordered the production of the A-4 as a "vengeance weapon", and the Peenemünde
Peenemünde
group developed it to target London. Following von Braun's July 7, 1943 presentation of a color movie showing an A-4 taking off, Hitler was so enthusiastic that he personally made von Braun a professor shortly thereafter.[34] In Germany at this time, this was an exceptional promotion for an engineer who was only 31 years old. By that time, the British and Soviet intelligence agencies were aware of the rocket program and von Braun's team at Peenemünde, based on the intelligence provided by the Polish underground Home Army. Over the nights of August 17–18, 1943, RAF Bomber Command's Operation Hydra dispatched raids on the Peenemünde
Peenemünde
camp consisting of 596 aircraft, and dropped 1,800 tons of explosives.[35] The facility was salvaged and most of the engineering team remained unharmed; however, the raids killed von Braun's engine designer Walter Thiel and Chief Engineer Walther, and the rocket program was delayed.[36][37] See also: Bombing of Peenemünde
Peenemünde
in World War II The first combat A-4, renamed the V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2 "Retaliation/Vengeance Weapon 2") for propaganda purposes, was launched toward England on September 7, 1944, only 21 months after the project had been officially commissioned. Von Braun's interest in rockets was specifically for the application of space travel, not for killing people.[38] After hearing the news from London, he said that "the rocket worked perfectly, except for landing on the wrong planet." Satirist Mort Sahl
Mort Sahl
is often credited with mocking von Braun with the paraphrase "I aim at the stars, but sometimes I hit London."[39] In fact that line appears in the film I Aim at the Stars, a 1960 biopic of von Braun. Experiments with rocket aircraft[edit] During 1936, von Braun's rocketry team working at Kummersdorf investigated installing liquid-fuelled rockets in aircraft. Ernst Heinkel enthusiastically supported their efforts, supplying a He-72 and later two He-112s for the experiments. Later in 1936, Erich Warsitz was seconded by the RLM to Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
and Ernst Heinkel, because he had been recognized as one of the most experienced test pilots of the time, and because he also had an extraordinary fund of technical knowledge.[40]:30 After he familiarized Warsitz with a test-stand run, showing him the corresponding apparatus in the aircraft, he asked: "Are you with us and will you test the rocket in the air? Then, Warsitz, you will be a famous man. And later we will fly to the Moon
Moon
– with you at the helm!"[40]:35

A regular He 112

In June 1937, at Neuhardenberg
Neuhardenberg
(a large field about 70 km (43 mi) east of Berlin, listed as a reserve airfield in the event of war), one of these latter aircraft was flown with its piston engine shut down during flight by Warsitz, at which time it was propelled by von Braun's rocket power alone. Despite a wheels-up landing and the fuselage having been on fire, it proved to official circles that an aircraft could be flown satisfactorily with a back-thrust system through the rear.[40]:51 At the same time, Hellmuth Walter's experiments into hydrogen peroxide based rockets were leading towards light and simple rockets that appeared well-suited for aircraft installation. Also the firm of Hellmuth Walter at Kiel had been commissioned by the RLM to build a rocket engine for the He 112, so there were two different new rocket motor designs at Neuhardenberg: whereas von Braun's engines were powered by alcohol and liquid oxygen, Walter engines had hydrogen peroxide and calcium permanganate as a catalyst. Von Braun's engines used direct combustion and created fire, the Walter devices used hot vapors from a chemical reaction, but both created thrust and provided high speed.[40]:41 The subsequent flights with the He-112 used the Walter-rocket instead of von Braun's; it was more reliable, simpler to operate, and safer for the test pilot, Warsitz.[40]:55 Slave labor[edit] SS General Hans Kammler, who as an engineer had constructed several concentration camps, including Auschwitz, had a reputation for brutality and had originated the idea of using concentration camp prisoners as slave laborers in the rocket program. Arthur Rudolph, chief engineer of the V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
factory at Peenemünde, endorsed this idea in April 1943 when a labor shortage developed. More people died building the V-2 rockets than were killed by it as a weapon.[41] Von Braun admitted visiting the plant at Mittelwerk
Mittelwerk
on many occasions, and called conditions at the plant "repulsive", but claimed never to have witnessed any deaths or beatings, although it had become clear to him by 1944 that deaths had occurred.[42] He denied ever having visited the Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
concentration camp itself, where 20,000 died from illness, beatings, hangings, and intolerable working conditions.[43] Some prisoners claim von Braun engaged in brutal treatment or approved of it. Guy Morand, a French resistance fighter who was a prisoner in Dora, testified in 1995 that after an apparent sabotage attempt, von Braun ordered a prisoner to be flogged,[44] while Robert Cazabonne, another French prisoner, claimed von Braun stood by as prisoners were hanged by chains suspended by cranes.[44]:123–124 However, these accounts may have been a case of mistaken identity.[45] Former Buchenwald
Buchenwald
inmate Adam Cabala claims that von Braun went to the concentration camp to pick slave laborers: "[...] also the German scientists led by Prof. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
were aware of everything daily. As they went along the corridors, they saw the exhaustion of the inmates, their arduous work and their pain. Not one single time did Prof. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
protest against this cruelty during his frequent stays at Dora. Even the aspect of corpses did not touch him: On a small area near the ambulance shed, inmates tortured to death by slave labor and the terror of the overseers were piling up daily. But, Prof. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
passed them so close that he was almost touching the corpses".[46] In Wernher von Braun: Crusader for Space, numerous statements by von Braun show he was aware of the conditions but felt completely unable to change them. A friend quotes von Braun speaking of a visit to Mittelwerk:

It is hellish. My spontaneous reaction was to talk to one of the SS guards, only to be told with unmistakable harshness that I should mind my own business, or find myself in the same striped fatigues! ... I realized that any attempt of reasoning on humane grounds would be utterly futile.[47]

When asked if von Braun could have protested against the brutal treatment of the slave laborers, von Braun team member Konrad Dannenberg (a member of the Nazi party since 1932) told The Huntsville Times, "If he had done it, in my opinion, he would have been shot on the spot."[48] Arrest and release by the Nazi regime[edit] According to André Sellier, a French historian and survivor of the Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
concentration camp, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
had von Braun come to his Feldkommandostelle Hochwald HQ in East Prussia
East Prussia
in February 1944.[49] To increase his power-base within the Nazi regime, Himmler was conspiring to use Kammler to gain control of all German armament programs, including the V-2 program at Peenemünde.[12]:38–40 He therefore recommended that von Braun work more closely with Kammler to solve the problems of the V-2. Von Braun claimed to have replied that the problems were merely technical and he was confident that they would be solved with Dornberger's assistance. Von Braun had been under SD surveillance since October 1943. A report stated that he and his colleagues Riedel and Gröttrup were said to have expressed regret at an engineer's house one evening that they were not working on a spaceship and that they felt the war was not going well; this was considered a "defeatist" attitude. A young female dentist who was an SS spy reported their comments.[12]:38–40 Combined with Himmler's false charges that von Braun was a communist sympathizer and had attempted to sabotage the V-2 program, and considering that von Braun regularly piloted his government-provided airplane that might allow him to escape to England, this led to his arrest by the Gestapo.[12]:38–40 The unsuspecting von Braun was detained on March 14 (or March 15),[50] 1944, and was taken to a Gestapo
Gestapo
cell in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland),[12]:38–40 where he was held for two weeks without knowing the charges against him. Through the Abwehr
Abwehr
in Berlin, Dornberger obtained von Braun's conditional release and Albert Speer, Reichsminister for Munitions and War Production, persuaded Hitler to reinstate von Braun so that the V-2 program could continue[12]:38–40 or turn into a "V-4 program" which in their view would be impossible without von Braun's leadership.[51] In his memoirs, Speer states Hitler had finally conceded that von Braun was to be "protected from all prosecution as long as he is indispensable, difficult though the general consequences arising from the situation."[52]

Von Braun, with his arm in a cast from a car accident, surrendered to the Americans just before this May 3, 1945 photo.

Surrender to the Americans[edit] The Soviet Army
Soviet Army
was about 160 km (100 mi) from Peenemünde in the spring of 1945 when von Braun assembled his planning staff and asked them to decide how and to whom they should surrender. Unwilling to go to the Soviets, von Braun and his staff decided to try to surrender to the Americans. Kammler had ordered relocation of his team to central Germany; however, a conflicting order from an army chief ordered them to join the army and fight. Deciding that Kammler's order was their best bet to defect to the Americans, von Braun fabricated documents and transported 500 of his affiliates to the area around Mittelwerk, where they resumed their work. For fear of their documents being destroyed by the SS, von Braun ordered the blueprints to be hidden in an abandoned mine shaft in the Harz
Harz
mountain range.[53] While on an official trip in March, von Braun suffered a complicated fracture of his left arm and shoulder in a car accident after his driver fell asleep at the wheel. His injuries were serious, but he insisted that his arm be set in a cast so he could leave the hospital. Due to this neglect of the injury he had to be hospitalized again a month later where his bones had to be re-broken and re-aligned.[53] In April, as the Allied forces advanced deeper into Germany, Kammler ordered the engineering team to be moved by train into the town of Oberammergau
Oberammergau
in the Bavarian Alps
Bavarian Alps
where they were closely guarded by the SS with orders to execute the team if they were about to fall into enemy hands. However, von Braun managed to convince SS Major Kummer to order the dispersal of the group into nearby villages so that they would not be an easy target for U.S. bombers.[53] Von Braun and a large number of the engineering team subsequently made it to Austria.[54] On May 2, 1945, upon finding an American private from the U.S. 44th Infantry Division, von Braun's brother and fellow rocket engineer, Magnus, approached the soldier on a bicycle, calling out in broken English: "My name is Magnus von Braun. My brother invented the V-2. We want to surrender."[9][55] After the surrender, Wernher spoke to the press:

We knew that we had created a new means of warfare, and the question as to what nation, to what victorious nation we were willing to entrust this brainchild of ours was a moral decision more than anything else. We wanted to see the world spared another conflict such as Germany had just been through, and we felt that only by surrendering such a weapon to people who are guided by the Bible could such an assurance to the world be best secured.[56]

The American high command was well aware of how important their catch was: von Braun had been at the top of the Black List, the code name for the list of German scientists and engineers targeted for immediate interrogation by U.S. military experts. On June 19, 1945, two days before the scheduled handover of the Nordhausen
Nordhausen
area to the Soviets, U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in London, and Lt Col R. L. Williams took von Braun and his department chiefs by Jeep from Garmisch to Munich and then flown to Nordhausen; on the next day the group was evacuated 40 miles (64 km) southwest to Witzenhausen, a small town in the American Zone.[57] Von Braun was briefly detained at the "Dustbin" interrogation center at Kransberg Castle
Kransberg Castle
where the elite of the Third Reich's economy, science and technology were debriefed by U.S. and British intelligence officials.[58] Initially he was recruited to the U.S. under a program called Operation Overcast, subsequently known as Operation Paperclip. There is evidence, however, that British intelligence and scientists were the first to interview him in depth, eager to gain information that they knew U.S. officials would deny them. The team included the young L.S. Snell, then the leading British rocket engineer, later chief designer of Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited
and inventor of the Concorde's engines. The specific information the British gleaned remained top secret, both from the Americans and other allies.[citation needed] American career[edit] U.S. Army career[edit]

Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
at a meeting of NACA's Special
Special
Committee on Space Technology, 1958

On June 20, 1945, the U.S. Secretary of State approved the transfer of von Braun and his specialists to America; however, this was not announced to the public until October 1, 1945.[59] Von Braun was among those scientists for whom the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) arguably falsified employment histories and expunged NSDAP memberships.[citation needed] The first seven technicians arrived in the United States at New Castle Army Air Field, just south of Wilmington, Delaware, on September 20, 1945. They were then flown to Boston and taken by boat to the Army Intelligence Service post at Fort Strong
Fort Strong
in Boston Harbor. Later, with the exception of von Braun, the men were transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland
Maryland
to sort out the Peenemünde
Peenemünde
documents, enabling the scientists to continue their rocketry experiments.[citation needed] Finally, von Braun and his remaining Peenemünde
Peenemünde
staff (see List of German rocket scientists in the United States) were transferred to their new home at Fort Bliss, a large Army installation just north of El Paso. Von Braun would later write he found it hard to develop a "genuine emotional attachment" to his new surroundings.[60] His chief design engineer Walther Reidel became the subject of a December 1946 article "German Scientist Says American Cooking Tasteless; Dislikes Rubberized Chicken", exposing the presence of von Braun's team in the country and drawing criticism from Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
and John Dingell.[60] Requests to improve their living conditions such as laying linoleum over their cracked wood flooring were rejected.[60] Von Braun remarked, "at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
we had been coddled, here you were counting pennies".[60] At Peenemünde, von Braun had thousands of engineers who answered to him, but was now answering to "pimply" 26-year-old Major Jim Hamill who possessed an undergraduate degree in engineering.[60] His loyal Germans still addressed him as Herr Professor, but Hamill addressed him as Wernher and never bothered to respond to von Braun's request for more materials, and every proposal for new rocket ideas was dismissed.[60]

Von Braun's badge at ABMA (1957)

While there, they trained military, industrial, and university personnel in the intricacies of rockets and guided missiles. As part of the Hermes project, they helped refurbish, assemble, and launch a number of V-2s that had been shipped from Germany to the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. They also continued to study the future potential of rockets for military and research applications. Since they were not permitted to leave Fort Bliss
Fort Bliss
without military escort, von Braun and his colleagues began to refer to themselves only half-jokingly as "PoPs" – "Prisoners of Peace".[61] In 1950, at the start of the Korean War, von Braun and his team were transferred to Huntsville, Alabama, his home for the next 20 years. Between 1952 and 1956,[62] von Braun led the Army's rocket development team at Redstone Arsenal, resulting in the Redstone rocket, which was used for the first live nuclear ballistic missile tests conducted by the United States. He personally witnessed this historic launch and detonation.[63] Work on the Redstone led to development of the first high-precision inertial guidance system on the Redstone rocket.[64] As director of the Development Operations Division of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, von Braun, with his team, then developed the Jupiter-C, a modified Redstone rocket.[65] The Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
successfully launched the West's first satellite, Explorer 1, on January 31, 1958. This event signaled the birth of America's space program. Despite the work on the Redstone rocket, the 12 years from 1945 to 1957 were probably some of the most frustrating for von Braun and his colleagues. In the Soviet Union, Sergei Korolev
Sergei Korolev
and his team of scientists and engineers plowed ahead with several new rocket designs and the Sputnik
Sputnik
program, while the American government was not very interested in von Braun's work or views and only embarked on a very modest rocket-building program. In the meantime, the press tended to dwell on von Braun's past as a member of the SS and the slave labor used to build his V-2 rockets.[citation needed] Popular concepts for a human presence in space[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Repeating the pattern he had established during his earlier career in Germany, von Braun – while directing military rocket development in the real world – continued to entertain his engineer-scientist's dream of a future in which rockets would be used for space exploration. However, instead of risking being sacked, he now was increasingly in a position to popularize these ideas. The May 14, 1950, headline of The Huntsville Times
The Huntsville Times
("Dr. von Braun Says Rocket Flights Possible to Moon") might have marked the beginning of these efforts. Von Braun's ideas rode a publicity wave that was created by science fiction movies and stories.

Von Braun with President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960

In 1952, von Braun first published his concept of a manned space station in a Collier's Weekly
Collier's Weekly
magazine series of articles titled "Man Will Conquer Space Soon!". These articles were illustrated by the space artist Chesley Bonestell
Chesley Bonestell
and were influential in spreading his ideas. Frequently, von Braun worked with fellow German-born space advocate and science writer Willy Ley
Willy Ley
to publish his concepts, which, unsurprisingly, were heavy on the engineering side and anticipated many technical aspects of space flight that later became reality. The space station (to be constructed using rockets with recoverable and reusable ascent stages) would be a toroid structure, with a diameter of 250 feet (76 m); this built on the concept of a rotating wheel-shaped station introduced in 1929 by Herman Potočnik in his book The Problem of Space Travel – The Rocket
Rocket
Motor. The space station would spin around a central docking nave to provide artificial gravity, and would be assembled in a 1,075-mile (1,730 km) two-hour, high-inclination Earth orbit
Earth orbit
allowing observation of essentially every point on Earth on at least a daily basis. The ultimate purpose of the space station would be to provide an assembly platform for manned lunar expeditions. More than a decade later, the movie version of 2001: A Space Odyssey would draw heavily on the design concept in its visualization of an orbital space station. Von Braun envisaged these expeditions as very large-scale undertakings, with a total of 50 astronauts travelling in three huge spacecraft (two for crew, one primarily for cargo), each 49 m (160.76 ft) long and 33 m (108.27 ft) in diameter and driven by a rectangular array of 30 rocket propulsion engines.[66] Upon arrival, astronauts would establish a permanent lunar base in the Sinus Roris
Sinus Roris
region by using the emptied cargo holds of their craft as shelters, and would explore their surroundings for eight weeks. This would include a 400 km (249 mi) expedition in pressurized rovers to the crater Harpalus and the Mare Imbrium
Mare Imbrium
foothills.

Walt Disney
Walt Disney
and von Braun, seen in 1954 holding a model of his passenger ship, collaborated on a series of three educational films.

At this time, von Braun also worked out preliminary concepts for a manned mission to Mars that used the space station as a staging point. His initial plans, published in The Mars Project
The Mars Project
(1952), had envisaged a fleet of 10 spacecraft (each with a mass of 3,720 metric tons), three of them unmanned and each carrying one 200-ton winged lander[66] in addition to cargo, and nine crew vehicles transporting a total of 70 astronauts. Gigantic as this mission plan was, its engineering and astronautical parameters were thoroughly calculated. A later project was much more modest, using only one purely orbital cargo ship and one crewed craft. In each case, the expedition would use minimum-energy Hohmann transfer orbits for its trips to Mars and back to Earth. Before technically formalizing his thoughts on human spaceflight to Mars, von Braun had written a science fiction novel on the subject, set in the year 1980. However, the manuscript was rejected by no fewer than 18 publishers.[67] Von Braun later published small portions of this opus in magazines, to illustrate selected aspects of his Mars project popularizations. The complete manuscript, titled Project MARS: A Technical Tale, did not appear as a printed book until December 2006.[68] In the hope that its involvement would bring about greater public interest in the future of the space program, von Braun also began working with Walt Disney
Walt Disney
and the Disney studios as a technical director, initially for three television films about space exploration. The initial broadcast devoted to space exploration was Man in Space, which first went on air on March 9, 1955, drawing 40 million viewers.[60][69][70] Later (in 1959) von Braun published a short booklet, condensed from episodes that had appeared in This Week Magazine
This Week Magazine
before—describing his updated concept of the first manned lunar landing.[71] The scenario included only a single and relatively small spacecraft—a winged lander with a crew of only two experienced pilots who had already circumnavigated the Moon
Moon
on an earlier mission. The brute-force direct ascent flight schedule used a rocket design with five sequential stages, loosely based on the Nova designs that were under discussion at this time. After a night launch from a Pacific island, the first three stages would bring the spacecraft (with the two remaining upper stages attached) to terrestrial escape velocity, with each burn creating an acceleration of 8–9 times standard gravity. Residual propellant in the third stage would be used for the deceleration intended to commence only a few hundred kilometers above the landing site in a crater near the lunar north pole. The fourth stage provided acceleration to lunar escape velocity, while the fifth stage would be responsible for a deceleration during return to the Earth to a residual speed that allows aerocapture of the spacecraft ending in a runway landing, much in the way of the Space Shuttle. One remarkable feature of this technical tale is that the engineer Wernher von Braun anticipated a medical phenomenon that would become apparent only years later: being a veteran astronaut with no history of serious adverse reactions to weightlessness offers no protection against becoming unexpectedly and violently spacesick. Religious conversion[edit] In the first half of his life, von Braun was a nonpracticing, "perfunctory" Lutheran, whose affiliation was rather nominal and not taken seriously.[72] As described by Ernst Stuhlinger
Ernst Stuhlinger
and Frederick I. Ordway III: “Throughout his younger years, von Braun did not show signs of religious devotion, or even an interest in things related to the church or to biblical teachings. In fact, he was known to his friends as a 'merry heathen' (fröhlicher Heide)."[73] Nevertheless, in 1946,[74]:469 he reluctantly attended church in El Paso, Texas, and underwent a religious conversion to evangelical Christianity.[75] In an unnamed religious magazine he stated:

One day in Fort Bliss, a neighbor called and asked if I would like to go to church with him. I accepted, because I wanted to see if the American church was just a country club as I'd been led to expect. Instead, I found a small, white frame building ... in the hot Texas sun on a browned-grass lot ... Together, these people make a live, vibrant community. This was the first time I really understood that religion was not a cathedral inherited from the past, or a quick prayer at the last minute. To be effective, a religion has to be backed up by discipline and effort. — von Braun[74]:229–230

On the motives behind this conversion, Michael J. Neufeld is of the opinion that he turned to religion "to pacify his own conscience",[76] whereas University of Southampton
University of Southampton
scholar Kendrick Oliver comments that von Braun was presumably moved "by a desire to find a new direction for his life after the moral chaos of his service for the Third Reich".[77] Having "concluded one bad bargain with the devil, perhaps now he felt a need to have God securely at his side".[78] Later in life, he joined an Episcopal congregation,[75] and became increasingly religious.[79] He publicly spoke and wrote about the complementarity of science and religion, the afterlife of the soul, and his belief in God.[80][81] He stated, "Through science man strives to learn more of the mysteries of creation. Through religion he seeks to know the Creator."[82] He was interviewed by the Assemblies of God pastor C. M. Ward, as stating, "The farther we probe into space, the greater my faith."[83] In addition, he met privately with evangelist Billy Graham
Billy Graham
and with the pacifist leader Martin Luther King Jr..[84]

Von Braun with President Kennedy at Redstone Arsenal
Redstone Arsenal
in 1963

Von Braun with the F-1 engines of the Saturn V
Saturn V
first stage at the U.S. Space and Rocket
Rocket
Center

Still with his rocket models, von Braun is pictured in his new office at NASA
NASA
headquarters in 1970

Concepts for orbital warfare[edit] Von Braun developed and published his space station concept during the very "coldest" time of the Cold War, when the U.S. government for which he worked put the containment of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
above everything else. The fact that his space station – if armed with missiles that could be easily adapted from those already available at this time – would give the United States space superiority in both orbital and orbit-to-ground warfare did not escape him. In his popular writings, von Braun elaborated on them in several of his books and articles, but he took care to qualify such military applications as "particularly dreadful". This much less peaceful aspect of von Braun's "drive for space" has been reviewed by Michael J. Neufeld from the Space History Division of the National Air and Space Museum
National Air and Space Museum
in Washington.[85] NASA
NASA
career[edit]

Von Braun during Apollo 11
Apollo 11
launch

The U.S. Navy had been tasked with building a rocket to lift satellites into orbit, but the resulting Vanguard rocket
Vanguard rocket
launch system was unreliable. In 1957, with the launch of Sputnik
Sputnik
1, a growing belief within the United States existed that it was lagging behind the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the emerging Space Race. American authorities then chose to use von Braun and his German team's experience with missiles to create an orbital launch vehicle. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
had such an idea originally proposed in 1954, but it was denied at the time.[60] NASA
NASA
was established by law on July 29, 1958. One day later, the 50th Redstone rocket was successfully launched from Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll
in the south Pacific as part of Operation Hardtack I. Two years later, NASA opened the Marshall Space Flight Center
Marshall Space Flight Center
at Redstone Arsenal
Redstone Arsenal
in Huntsville, and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
(ABMA) development team led by von Braun was transferred to NASA. In a face-to-face meeting with Herb York
Herb York
at the Pentagon, von Braun made it clear he would go to NASA
NASA
only if development of the Saturn was allowed to continue.[86] Presiding from July 1960 to February 1970, von Braun became the center's first director.[citation needed] Von Braun's early years at NASA
NASA
were not without some disappointments. One of those was the "infamous four-inch flight" during which the first unmanned Mercury-Redstone rocket only rose a few inches before settling back onto the launch pad. The launch failure was later determined to be the result of a "power plug with one prong shorter than the other because a worker filed it to make it fit". Because of the difference in the length of one prong, the launch system detected the difference in the power disconnection as a "cut-off signal to the engine". The system stopped the launch, and the incident created a "nadir of morale in Project Mercury".[citation needed] After the flight of Mercury-Redstone 2
Mercury-Redstone 2
in January 1961 experienced a string of problems, von Braun insisted on one more test before the Redstone could be deemed man-rated. His overly cautious nature brought about clashes with other people involved in the program, who argued that MR-2's technical issues were simple and had been resolved shortly after the flight. He overruled them, so a test mission involving a Redstone on a boilerplate capsule was flown successfully in March. Von Braun's stubbornness was blamed for the inability of the U.S. to launch a manned space mission before the Soviet Union, which ended up putting the first man in space the following month.[citation needed]

Charles W. Mathews, von Braun, George Mueller, and Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips in the Launch Control Center
Launch Control Center
following the successful Apollo 11 liftoff on July 16, 1969

The Marshall Center's first major program was the development of Saturn rockets to carry heavy payloads into and beyond Earth orbit. From this, the Apollo program
Apollo program
for manned Moon
Moon
flights was developed. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
initially pushed for a flight engineering concept that called for an Earth orbit
Earth orbit
rendezvous technique (the approach he had argued for building his space station), but in 1962, he converted to the lunar orbit rendezvous concept that was subsequently realized.[87] During Apollo, he worked closely with former Peenemünde teammate, Kurt H. Debus, the first director of the Kennedy Space Center. His dream to help mankind set foot on the Moon
Moon
became a reality on July 16, 1969, when a Marshall-developed Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket launched the crew of Apollo 11
Apollo 11
on its historic eight-day mission. Over the course of the program, Saturn V
Saturn V
rockets enabled six teams of astronauts to reach the surface of the Moon. During the late 1960s, von Braun was instrumental in the development of the U.S. Space and Rocket
Rocket
Center in Huntsville. The desk from which he guided America's entry in the space race remains on display there. He also was instrumental in the launching of the experimental Applications Technology Satellite. He travelled to India
India
and hoped that the program would be helpful for bringing a massive educational television project to help the poorest people in that country.[88][89] During the local summer of 1966–67, von Braun participated in a field trip to Antarctica, organized for him and several other members of top NASA
NASA
management.[90] The goal of the field trip was to determine whether the experience gained by U.S. scientific and technological community during the exploration of Antarctic wastelands would be useful for the manned exploration of space. Von Braun was mainly interested in management of the scientific effort on Antarctic research stations, logistics, habitation, and life support, and in using the barren Antarctic terrain like the glacial dry valleys to test the equipment that one day would be used to look for signs of life on Mars and other worlds. In an internal memo dated January 16, 1969,[91] von Braun had confirmed to his staff that he would stay on as a center director at Huntsville to head the Apollo Applications Program. He referred to this time as a moment in his life when he felt the strong need to pray, stating "I certainly prayed a lot before and during the crucial Apollo flights".[92] A few months later, on occasion of the first Moon landing, he publicly expressed his optimism that the Saturn V
Saturn V
carrier system would continue to be developed, advocating manned missions to Mars in the 1980s.[93] Nonetheless, on March 1, 1970, von Braun and his family relocated to Washington, DC, when he was assigned the post of NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA
NASA
Headquarters. After a series of conflicts associated with the truncation of the Apollo program, and facing severe budget constraints, von Braun retired from NASA
NASA
on May 26, 1972. Not only had it become evident by this time that NASA
NASA
and his visions for future U.S. space flight projects were incompatible, but also it was perhaps even more frustrating for him to see popular support for a continued presence of man in space wane dramatically once the goal to reach the Moon
Moon
had been accomplished.

Von Braun and William R. Lucas, the first and third Marshall Space Flight Center directors, viewing a Spacelab
Spacelab
model in 1974

Von Braun also developed the idea of a Space Camp that would train children in fields of science and space technologies, as well as help their mental development much the same way sports camps aim at improving physical development.[21]:354–355 Career after NASA[edit] After leaving NASA, von Braun became Vice President for Engineering and Development at the aerospace company Fairchild Industries in Germantown, Maryland, on July 1, 1972. In 1973, during a routine physical examination, von Braun was diagnosed with kidney cancer, which could not be controlled with the medical techniques available at the time.[94] Von Braun continued his work to the extent possible, which included accepting invitations to speak at colleges and universities, as he was eager to cultivate interest in human spaceflight and rocketry, particularly his desire to encourage the next generation of aerospace engineers. Von Braun helped establish and promote the National Space Institute, a precursor of the present-day National Space Society, in 1975, and became its first president and chairman. In 1976, he became scientific consultant to Lutz Kayser, the CEO of OTRAG, and a member of the Daimler-Benz
Daimler-Benz
board of directors. However, his deteriorating health forced him to retire from Fairchild on December 31, 1976. When the 1975 National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
was awarded to him in early 1977, he was hospitalized, and unable to attend the White House ceremony. Engineering philosophy[edit] Von Braun's insistence on further tests after Mercury-Redstone 2
Mercury-Redstone 2
flew higher than planned has been identified as contributing to the Soviet Union's success in launching the first human in space.[95] The Mercury-Redstone BD
Mercury-Redstone BD
flight was successful, but took up the launch slot that could have put Alan Shepard
Alan Shepard
into space three weeks ahead of Yuri Gagarin. His Soviet counterpart Sergei Korolev
Sergei Korolev
insisted on two successful flights with dogs before risking Gagarin's life on a manned attempt. The second test flight took place one day after the Mercury-Redstone BD
Mercury-Redstone BD
mission.[21]: 1 Von Braun took a very conservative approach to engineering, designing with ample safety factors and redundant structure. This became a point of contention with other engineers, who struggled to keep vehicle weight down so that payload could be maximized. As noted above, his excessive caution likely led to the U.S. losing the race to put a man into space with the Soviets. Krafft Ehricke likened von Braun's approach to building the Brooklyn Bridge.[96]:208 Many at NASA headquarters jokingly referred to Marshall as the "Chicago Bridge and Iron Works", but acknowledged that the designs worked.[97] The conservative approach paid off when a fifth engine was added to the Saturn C-4, producing the Saturn V. The C-4 design had a large crossbeam that could easily absorb the thrust of an additional engine.[21]:371 Personal life[edit]

Maria von Braun, wife of Wernher von Braun

Von Braun had a charismatic personality and was known as a ladies' man. As a student in Berlin, he would often be seen in the evenings in the company of two girlfriends at once.[21]:63 He later had a succession of affairs within the secretarial and computer pool at Peenemünde.[21]:92–94 In January 1943, von Braun became engaged to Dorothee Brill, a physical education teacher in Berlin, and sought permission from the SS Race and Settlement Office to marry. However, the engagement was broken due to his mother's opposition.[21]:146–147 Later in 1943, while preparing V-2 launch sites in northeastern France, von Braun had an affair in Paris with a French woman, who was imprisoned for collaboration after the War and became destitute.[21]:147–148 During his stay at Fort Bliss, von Braun proposed marriage to Maria Luise von Quistorp (born (1928-06-10)June 10, 1928), his maternal first cousin, in a letter to his father. On March 1, 1947, having received permission to go back to Germany and return with his bride, he married her in a Lutheran church in Landshut, Germany. Shortly after he converted to Evangelical Christianity, his bride and he, as well as his father and mother, returned to New York on March 26, 1947. On December 9, 1948, the von Brauns' first daughter, Iris Careen, was born at Fort Bliss
Fort Bliss
Army Hospital.[65] The von Brauns had two more children, Margrit Cécile in 1952 and Peter Constantine in 1960. On April 15, 1955, von Braun became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Death[edit]

Grave of Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
in Ivy Hill Cemetery (Alexandria, Virginia), 2008.

On June 16, 1977, Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
died of pancreatic cancer in Alexandria, Virginia, at the age of 65.[98][99] He was buried at the Ivy Hill Cemetery in Alexandria, Virginia. Von Braun's gravestone mentions Psalm 19:1: "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork." (KJV)[100] Recognition and critique[edit]

In 1970, Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville, Alabama
honored von Braun's years of service with a series of events including the unveiling of a plaque in his honor. Pictured (l–r), his daughter Iris, wife Maria, U.S. Sen. John Sparkman, Alabama Gov. Albert Brewer, von Braun, son Peter, and daughter Margrit.

Apollo program
Apollo program
director Sam Phillips was quoted as saying that he did not think that the United States would have reached the Moon
Moon
as quickly as it did without von Braun's help. Later, after discussing it with colleagues, he amended this to say that he did not believe the United States would have reached the Moon
Moon
at all.[12]:167 The crater von Braun on the Moon
Moon
is named after him. Von Braun received a total of 12 honorary doctorates, among them, on January 8, 1963, one from the Technical University of Berlin
Technical University of Berlin
from which he had graduated. Von Braun was responsible for the creation of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. As a result of his vision, the university is one of the leading universities in the nation for NASA-sponsored research. The building housing the university's Research Institute was named in his honor, Von Braun Research Hall, in 2000. Several German cities (Bonn, Neu-Isenburg, Mannheim, Mainz), and dozens of smaller towns have named streets after Wernher von Braun. The Von Braun Center
Von Braun Center
(built 1975) in Huntsville is named in von Braun's honor. Von Braun Astronomical Society in Huntsville was founded as the Rocket City Astronomical Association by von Braun and was later renamed after him Scrutiny of von Braun's use of forced labor at Mittelwerk
Mittelwerk
intensified again in 1984 when Arthur Rudolph, one of his top affiliates from the A-4/V2 through to the Apollo projects, left the United States and was forced to renounce his citizenship in place of the alternative of being tried for war crimes.[101] A science- and engineering-oriented Gymnasium in Friedberg, Bavaria was named after Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
in 1979. In response to rising criticism, a school committee decided in 1995, after lengthy deliberations, to keep the name but "to address von Braun's ambiguity in the advanced history classes". In 2012, Nazi concentration camp survivor David Salz gave a speech in Friedberg, calling out for the public to "Do everything to make this name disappear from this school!".[102][103] In February 2014, the school was finally renamed "Staatliches Gymnasium Friedberg" and distanced itself from the name von Braun, citing he was "no role-model for our pupils". An avenue in the Annadale section of Staten Island, New York was named after him in 1977. Von Braun also was voted into the U.S. Space and Rocket
Rocket
Center Hall of Fame, 2007

Summary of SS career[edit]

SS number: 185,068 Nazi Party
Nazi Party
number: 5,738,692[21]:96

Dates of rank[edit]

SS-Anwärter: November 1, 1933 (Candidate; received rank upon joining SS Riding School) SS-Mann: July 1934 (Private)

(left SS after graduation from the school; commissioned in 1940 with date of entry backdated to 1934)

SS-Untersturmführer: May 1, 1940 (Second Lieutenant) SS-Obersturmführer: November 9, 1941 (First Lieutenant) SS-Hauptsturmführer: November 9, 1942 (Captain) SS-Sturmbannführer: June 28, 1943 (Major)[28]

Honors[edit]

War Merit Cross, First Class with Swords in 1943 Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross
War Merit Cross
in 1944 Elected Honorary Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society
British Interplanetary Society
in 1949[104] Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1959 Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal
in 1962[105] Langley Gold Medal
Langley Gold Medal
in 1967[106]

NASA
NASA
Distinguished Service Medal in 1969 Inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1969 Wilhelm Exner Medal
Wilhelm Exner Medal
in 1969.[2] National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
in 1975 Werner von Siemens Ring in 1975 Civitan International
Civitan International
World Citizenship Award in 1970[107]

In popular culture[edit]

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Film and television Von Braun has been featured in a number of movies and television shows or series:

"Man in Space" and "Man and the Moon", episodes of Disneyland which originally aired on March 9, 1955 and December 28, 1955, respectively. I Aim at the Stars
I Aim at the Stars
(1960), also titled Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
and Ich greife nach den Sternen ("I Reach for the Stars"); von Braun played by Curd Jürgens, his wife Maria played by Victoria Shaw.[108] Although it was said that satirist Mort Sahl
Mort Sahl
suggested the subtitle "But Sometimes I Hit London", the line appears in the film itself, spoken by actor James Daly who plays the cynical American press officer. From the Earth to the Moon
Moon
(TV, 1998): von Braun played by Norbert Weisser. October Sky
October Sky
(1999): this film portrays U.S. rocket scientist Homer Hickam, who as a teenager admired von Braun (played by Joe Digaetano). The film's title, October Sky, is an anagram of the autobiography it was based on: Rocket
Rocket
Boys. Space Race
Space Race
(TV, BBC
BBC
co-production with NDR (Germany), Channel One TV (Russia) and National Geographic TV (USA), 2005): von Braun played by Richard Dillane. The Lost Von Braun, a documentary by Aron Ranen. Interviews with Ernst Stuhlinger, Konrad Dannenberg, Karl Sendler, Alex Baum, Eli Rosenbaum (DOJ) and von Braun's NASA
NASA
secretary Bonnie Holmes. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
Rocket
Rocket
Man for War and Peace A three part (part1, part 2, part 3) documentary – in English – from the German International channel DW-TV.[109] Original German version Wernher von Braun – Der Mann für die Wunderwaffen by the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk.

Several fictional characters have been modeled on von Braun:

Dr. Strangelove, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964): Dr Strangelove is usually held to be based at least partly on von Braun.[110]

In print media:

In Warren Ellis's graphic novel Ministry of Space, von Braun is a supporting character, settling in Britain after World War II, and being essential for the realization of the British space program. In Jonathan Hickman's comic book series The Manhattan Projects, von Braun is a major character.

In literature:

The Good German
The Good German
by Joseph Kanon. Von Braun and other scientists are said to have been implicated in the use of slave labor at Peenemünde; their transfer to the U.S. forms part of the narrative. Space by James Michener. Von Braun and other German scientists are brought to the U.S. and form a vital part of the U.S. efforts to reach space. Gravity's Rainbow
Gravity's Rainbow
by Thomas Pynchon. The novel involves British intelligence attempting to avert and predict V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
attacks. The work even includes a gyroscopic equation for the V2. The first portion of the novel, "Beyond The Zero", begins with a quotation from von Braun: "Nature does not know extinction; all it knows is transformation. Everything science has taught me, and continues to teach me, strengthens my belief in the continuity of our spiritual existence after death." V-S Day by Allen Steele
Allen Steele
is a 2014 alternate history novel in which the space race occurs during World War II
World War II
between teams led by Robert H. Goddard and von Braun. Moonglow by Michael Chabon
Michael Chabon
(2016) includes a fictionalized description of the search for and capture of Von Braun by the US Army, and his role in the Nazi V-2 program and subsequently in the US space program.

In theatre:

Rocket
Rocket
City, Alabam', a stage play by Mark Saltzman, weaves von Braun's real life with a fictional plot in which a young Jewish
Jewish
woman in Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville, Alabama
becomes aware of his Nazi past and tries to inspire awareness and outrage. Von Braun is a character in the play.[111]

In music:

Infinite Journey (1962), Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
and Apollo program rocket sounds album by various artists including Henry Mazer, which features von Braun as a narrator.[112] "Wernher von Braun" (1965):[113] A song written and performed by Tom Lehrer for an episode of NBC's American version of the BBC
BBC
TV show That Was The Week That Was; the song was later included in Lehrer's albums That Was The Year That Was
That Was The Year That Was
and The Remains of Tom Lehrer. It was a satire on what some saw as von Braun's cavalier attitude toward the consequences of his work in Nazi Germany.[114] The Last Days of Pompeii (1991): A rock opera by Grant Hart's post- Hüsker Dü
Hüsker Dü
alternative rock group Nova Mob, in which von Braun features as a character. The album includes a song called "Wernher von Braun".

Published works[edit]

Proposal for a Workable Fighter with Rocket
Rocket
Drive. July 6, 1939. 

The proposed vertical take-off interceptor[115] for climbing to 35,000 ft in 60 seconds was rejected by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
in the autumn of 1941[37]:258 for the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet[21]:151 and never produced. (The differing Bachem Ba 349
Bachem Ba 349
was produced during the 1944 Emergency Fighter Program.)

'Survey' of Previous Liquid Rocket
Rocket
Development in Germany and Future Prospects. May 1945. [116] A Minimum Satellite Vehicle Based on Components Available from Developments of the Army Ordnance Corps. September 15, 1954. It would be a blow to U.S. prestige if we did not [launch a satellite] first. [116] The Mars Project, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, (1953). With Henry J. White, translator. Arthur C. Clarke, ed. (1967). German Rocketry, The Coming of the Space Age. New York: Meredith Press.  First Men to the Moon, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1958). Portions of work first appeared in This Week Magazine. Daily Journals of Werner von Braun, May 1958 – March 1970. March 1970. [116] History of Rocketry & Space Travel, New York, Crowell (1975). With Frederick I. Ordway III.

Estate of Wernher von Braun; Ordway III, Frederick I & Dooling, David Jr. (1985) [1975]. Space Travel: A History (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-181898-4. 

The Rocket's Red Glare, Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, (1976). With Frederick I. Ordway III. Project Mars: A Technical Tale, Apogee Books, Toronto (2006). A previously unpublished science fiction story by von Braun. Accompanied by paintings from Chesley Bonestell
Chesley Bonestell
and von Braun's own technical papers on the proposed project. The Voice of Dr. Wernher von Braun, Apogee Books, Toronto (2007). A collection of speeches delivered by von Braun over the course of his career.

See also[edit]

Biography portal Physics
Physics
portal Spaceflight
Spaceflight
portal World War II
World War II
portal

Robert Esnault-Pelterie German inventors and discoverers List of coupled cousins Pedro Paulet Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

References[edit]

^ Ivy Hill Cemetery, Alexandria, VA., Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 48952). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. ^ a b Editor, ÖGV. (2015). Wilhelm Exner Medal. Austrian Trade Association. ÖGV. Austria. ^ Neufeld, Michael. Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War (First ed.). Vintage Books. pp. xv. Although Wernher von Braun got a doctorate in physics in 1934, he never worked a day in his life thereafter as a scientist. He was an engineer and a manager of engineers, and he used that vocabulary when he was talking to his professional peers.  ^ Werner von Braun: History's Most Controversial Figure?, Al Jazeera ^ "SP-4206 Stages to Saturn, Chapter 9". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2015.  ^ "Biography of Wernher von Braun". MSFC History Office. NASA
NASA
Marshall Space Flight Center.  ^ "Von Braun, Wernher", Erratik Institut. Retrieved 4 February 2011 ^ "Dr. Wernher von Braun'i mälestuseks", Füüsikainstituut. Retrieved 4 February 2011 ^ a b Spires, Shelby G. (June 27, 2003). "Von Braun's brother dies; aided surrender". The Huntsville Times. p. 1A. Magnus von Braun, the brother of rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
who worked in Huntsville from 1950–1955, died Saturday in Phoenix, Ariz. He was 84. Though not as famous as his older brother, who died in 1977, Magnus von Braun
Magnus von Braun
made the first contact with U.S. Army troops to arrange the German rocket team's surrender at the end of World War II.  ^ Magnus Freiherr
Freiherr
von Braun, Von Ostpreußen bis Texas. Erlebnisse und zeitgeschichtliche Betrachtungen eines Ostdeutschen. Stollhamm 1955 ^ a b "Recollections of Childhood: Early Experiences in Rocketry as Told by Werner von Braun 1963". MSFC History Office. NASA
NASA
Marshall Space Flight Center.  ^ a b c d e f g Ward (2005). Dr. Space: The Life of Werner von Braun. ISBN 978-1-591-14926-2.  ^ OCLC 6026491 ^ Various sources such as The Nazi Rocketeers (ISBN 0811733874 pp 5–8) list the young Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
as joining the VfR as an apprentice to Willy Ley, one of the three founders. Later when Ley fled Germany because he was a Jew, von Braun took over the leadership of the Verein and changed its activity to military development. ^ " Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
biography". Biography.com. Retrieved March 1, 2014.  ^ "Early Experiences in Rocketry as Told by Werner von Braun 1963". History.msfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ https://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/recollect-childhood.html ^ As related by Auguste's son Jacques Piccard
Jacques Piccard
to fellow deep-sea explorer Hans Fricke, cited in: Fricke H. Der Fisch, der aus der Urzeit kam, pp. 23–24. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 2010. ISBN 978-3-423-34616-0 (in German) ^ Leo Nutz; Elmar Wild (December 28, 1989). "Oberth-museum.org". Oberth-museum.org. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ Davies, Norman (2006). Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. London: Macmillan. p. 416. ISBN 9780333692851. OCLC 70401618.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Neufeld, Michael (2007). Von Braun Dreamer of Space Engineer of War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26292-9.  ^ Spangenburg & Moser. 2009. Wernher von Braun, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 33 ^ See Ward (2005), Chapter 5: "Encounters with Hitler." ^ Ward, Bob (2009). Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591149279.  ^ " Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
FBI file".  ^ "Dr. Space" pp. 35 "It had been thought that he publicly wore his uniform with swastika armband just once, during one of two formal..." ^ Dr. Space, p. 35. " Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
in SS uniform". The Reformation Online.  ^ a b "von Braun". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ Konstruktive, theoretische und experimentelle Beiträge zu dem Problem der Flüssigkeitsrakete. Raketentechnik und Raumfahrtforschung, Sonderheft 1 (1960), Stuttgart, Germany. ^ Weisstein, Eric Wolfgang (ed.). "Robert Goddard". ScienceWorld.  ^ "The Man Who Opened the Door to Space". Popular Science. May 1959.  ^ Neufeld, Michael J. 2008. Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. Vintage. p. 351 ^ a b c d "Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun", Bob Ward. Naval Institute Press, Jul 10, 2013. Retrieved 6 mar 2017 ^ Speer, Albert (1969). Erinnerungen, p. 377. Verlag Ullstein GmbH, Frankfurt a.M. and Berlin, ISBN 3-550-06074-2. ^ "Peenemünde, 17 and 18 August 1943". RAF History – Bomber Command. Royal Air Force. Retrieved November 15, 2006.  ^ Middlebrook, Martin (1982). The Peenemünde
Peenemünde
Raid: The Night of 17–18 August 1943. New York: Bobs-Merrill. p. 222. ISBN 0-672-52759-6.  ^ a b Dornberger, Walter (1952). V2—Der Schuss ins Weltall. Esslingan: Bechtle Verlag (US translation V-2 Viking Press:New York, 1954). p. 164.  ^ Neufeld, Michael J. 2008. Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. Vintage. p. 184 ^ Morrow, Lance (August 3, 1998). "The Moon
Moon
and the Clones". Time. Retrieved August 30, 2009.  ^ a b c d e Warsitz, Lutz (2009). The First Jet Pilot: The Story of German Test Pilot Erich Warsitz. Pen and Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84415-818-8.  ^ Tracy Dungan. "Mittelbau Overview". V2rocket.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ "Excerpts from 'Power to Explore'". MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.  ^ Jaroff, Leon (March 26, 2002). "The Rocket
Rocket
Man's Dark Side". Time. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2008.  ^ a b Biddle, Wayne (2009). Dark Side of the Moon: Wernher von Braun, the Third Reich, and the Space Race. W. W. Norton & Company. :124–125 ^ Michael J. Neufeld (Feb., 2002) "Wernher von Braun, the SS, and Concentration Camp Labor: Questions of Moral, Political, and Criminal Responsibility", German Studies Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 57–78 ^ Fiedermann, Heß, and Jaeger (1993) Das KZ Mittelbau Dora. Ein historischer Abriss, p. 100, Westkreuz Verlag, Berlin ISBN 978-3-92213-194-6 ^ Ernst Stuhlinger; Frederick Ira Ordway (April 1994). Wernher von Braun, crusader for space: a biographical memoir. Krieger Pub. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-89464-842-7. Retrieved December 18, 2011.  ^ Roop, Lee (October 4, 2002). "Aide says von Braun wasn't able to stop slave horrors; Objection would have gotten rocket pioneer shot, Dannenberg says". The Huntsville Times. Archived from the original on October 26, 2002.  ^ Sellier, André (2003). A History of the Dora Camp: The Untold Story of the Nazi Slave Labor Camp That Secretly Manufactured V-2 Rockets. Chicago, IL: Ivan R Dee. ISBN 1-56663-511-X.  ^ "Highlights in German Rocket
Rocket
Development from 1927–1945". MSFC History Office. NASA
NASA
Marshall Space Flight Center.  ^ Ward, Bob. 2013. Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. Naval Institute Press. Ch. 5 ^ Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 501–502. ISBN 9781842127353.  ^ a b c Cadbury, Deborah (2005). Space Race. BBC
BBC
Worldwide Limited. ISBN 0-00-721299-2.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 28, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2015.  Capture of Werner von Braun by the 324th Regiment Anti-tank Company ^ McDougall, Walter A. (1985). ...The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age. New York: Basic Books. p. 44. ISBN 0-465-02887-X.  ^ Arts & Entertainment, Biography (1959–1961 series). Mike Wallace, television biography of Wernher von Braun, video clip of the press statement. ^ McGovern, J (1964). Crossbow and Overcast. New York: W. Morrow. p. 182.  ^ Speer, Albert (2001). Schlie, Ulrich, ed. Alles, was ich weiß. F.A. Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 12. ISBN 3-7766-2092-7.  ^ "Outstanding German Scientists Being Brought to U.S." War Department press release. V2Rocket.com. October 1, 1945. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b c d e f g h Matthew Brzezinski (2007) Red Moon
Moon
Rising: Sputnik and the Hidden Rivalries That Ignited the Space Age, pp. 84–92, Henry Holt, New York ISBN 978-0-80508-147-3 ^ 1951-, Neufeld, Michael J.,. Von Braun : dreamer of space, engineer of war (First Vintage books ed.). New York. p. 218. ISBN 9780525435914. OCLC 982248820.  ^ " Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2016-03-27.  ^ REDSTONE ROCKET, HARDTACK-TEAK TEST, AUGUST 1958. YouTube. October 3, 2011.  ^ Bucher, G. C.; Mc Call, J. C.; Ordway, F. I., III; Stuhlinger, E. "From Peenemuende to Outer Space. Commemorating the Fiftieth Birthday of Wernher von Braun". NASA
NASA
Technical Reports Server. NTRS. Retrieved October 11, 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b "Reach for the Stars". TIME Magazine. February 17, 1958.  ^ a b Woodfill, Jerry (November 30, 2004). "Gallery of Wernher von Braun Moonship Sketches". The Space Educator's Handbook. NASA
NASA
Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Bergaust, Erik (1976). Wernher von Braun: The authoritative and definitive biographical profile of the father of modern space flight (Hardcover). National Space Institute. ISBN 0-917680-01-4.  ^ Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
(2006) Project Mars : a technical tale, Apogee Books, Burlington, Ontario ISBN 978-0-97382-033-1 ^ Ley, Willy (October 1955). "For Your Information". Galaxy. p. 60. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ Pat Williams, Jim Denney (2004) How to Be Like Walt: Capturing the Disney Magic Every Day of Your Life, p. 237, Health Communications Inc. ISBN 978-0-75730-231-2 ^ " Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
(January 2000) "First Men to the Moon". Reprint by Henry Holt & Co., Inc. ISBN 978-0-03030-295-4 ^ Neufeld, Michael J. (2008) Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War, Vintage. p. 4; 230 ^ Stuhlinger, Ernst & Ira Ordway, Frederick. 1994. Wernher von Braun, crusader for space: a biographical memoir. Krieger Pub, p. 270 ^ a b Neufeld, Michael J. (2007) Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War, Knoff, NY ISBN 978-0-30726-292-9 ^ a b Mallon, Thomas (Oct. 22, 2007) " Rocket
Rocket
Man", The New Yorker, Access date: January 8, 2015. ^ Walker, Mark (2008) "A 20th-Century Faust" Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., American Scientist, Access: January 8, 2015 ^ Oliver, Kendrick (2012) To Touch the Face of God: The Sacred, the Profane, and the American Space Program, 1957–1975, p. 23, Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 978-1-42140-788-3 ^ Oliver, 2012, p. 24 ^ Stuhlinger, Ernst & Ira Ordway, Frederick. 1994. Wernher von Braun, crusader for space: a biographical memoir. Krieger Pub, p. 270: "Those who knew him through the 1960s and 1970s noticed during these years that a new element began to surface in his conversations, and also in his speeches and his writings: a growing interest in religious thought." ^ von Braun, Wernher (1963) "My Faith: A Space-Age Scientist Tells Why He Must Believe in God", (February 10, 1963) The American Weekly, p. 2, New York: The Hearst Corporation. ^ See von Braun's speeches in The voice of Dr. Wernher Von Brain: An Anthology. Apogee Books Publication; ed. by Irene E. Powell-Willhite: These touch "a variety of topics, including education, the cold war, religion, and the space program". ^ See the same article by von Braun, Wernher, published as "Science and religion", in Rome Daily American, September 13, 1966. Available in New Age Frontiersn (Oct. 1966) United Family, Vol- II, No. 10. ^ See "The Farther We Probe into Space, the Greater my Faith": C.M.Ward’s account of His Interview with Dr. Warner von Braun (1966) Springfield, MO: Assemblies of God, 17 pp. Mini-pamphlet. ^ Ward, Bob (2013) Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun, Ch. 1: "The Accursed Blessing", Naval Institute Press OCLC 857079205 ^ Neufeld MJ: "Space superiority: Wernher von Braun's campaign for a nuclear-armed space station, 1946–1956". Space Policy 2006; 22:52–62. ^ "Stages to Saturn – The Saturn Building Blocks – THE ABMA TRANSFER". NASA.  ^ "Concluding Remarks by Dr. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
about Mode Selection for the Lunar Landing Program" (PDF). Lunar Orbit Rendezvous File. NASA
NASA
Historical Reference Collection. June 7, 1962.  ^ Spangenburg & Moser. 2009. Wernher von Braun, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 129-130 ^ See: Dr. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
talks about ATSF satellite project ^ "Space Man's Look at Antarctica". Popular Science, Vol. 190, No. 5, May 1967, pp. 114–116. ^ von Braun, Wernher (January 16, 1969). "Adjustment to Marshall Organization, Announcement No. 4" (PDF). MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 21, 2007.  ^ Bergaust, Erik. 1976. Wernher von Braun: The Authoritative and Definitive Biographical Profile of the Father of Modern Space Flight. National Space Institute. p. 117 ^ "Next, Mars and Beyond". Time. July 25, 1969. Retrieved June 21, 2007. Even as man prepared to take his first tentative extraterrestrial steps, other celestial adventures beckoned him. The shape and scope of the post-Apollo manned space program remained hazy, and a great deal depends on the safe and successful outcome of Apollo 11. Well before the lunar flight was launched, though, NASA
NASA
was casting eyes on targets far beyond the Moon. The most inviting: the earth's close, and probably most hospitable, planetary neighbor. Given the same energy and dedication that took them to the Moon, says Wernher von Braun, Americans could land on Mars as early as 1982.  ^ German sources mostly specify the cancer as renal, while American biographies unanimously just mention cancer. The time when von Braun learned about the disease is generally given as between 1973 and 1976. The characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, which has a bad prognosis even today, do not rule out either time limit. ^ Launius, Roger (2002). To Reach the Higher Frontier: A History of U.S. Launch Vehicles. University of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2245-7.  ^ Sloop, John L. (1978). Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945–1959 (PDF). The NASA
NASA
history series. SP-4404.  ^ "To the Moon". NOVA. July 13, 1999.  ^ "Von Braun, Who Helped Put Men on Moon, Dies at 65: German-Born Scientist Succumbs to Pancreatic Cancer; Was Pioneer in Space Rocket Technology". Los Angeles Times. June 17, 1977. p. A2.  ^ "Wernher von Braun, Rocket
Rocket
Pioneer, Dies; Wernher von Braun, Pioneer in Space Travel and Rocketry, Dies at 65". New York Times. June 18, 1977. Wernher von Braun, the master rocket builder and pioneer of space travel, died of cancer Thursday morning. He was 65 years old.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Psalm 19:1". Bible Gateway.  ^ Winterstein, William E., Sr. (March 1, 2005). Secrets Of The Space Age. Robert D. Reed Publishers. ISBN 1-931741-49-2.  ^ Rother, Marcel (March 22, 2012). "Gymnasium Friedberg: Ein Ort, der das Herz zittern lässt" [Friedberg Gymnasium: A place that can make the heart tremble]. Augsburger Allgemeine (in German). Augsburg: Presse-Druck- und Verlags-GmbH. Retrieved December 1, 2015.  ^ Mayr, Stefan (March 23, 2012). "Streit um Wernher-von-Braun-Gymnasium "Tut alles, damit dieser Name verschwindet"" [Dispute over the Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
Gymnasium "Do everything to make this name disappear"]. Süddeutschen Zeitung (in German). Munich: Süddeutsche Zeitung GmbH. Retrieved December 1, 2015.  ^ "Prof Dr Wernher von Braun". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 9 (2). March 1950.  ^ Astronautical and Aeronautical Events of 1962 – Report of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives (PDF), U.S. Government Printing Office, June 12, 1963, p. 217, retrieved July 14, 2014  ^ "Dr von Braun Honoured" (PDF). Flight International. Iliffe Transport Publications. July 22, 1967. p. 1030. Retrieved April 16, 2009.  ^ Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. pp. 95, 105.  ^ " I Aim at the Stars
I Aim at the Stars
(1960)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved August 10, 2010.  ^ "DW-TV". Dw-world.de. June 25, 2011. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ Neufield, Von Braun, p. 406. Dr Strangelove was widely held to be a composite of Edward Teller, Herman Kahn, and von Braun; but only von Braun shared Strangelove's Nazi past. ^ "MadKap Productions presents Rocket
Rocket
City, Alabam' ". Skokie [Illinois] Theatre and MadKap Productions. 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.  ^ "Florida Symphony Orchestra And Bach Festival Choir - Journey To Infinity". Discogs. Retrieved 2017-05-21.  ^ Tom Lehrer
Tom Lehrer
(December 1, 2008). "Wernher von Braun". Youtube.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ "Stop clapping, this is serious". Sydney Morning Herald. March 1, 2003. Retrieved October 7, 2013.  ^ Klee, Ernst; Merk, Otto (1963). The Birth of the Missile:The Secrets of Peenemünde. Hamburg: Gerhard Stalling Verlag (English translation 1965). pp. 89, 95.  ^ a b c Ordway, Frederick I, III; Sharpe, Mitchell R (1979). The Rocket
Rocket
Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 308, 425, 509. ISBN 1-894959-00-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Biddle, Wayne (2009). Dark Side of the Moon: Wernher von Braun, the Third Reich, and the Space Race. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-05910-6.  Bilstein, Roger (2003). Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles. University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-813-02691-6.  Dunar, Andrew J; Waring, Stephen P (1999). "Power to Explore: a History of Marshall Space Flight Center, 1960–1990". Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. ISBN 0-16-058992-4.  Freeman, Marsha (1993). "How we got to the Moon: The Story of the German Space Pioneers (Paperback)". 21st Century Science Associates (October 1993). ISBN 0-9628134-1-9.  Lasby, Clarence G (1971). "Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War". New York, NY: Atheneum. ASIN B0006CKBHY.  Neufeld, Michael J (1994). "The Rocket
Rocket
and the Reich: Peenemünde
Peenemünde
and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era". New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-922895-6.  Neufeld, Michael J (2007). "Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War". New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26292-9.  Ordway, Frederick I., III (2003). "The Rocket
Rocket
Team: Apogee Books Space Series 36 (Apogee Books Space Series) (Hardcover)". Collector's Guide Publishing Inc.; Har/DVD edition (September 1, 2003). ISBN 1-894959-00-0.  Petersen, Michael B. (2009). Missiles for the Fatherland: Peenemuende, National Socialism and the V-2 missile. Cambridge Centennial of Flight. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88270-5. OCLC 644940362.  Stuhlinger, Ernst (1996). "Wernher von Braun: Crusader for Space". Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89464-980-9.  Tompkins, Phillip K. (1993). Organizational Communication Imperatives: Lessons of the Space Program. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195329667.  Ward, Bob (2005). Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. Annapolis, MD, United States: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-927-9.  Willhite, Irene E. (2007). The Voice of Dr. Wernher von Braun: An Anthology (Apogee Books Space Series). Collector's Guide Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1894959643. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wernher von Braun.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Wernher von Braun

Audiopodcast on Astrotalkuk.org BBC
BBC
journalist Reg Turnill talking in 2011 about his personal memories of and interviews with Dr Wernher von Braun. The capture of von Braun and his men – At the U.S. 44th Infantry Division website Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
page – Marshall Space Flight Center
Marshall Space Flight Center
(MSFC) History Office "The Disney – von Braun Collaboration and its Influence on Space Exploration" – by Mike Wright, MSFC Coat-of-arms of Dr. Wernher von Braun Remembering Von Braun – by Anthony Young – The Space Review Monday, July 10, 2006 The Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
Concentration Camp Memorial V2rocket.com 60th anniversary digital reprinting of Colliers Space Series, Houston Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics CIA documents on Dr. Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
on the Internet Archive FBI Records: The Vault - Wernher VonBraun files at vault.fbi.gov

v t e

NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center
Marshall Space Flight Center
(Huntsville, Alabama)

Directors

von Braun Rees Petrone Lucas Thompson Lee Bridwell Littles Griner* Stephenson King Lightfoot Goldman* Henderson* Scheuermann

Projects

Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Propulsion International Space Station Chandra X-ray Observatory Gravity Probe B Project Constellation Ares I Ares V Orion

NRHP sites

Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Propulsion and Structural Test Facility Redstone Test Stand Saturn V
Saturn V
Dynamic Test Stand Saturn V
Saturn V
Dynamic Test Vehicle

Other

Operation Paperclip Von Braun Team ABMA Redstone Arsenal Redstone Rocket U.S. Space & Rocket
Rocket
Center

* acting director only

v t e

Systems engineering

Subfields

Aerospace engineering Biological systems engineering Configuration management Earth systems engineering and management Electrical engineering Enterprise systems engineering Performance engineering Reliability engineering Safety engineering

Processes

Requirements engineering Functional specification System
System
integration Verification and validation Design review

Concepts

Business process System System
System
lifecycle V-Model Systems development life cycle

Tools

Decision-making Function modelling IDEF Optimization Quality function deployment System
System
dynamics Systems Modeling Language Systems analysis Systems modeling Work breakdown structure

People

James S. Albus Ruzena Bajcsy Benjamin S. Blanchard Wernher von Braun Kathleen Carley Harold Chestnut Wolt Fabrycky Barbara Grosz Arthur David Hall III Derek Hitchins Robert E. Machol Radhika Nagpal Simon Ramo Joseph Francis Shea Katia Sycara Manuela M. Veloso John N. Warfield

Related fields

Control engineering Computer engineering Industrial engineering Operations research Project management Quality management Risk management Software engineering

Category

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

NASA

Policy and history

History

NACA
NACA
(1915) National Aeronautics and Space Act
National Aeronautics and Space Act
(1958) Space Task Group
Space Task Group
(1958) Paine (1986) Rogers (1986) Ride (1987) Space Exploration Initiative
Space Exploration Initiative
(1989) Augustine (1990) U.S. National Space Policy (1996) CFUSAI (2002) CAIB (2003) Vision for Space Exploration
Vision for Space Exploration
(2004) Aldridge (2004) Augustine (2009)

General

Space Race Administrator and Deputy Administrator Chief Scientist Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps Budget Spin-off technologies NASA
NASA
TV NASA
NASA
Social Launch Services Program Kennedy Space Center

Vehicle Assembly Building Launch Complex 39 Launch Control Center

Johnson Space Center

Mission Control Lunar Sample Laboratory

Robotic programs

Past

Hitchhiker Mariner Mariner Mark II MESUR Mars Surveyor '98 New Millennium Lunar Orbiter Pioneer Planetary Observer Ranger Surveyor Viking Project Prometheus Mars Scout

Current

Living With a Star Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Earth Observing System Great Observatories program Explorer Small explorer Voyager Discovery New Frontiers Mars Exploration Rover

Human spaceflight programs

Past

X-15 (suborbital) Mercury Gemini Apollo Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (with the Soviet space program) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle–Mir (with  Roscosmos
Roscosmos
State Corporation) Constellation

Current

International Space Station Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
(COTS) Commercial Crew Development
Commercial Crew Development
(CCDev) Orion

Individual featured missions (human and robotic)

Past

COBE Apollo 11 Mercury 3 Mercury-Atlas 6 Magellan Pioneer 10 Pioneer 11 Galileo GALEX GRAIL WMAP Space Shuttle Sojourner rover Spirit rover LADEE MESSENGER Aquarius Cassini

Currently operating

MRO 2001
2001
Mars Odyssey Dawn New Horizons Kepler International Space Station Hubble Space Telescope Spitzer RHESSI Swift THEMIS Mars Exploration Rover Curiosity rover

timeline

Opportunity rover

observed

GOES 14 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter GOES 15 Van Allen Probes SDO Juno Mars Science Laboratory

timeline

NuSTAR Voyager 1/2 WISE MAVEN MMS OSIRIS-REx

Future

JPSS James Webb Space Telescope WFIRST InSight Mars 2020 NISAR Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite Europa Clipper

Communications and navigation

Canberra Deep Space Atomic Clock Deep Space Network
Space Network
(Goldstone Madrid Near Earth Network Space Flight Operations Facility) Space Network

NASA
NASA
lists

Astronauts

by name by year Apollo astronauts

List of NASA
NASA
aircraft List of NASA
NASA
missions

unmanned missions

List of NASA
NASA
contractors List of United States rockets List of NASA
NASA
cancellations List of Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
missions

crews

NASA
NASA
images and artwork

Earthrise The Blue Marble Family Portrait

Pale Blue Dot

Pillars of Creation Mystic Mountain Solar System
System
Family Portrait The Day the Earth Smiled Fallen Astronaut Lunar plaques Pioneer plaques Voyager Golden Record NASA
NASA
insignia Gemini and Apollo medallions Mission patches

Category Commons Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 51769292 LCCN: n79114065 ISNI: 0000 0001 2132 837X GND: 118514652 SELIBR: 100239 SUDOC: 032784058 BNF: cb12374590j (data) MGP: 155196 NLA: 35852072 NDL: 00520287 NKC: xx0053918 BNE: XX865227 SN