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WELWYN /ˈwɛlɪn/ is a village and civil parish in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, England. The parish also includes the villages of Digswell and Oaklands . It is sometimes called OLD WELWYN to distinguish it from the much newer settlement of Welwyn Garden City , about a mile to the south, though some residents dislike the suggestion of inferiority or irrelevance that tends to be implied by the moniker "Old" and prefer WELWYN VILLAGE.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Historical descriptions * 4 Transport * 5 Education * 6 Sports * 7 Local points of interest * 8 Twinning * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name is derived from Old English welig meaning "willow", referring to the trees that nestle on the banks of the River Mimram as it flows through the village. The name itself is an evolution from weligun, the dative form of the word, and so is more precisely translated as "at the willows", unlike nearby Willian which is likely to mean simply "the willows".

Through having its name derived from welig rather than sealh (the more commonly cited Old English word for willow), Welwyn
Welwyn
is possibly cognate with Heligan in Cornwall whose name is derived from helygen, the Cornish word for willow that shares a root with welig.

The nearby modern village of Digswell (around Welwyn
Welwyn
North railway station) was originally called 'High Welwyn' when first developed at the beginning of the 20th century.

HISTORY

Situated in the valley of the River Mimram , Welwyn
Welwyn
has hosted human activity since the Palaeolithic with stone tools from that era having been found alongside the river and further inland across the area. Settlement across the area seems to have become established during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
according to various recovered artefacts and crop marks left by round barrows and burial mounds from that period.

Iron Age remnants have not been detected until the Late Iron Age, with various local chieftain burials dated to the 1st Century BC gaining national prominence. The Belgae
Belgae
Celtic culture colonised much of South-Eastern England
England
in the 1st century BC, with Welwyn
Welwyn
in the area believed to have been settled by the Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
tribe. In Graham Robb\'s book "The Ancient Paths" there is a suggestion that Welwyn
Welwyn
lay on a late-Celtic highway running in the direction of the summer solstice angle straight from Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
to Salisbury
Salisbury
via the Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
headquarters at Verlamion outside modern-day St Albans . Separately, it can be shown that the line of the Roman road through Welwyn
Welwyn
(see below) is in a direct alignment with the pre-Roman Belgic tribal centres of Verlamion (for the Catuvellauni) and Venta Icenorum for the Iceni
Iceni
tribe.

Following the Roman invasion, Welwyn
Welwyn
was settled by the Romans . The area was marshy in times past, and the settlement of Welwyn
Welwyn
was a known fording point across the river since at least Roman times when the Roman road through the village was laid out, leading to the establishment of the settlement around the road and the ford. Many Roman artifacts have been found in and around the village, including the remains of several Roman villas close by. The Welwyn
Welwyn
Roman Baths (the remains of a third-century Roman bath house ) have been preserved and are open to the public. One particular excavation revealed a large Roman cemetery very close to the site of the current church, which itself is known to date back to at least Saxon times (see below). The church lies directly alongside the route of the Roman road.

Welwyn
Welwyn
was at the heart of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon Tewingas tribe and was the site of an early minster church . In 1990, a proposal was made to rename the village as " Welwyn
Welwyn
Minster" to shake off the unpopular "Old" name.

The massacre on St. Brice\'s day on November 13, 1002, when the Saxons turned on their newly settled Danish neighbours, is stated to have commenced near Welwyn.

A Norman church was built on the site of the Saxon church about 1190. The nave of the present church (St Mary's), was built in the 13th century, the chancel arch being the most obvious early structure. There are two medieval corbels at the east end of the south aisle. Patronage of the church passed through several hands until in 1549 it was sold to the Wilshere family, who lived at The Frythe
The Frythe
until relatively recently.

Much later, in the 17th century, as it lies on the old Great North Road , it became an important staging post and a number of coaching inns remain as public houses . After the Great Northern Railway by-passed the village due to the objections of local landowners, Welwyn
Welwyn
became less important. Having previously been seen as a town on par with Hatfield and Stevenage
Stevenage
, it gradually was seen as a village. The 20th century brought major expansion to the area, as estates to the south, west and north of the village were built up.

HISTORICAL DESCRIPTIONS

Despite this long history, at the beginning of the 20th century Welwyn
Welwyn
was regarded as a sleepy backwater. One writer wrote that Welwyn, a small town in the Maran Valley , can show little of interest beyond many quaint cottages, and the church.

In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England
England
and Wales described Welwyn
Welwyn
thus: WELWYN, a village, a parish, and a sub-district, in Hatfield district, Herts. The village stands on the river Maran, 1¼ mile W of the Great Northern railway, and 5 N of Hatfield; carries on shoe-making and wool-stapling; consists chiefly of two well built streets; and has a head post-office,‡ a r. station with telegraph, two hotels, a police station, a good ancient church, two dissenting chapels, a large national school, an education charity, a workhouse, and charities for the poor £26.—The parish includes Woolmer-Green hamlet, and comprises 2,987 acres. Real property, £7,044. Pop., 1,612. Houses, 320. The property is much subdivided. Danesbury and Frythe are chief residences. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £665.* Patron, All Souls College, Oxford. Dr. Young was rector, and wrote here his "Night Thoughts." A national school is at Woolmer-Green, and is used as a chapel of ease.—The sub-district contains 4 parishes, and is a poor-law union. Acres, 6,457. Pop., 2,21 1. Houses, 439.

A lengthier entry is given in William Page's 1912 History of the County of Hertford.

TRANSPORT

Welwyn
Welwyn
was noted for its congestion since the beginning of the 20th century and in 1927 got what is claimed to be the first by-pass in Britain. The A1 was upgraded to motorway standards north of Welwyn
Welwyn
in the 1960s and in 1973 the motorway was extended south past the village, by-passing the existing by-pass. Today the village is the point where the 6-lane motorway merges into 4-lanes and is the site of extensive traffic jams in the evening peak. A decade ago there were extensive plans to widen the whole road through the area to 8 lanes, and upgrade the existing junction to create a long one-way system running the length of the village. These plans were shelved, but recently plans to provide a climbing lane at least on the section north of the village have been discussed.

Buses are provided by Arriva
Arriva
and Centrebus
Centrebus
, with some assistance from Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council . Arriva's 300/301 Centraline service links Welwyn
Welwyn
to the major nearby towns of Stevenage
Stevenage
, Welwyn Garden City , Hatfield , St Albans
St Albans
and Hemel Hempstead , as well as neighbouring villages Woolmer Green and Knebworth . The 301 additionally connects both the nearby hospitals in Stevenage
Stevenage
and Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City, while the 300 provides a direct link to recreational areas such as Stanborough Lakes in Welwyn Garden City and Verulamium
Verulamium
Roman town in St Albans. Buses run every 15 minutes Monday-Friday, every 20 minutes Saturday, and hourly on Sunday. Additional bi-hourly service 314 is provided by Centrebus, connecting Welwyn
Welwyn
to Codicote and Hitchin
Hitchin
.

Green Line Coaches
Green Line Coaches
797 stops on the by-pass, providing an hourly direct link to areas of North London and the West End .

The nearest railway station is Welwyn North railway station in the nearby village of Digswell , about a mile east from the village. Trains are operated by First Capital Connect
First Capital Connect
and run every 30 minutes Monday to Saturday south to London and north to Hitchin
Hitchin
and Stevenage, with an hourly service to Letchworth
Letchworth
and Cambridge
Cambridge
and to Peterborough . On Sundays an hourly service operates from London to Cambridge
Cambridge
only. There is no bus link to the station, although buses do link to nearby Welwyn Garden City railway station .

EDUCATION

There are two state schools in Welwyn
Welwyn
and one independent school.

The larger state school is Welwyn
Welwyn
St. Mary's Church of England Primary School, situated off London Road which takes children aged between 4 and 11 years of age (Reception to Year 6). Originally built in 1940 as a secondary school, the school was later converted to a primary school. The second is Oaklands Primary School, which incorporates Acorns Preschool and Playgroup.

There is also Tenterfield Nursery School which is situated on London Road close to the primary school. It takes children aged 3 to 4 years of age.

Secondary state education is provided through schools in nearby towns, such as Monks Walk School, in Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden city, and Stanborough School near Stanborough Lakes.

There is an independent all-ages (nursery through to sixth form) coeducational school on the eastern outskirts of Welwyn
Welwyn
called Sherrardswood School.

SPORTS

There is a tennis club, a sports ">

* ^ "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 November 2016. * ^ Skeat, Walter W. (1904). The place-names of Hertfordshire, Volume 2, Part 8. Printed for the East Herts Archaeological Society by Stephen Austin & Sons, Limited. p. 67. * ^ 'River Mimram' (chapter 7) by Tony Rook (Amberley Publishing, 2014) * ^ Extensive Urban Survey - Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
- Welwyn
Welwyn
(PDF), English Heritage, p. 2 * ^ Extensive Urban Survey - Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
- Welwyn
Welwyn
(PDF), English Heritage, p. 2 * ^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology, OUP * ^ Williamson, Tom (2000), The Origins of Hertfordshire, Manchester: Manchester University Press, p. 114, ISBN 071904491X , retrieved 2014-07-20 * ^ Rowe, Anne; Williamson, Tom (2013), Hertfordshire: A Landscape History, Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Press, p. 298, ISBN 1909291021 , retrieved 2014-07-20 * ^ The Anglo Saxons of Welwyn
Welwyn
— 10th Anniversary (PDF), 2010, p. 30 * ^ Robinson, Gwennah (1978). Barracuda Guide to County History, Vol III: Hertfordshire. Barracuda Books Ltd. p. 12. ISBN 0-86023-030-9 . * ^ Tompkins, Herbert W (1922). HERTFORDSHIRE, Second Edition, Revised. Methuen & Co. p. 222. * ^ Page, William (1912). A History of the County of Hertford: volume 3. p. 165. * ^ Welwyn
Welwyn
St Mary\'s School Website * ^ Sherrardswood School Website * ^ Welwyn
Welwyn
Tennis Club website * ^ WSSC website * ^ Welwyn
Welwyn
Pegasus FC website * ^ A B * ^ Works of James Pulham ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Civil parishes of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire

BROXBOURNE

UNPARISHED AREAS

* Cheshunt * Hoddesdon

DACORUM

PARISHES

* Aldbury * Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
* Bovingdon * Chipperfield * Flamstead * Flaunden * Great Gaddesden * Kings Langley * Little Gaddesden * Markyate * Nash Mills * Nettleden
Nettleden
with Potten End * Northchurch * Tring * Tring Rural * Wigginton

UNPARISHED AREAS

* Hemel Hempstead

EAST HERTFORDSHIRE

* Albury * Anstey * Ardeley * Aspenden * Aston * Bayford * Bengeo Rural * Benington * Bishop\'s Stortford * Bramfield * Braughing
Braughing
* Brent Pelham and Meesden * Brickendon Liberty * Buckland and Chipping * Buntingford
Buntingford
* Cottered
Cottered
* Datchworth * Eastwick and Gilston * Furneux Pelham * Great Amwell * Great Munden * Hertford
Hertford
* Hertford
Hertford
Heath * Hertingfordbury * High Wych * Hormead * Hunsdon
Hunsdon
* Little Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
* Little Hadham * Little Munden * Much Hadham * Sawbridgeworth
Sawbridgeworth
* Standon * Stanstead Abbots * Stanstead St Margarets
Stanstead St Margarets
* Stapleford * Stocking Pelham
Stocking Pelham
* Tewin
Tewin
* Thorley * Thundridge * Walkern
Walkern
* Ware * Wareside * Watton-at-Stone
Watton-at-Stone
* Westmill
Westmill
* Widford * Wyddial

HERTSMERE

PARISHES

* Aldenham
Aldenham
* Elstree and Borehamwood * Ridge * Shenley * South Mimms

UNPARISHED AREAS

* Bushey * Potters Bar

NORTH HERTFORDSHIRE

PARISHES

* Ashwell * Barkway * Barley * Bygrave * Caldecote and Newnham * Clothall and Luffenhall * Codicote * Graveley * Great Ashby * Hexton
Hexton
* Hinxworth * Holwell * Ickleford * Kelshall
Kelshall
* Kimpton * King\'s Walden * Knebworth * Langley * Lilley * Nuthampstead
Nuthampstead
* Offley * Pirton * Preston * Radwell * Reed * Royston * Rushden and Wallington * Sandon * St Ippolyts * St Paul\'s Walden * Therfield * Weston * Wymondley

UNPARISHED AREAS

* Baldock
Baldock
* Hitchin
Hitchin
* Letchworth
Letchworth
Garden City

ST ALBANS

PARISHES

* Colney Heath * Harpenden * Harpenden Rural * London Colney
London Colney
* Redbourn * Sandridge * St Michael * St Stephen * Wheathampstead

UNPARISHED AREAS

* St Albans
St Albans

THREE RIVERS

PARISHES

* Abbots Langley * Chorleywood * Croxley Green * Sarratt * Watford Rural

UNPARISHED AREAS

* Rickmansworth

WELWYN HATFIELD

PARISHES

* Ayot St Lawrence * Ayot St Peter * Essendon * Hatfield * North Mymms * Northaw and Cuffley * Welwyn * Woolmer Green

UNPARISHED AREAS

* Welwyn Garden City

UNPARISHED BOROUGHS

* Stevenage
Stevenage
* Watford
Watford

SEE ALSO

* List of places in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 133702493 * GND : 4755858-1

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Welwyn
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