HOME
The Info List - Welwyn Garden City


--- Advertisement ---



Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City (/ˈwɛlɪn/ WEL-in) is a town in Hertfordshire, England. It is located approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Kings Cross, London. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City was the second garden city in England
England
(founded 1920) and one of the first new towns (designated 1948). It is unique in being both a garden city and a new town and exemplifies the physical, social and cultural planning ideals of the periods in which it was built.

Contents

1 History 2 Population 3 Governance 4 Geography 5 Economy 6 Transport 7 Education 8 Culture 9 Sport and leisure 10 In popular culture 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

Parkway fountain dyed pink for National Breast Cancer Awareness Month 2016

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City was founded by Sir Ebenezer Howard
Ebenezer Howard
in 1920 following his previous experiment in Letchworth
Letchworth
Garden City. Howard had called for the creation of planned towns that were to combine the benefits of the city and the countryside and to avoid the disadvantages of both. The Garden Cities and Town Planning Association had defined a garden city as

"a town designed for healthy living and industry of a size that makes possible a full measure of social life but not larger, surrounded by a rural belt; the whole of the land being in public ownership, or held in trust for the community"[3]

In 1919, Howard arranged for the purchase of land in Hertfordshire that had already been identified as a suitable site. On 29 April 1920 a company, Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Limited, was formed to plan and build the garden city, chaired by Sir Theodore Chambers. Louis de Soissons was appointed as architect and town planner, C.B Purdom as finance director and Frederic Osborn as secretary.[3] The first house was occupied just before Christmas 1920.[4]

View along the Parkway to the south from the memorial garden to Louis de Soissons in May 2017

The town is laid out along tree-lined boulevards with a neo-Georgian town centre.[5] It has its own environmental protection legislation, the Scheme of Management for Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City.[6] Every road has a wide grass verge. The spine of the town is Parkway, a central mall or scenic parkway, almost a mile long. The view along Parkway to the south was once described as one of the world's finest urban vistas.[7] Older houses are on the west side of Parkway and newer houses on the east side[5] The original planners intended that all the residents of the garden city would shop in one shop and created the Welwyn
Welwyn
Stores, a monopoly which caused some local resentment.[3] Commercial pressures have since ensured much more competition and variety, and the Welwyn
Welwyn
Stores were in 1984 taken over by the John Lewis Partnership. In 1948, Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City was designated a new town under the New Towns Act 1946 and the Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City company handed its assets to the Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Development Corporation. Louis de Soissons remained as its planning consultant. That year The Times
The Times
compared Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City with Hatfield. It described Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City as a world-famous modern new town developed as an experiment in community planning and Hatfield as an unplanned settlement created by sporadic building in the open country. "Welwyn, though far from perfect, made the New Towns Act possible, just as Hatfield, by its imperfection, made it necessary."[8] In 1966, the Development Corporation was wound up and handed over to the Commission for New Towns. The housing stock, neighbourhood shopping and green spaces were passed to Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield District Council between 1978 and 1983.[3]

The Queen Elizabeth II hospital

There was a large general hospital in the town, the Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, but in 2014 emergency and inpatient services were transferred to the Lister Hospital in Stevenage. A new hospital, completed in June 2015, offers outpatient, diagnostic and ante/postnatal services. A shopping mall, the Howard Centre, was built in the 1980s, incorporating the original railway station. There is a resurgence of interest in the ethos of the garden city and the type of neighbourhood and community advocated by Howard, prompted by the problems of metropolitan and regional development and the importance of sustainability in government policy.[9] Roman baths are preserved in a steel vault underneath junction 6 of the A1(M)
A1(M)
and are open to visitors.[5] The local civic society, which aims to preserve and conserve the garden city ethos, is the Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Society. The international ecumenical Focolare
Focolare
movement has its British headquarters at Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City. In 2008, during construction of a site for HSBC, 60 unsecured argonite fire suppressant cylinders discharged, killing one person, injuring six others and causing substantial damage. Three firms were later convicted of health and safety offences.[10][11] Population[edit] Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City had a population of 46,619 in 2011,[12] and 51,735 (estimated) in 2016.[13] Governance[edit]

Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
Borough Council offices

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City is part of the Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
Borough and comprises seven local authority wards. It is in the county of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and the parliamentary constituency of Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield. The MP for Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
is Grant Shapps
Grant Shapps
(Conservative). The nearby town of Hatfield[14] and the village of Welwyn[15] have parish councils with limited responsibilities, but Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City has none, although it had one between 1921 and 1927.[16]

Geography[edit] Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom. The town experiences warm summers and cold winters.

Climate data for Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8 (46) 9 (48) 12 (54) 14 (57) 18 (64) 21 (70) 23 (73) 20 (68) 20 (68) 16 (61) 11 (52) 8 (46) 15 (59)

Average low °C (°F) 5 (41) 5 (41) 6 (43) 8 (46) 10 (50) 13 (55) 15 (59) 16 (61) 13 (55) 11 (52) 8 (46) 5 (41) 10 (50)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 50.7 (1.996) 39.9 (1.571) 31.7 (1.248) 46.2 (1.819) 38.9 (1.531) 46.4 (1.827) 33.1 (1.303) 43.6 (1.717) 49.7 (1.957) 70.7 (2.783) 58.1 (2.287) 56.9 (2.24) 565.9 (22.28)

Source: [17]

Economy[edit] Ever since its inception as a garden city, Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City has attracted a strong commercial base with several designated employment areas. Among the companies trading in the town are:

Henleys Medical Supplies Ltd Baxters British Lead Mills Cashbrokers The Danish Bacon
Danish Bacon
Company (DBC foodservice) Emis Professional Publishing Figleaves.com HSBC's high-security global data centre Roche Ocado PayPoint Ratcliff Palfinger Sigma Corporation Tesco
Tesco
has a head office at Shire Park, and a business park in the north of the town. VEGA Group Welwyn
Welwyn
Tool Group (formerly Welwyn
Welwyn
Tool Company) Xerox[18] Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council's County supplies and contract services centre Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Constabulary headquarters

The Shredded Wheat
Shredded Wheat
factory as it was in 2007 while still in operation. The landmark Shredded Wheat
Shredded Wheat
sign, visible from trains arriving in Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City, has now been removed.

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City was once well known as the home of the breakfast cereal Shredded Wheat, formerly made by Nabisco. The disused Shredded Wheat factory with its large white silos is a landmark on rail routes between London
London
and the north of England.[3] The factory, designed by de Soissons and built in 1924 by Peter Lind & Company, is a Grade II listed building. Cereal production moved to Staverton, Wiltshire
Staverton, Wiltshire
in 2008 when the owner, Nestlé, decided that the factory required significant and prohibitive investment, due to the age of the building. Tesco
Tesco
applied to build a new supermarket on the site, but planning permission was refused by the local authority in January 2012 after significant public protest.[19] The former supermarket chain Fine Fare
Fine Fare
had its head office in the town at one time, as did ICI's Plastics Division. There is now a redeveloped and enlarged Sainsburys
Sainsburys
in the town centre, and a Morrisons
Morrisons
in Panshanger along Black Fan Road. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City's proximity to London
London
makes it a convenient commuter town. Transport[edit]

Welwyn Garden City railway station
Welwyn Garden City railway station
with the Howard Centre
Howard Centre
behind it in May 2017

Buses are provided by Arriva, Centrebus
Centrebus
and Uno, with some assistance from Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council. Arriva's 300/301 Centraline service links Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City to the major nearby towns of Stevenage, Hatfield, St Albans
St Albans
and Hemel Hempstead, as well as neighbouring villages Woolmer Green
Woolmer Green
and Knebworth. The 301 additionally connects both the nearby hospitals in Stevenage
Stevenage
and Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City, while the 300 provides a direct link to recreational areas such as Stanborough Lakes in Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City and Verulamium
Verulamium
Roman town in St Albans. Service 314 is provided by Centrebus, connecting Welwyn
Welwyn
to Codicote
Codicote
and Hitchin. The bus station is close to the railway station. Uno buses serve the nearby towns of Hatfield, St Albans, Potters Bar, Hemel Hempstead, Watford
Watford
and Barnet. Uno buses also serve further out into North London. Both the 601 and 653 also provide links to the University of Hertfordshire. Green Line Coaches
Green Line Coaches
724 runs a service from Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City to Heathrow Airport, stopping at stops such as Watford
Watford
and Rickmansworth. The railway station is in the town centre. Trains are operated by Great Northern and run south to London
London
Moorgate and north to Hitchin and Stevenage, and south to London
London
Kings Cross and north to Cambridge or Peterborough with a weekend service south to London's Kings Cross and north to Cambridge. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City is well-served by major arterial road routes, namely the A1(M)
A1(M)
and the A414. The Great North Road also passes around it next to the A1(M). In addition, there are other links to St. Albans, Harpenden
Harpenden
and Luton
Luton
(via B653), Hatfield (via A1000 and A1001) and Hertford
Hertford
(via B1000). During the growth in car ownership in the 1950s and 1960s, the town struggled to build enough garages or hard-standing spaces for the additional vehicles, which has led to many properties losing their traditional hedges and front gardens to accommodate driveways. Education[edit] Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City has five secondary schools:

Sherrardswood School Sir Frederic Osborn School, a specialist Sports College (Formed by the merging of The Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City High School and Attimore Hall School in 1968) Monks Walk School, a specialist Science Academy, Knightsfield School for the Deaf Stanborough School, a specialist Maths and Computing College (Formerly Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Grammar School)

Tewin
Tewin
Water School moved from Digswell
Digswell
to Monk's Walk School in 1998 and was later renamed Knightsfield School to create links with hearing pupils. The former Sir John Newsom School merged with Stanborough School on 1 September 1998.[20] Monks Walk School, Stanborough School, and Sir Frederic Osborn School are part of the Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
14–19 Consortium, which includes a variety of secondary schools in Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield. Culture[edit]

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City cinema and library in May 2017

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City's Music Society gave its first concert in 1921 within weeks of the town's foundation; its choir and orchestra, led by James Ross, have performed a regular concert season in the town ever since. The town also boasts a Concert Club, which promotes chamber music recitals, and a Male Voice Choir. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Band was founded in 1934. Sport and leisure[edit] The Gosling Sports Centre houses a dry ski slope, golf driving range, indoor and outdoor tennis, squash, football pitches, an athletics track, velodrome, a gym and bowls. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City football team founded in 1921, known as the Citizens, are based in Herns Lane. The King George V playing field, on the boundary of the old Hatfield Hyde village, was once used by the England
England
football team for training.[citation needed] There are three golf courses: Panshanger, owned and operated by the borough council, Mill Green Golf Course located in Gypsy Lane and the Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Golf Club, of which Nick Faldo was once a member. The Digswell
Digswell
Park Sports Association brings together Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Cricket Club, Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Bowls Club and the Digswell
Digswell
Park Sports and Social Club, at Digswell
Digswell
Park, Knightsfield. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Cricket Club was founded in 1921 and runs 7-weekend senior sides along with a youth cricket programme. WGCCC First XI competes in the Saracens Herts Premier League. The town has a rugby club called Welwyn
Welwyn
RFC. The Stanborough Park and lakes are the venue for a free annual Water Carnival and firework display and a 5 November fireworks display. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City football team founded in 1921, known as the Citizens, are based in Herns Lane.[citation needed] In popular culture[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Scenes in the film Battle of Britain were shot at Panshanger Aerodrome, and the film of Graham Greene's Brighton Rock was made at the Associated British Picture Corporation's Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City studios. Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City is sometimes referred to on account of its name or suburban character, for example in George Orwell's Keep the Aspidistra Flying, the 1973 film "Steptoe and Son Ride Again", the TV series Porridge and Strange. See also[edit]

Fine Fare Garden city movement Ciudad Jardin, Buenos Aires Howard Centre Welwyn
Welwyn
RFC

References[edit]

^ Office for National Statistics, 2001 Census, Key statistics for HCC settlements Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Usual resident populations ^ "Town Population 2011". City Populations. Retrieved 3 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e Maurice de Soissons, Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City, Cambridge, Publications for Companies, 1988 ^ Review of C. B. Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, 1925 ^ a b c Hertfordshire.com ^ Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
Borough Council Archived 30 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City Conservation Area Appraisal 2006. ^ The Times, Saturday, 3 January 1948, p. 5 ^ David Schuyler, From Garden City to Green City: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard, Johns Hopkins, 2002 ^ Fatal Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City explosion: Three firms admit safety failings. Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
Times, 20 March 2013. Accessed 26 February 2016 ^ 'Flying gas cylinder' firms fined over death and injuries. BBC News, Northampton, 8 July 2013. Accessed 26 February 2016 ^ Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City is made up of seven wards in the borough of North Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
http://ukcensusdata.com ^ Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City is made up of seven wards in the borough of North Hertfordshire https://www.citypopulation.de/php/uk-england-eastofengland.php?cityid=E35001153 ^ Parish Councils ^ Parish councils ^ National Archives ^ "Averages for Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City".  ^ " Xerox
Xerox
Ltd". www.ihertfordshire.co.uk. ihertfordshire. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  ^ Tesco
Tesco
scheme for Broadwater Road http://www.broadwaterroad.com ^ School Index

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City.

Welwyn
Welwyn
Roman Baths Campus West Library The Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden Heritage Trust

v t e

Ceremonial county of Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Portal

Boroughs or districts

Borough of Broxbourne Borough of Dacorum District of East Hertfordshire Borough of Hertsmere District of North Hertfordshire City and District of St Albans Borough of Stevenage District of Three Rivers Borough of Watford Borough of Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield

Major settlements

Baldock Berkhamsted Bishop's Stortford Borehamwood Broxbourne Buntingford Bushey Cheshunt Harpenden Hatfield Hemel Hempstead Hertford Hitchin Hoddesdon Letchworth Potters Bar Rickmansworth Royston Sawbridgeworth St Albans Stevenage Tring Waltham Cross Ware Watford Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City See also: List of civil parishes in Hertfordshire

Topics

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council

Elections

Flag Parliamentary constituencies European Parliament constituency Boundary changes Places Settlements by population Lost settlements SSSIs Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Schools Museums Windmills King George V Playing Fields

v t e

Civil parishes of Hertfordshire

Broxbourne

Unparished areas

Cheshunt Hoddesdon

Dacorum

Parishes

Aldbury Berkhamsted Bovingdon Chipperfield Flamstead Flaunden Great Gaddesden Kings Langley Little Gaddesden Markyate Nash Mills Nettleden
Nettleden
with Potten End Northchurch Tring Tring
Tring
Rural Wigginton

Unparished areas

Hemel Hempstead

East Hertfordshire

Albury Anstey Ardeley Aspenden Aston Bayford Bengeo Rural Benington Bishop's Stortford Bramfield Braughing Brent Pelham
Brent Pelham
and Meesden Brickendon
Brickendon
Liberty Buckland and Chipping Buntingford Cottered Datchworth Eastwick and Gilston Furneux Pelham Great Amwell Great Munden Hertford Hertford
Hertford
Heath Hertingfordbury High Wych Hormead Hunsdon Little Berkhamsted Little Hadham Little Munden Much Hadham Sawbridgeworth Standon Stanstead Abbots Stanstead St Margarets Stapleford Stocking Pelham Tewin Thorley Thundridge Walkern Ware Wareside Watton-at-Stone Westmill Widford Wyddial

Hertsmere

Parishes

Aldenham Elstree and Borehamwood Ridge Shenley South Mimms

Unparished areas

Bushey Potters Bar

North Hertfordshire

Parishes

Ashwell Barkway Barley Bygrave Caldecote and Newnham Clothall
Clothall
and Luffenhall Codicote Graveley Great Ashby Hexton Hinxworth Holwell Ickleford Kelshall Kimpton King's Walden Knebworth Langley Lilley Nuthampstead Offley Pirton Preston Radwell Reed Royston Rushden and Wallington Sandon St Ippolyts St Paul's Walden Therfield Weston Wymondley

Unparished areas

Baldock Hitchin Letchworth
Letchworth
Garden City

St Albans

Parishes

Colney Heath Harpenden Harpenden
Harpenden
Rural London
London
Colney Redbourn Sandridge St Michael St Stephen Wheathampstead

Unparished areas

St Albans

Three Rivers

Parishes

Abbots Langley Chorleywood Croxley Green Sarratt Watford
Watford
Rural

Unparished areas

Rickmansworth

Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield

Parishes

Ayot St Lawrence Ayot St Peter Essendon Hatfield North Mymms Northaw and Cuffley Welwyn Woolmer Green

Unparished areas

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City

Unparished boroughs

Stevenage Watford

See also

List of places in Hertfordshire

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128453522 LCCN: n88278

.