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WELSH RAREBIT (spelling based on folk etymology ) or WELSH RABBIT (original spelling) is a dish made with a savoury sauce of melted cheese and various other ingredients and served hot, after being poured over slices (or other pieces) of toasted bread , or the hot cheese sauce may be served in a chafing dish like a fondue , accompanied by sliced, toasted bread. The names of the dish originate from 18th-century Britain. Despite the name, the dish does not actually contain any rabbit.

CONTENTS

* 1 Sauce
Sauce
* 2 Variants

* 3 Origin

* 3.1 Welsh * 3.2 Rarebit

* 4 In culture * 5 See also * 6 References

SAUCE

Recipes for Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
include the addition of ale , mustard , ground cayenne pepper or ground paprika and Worcestershire sauce
Worcestershire sauce
. The sauce may also be made by blending cheese and mustard into a Béchamel sauce
Béchamel sauce
. Some recipes for Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
have become textbook savoury dishes listed by culinary authorities including Auguste Escoffier , Louis Saulnier and others, who tend to use the form Welsh rarebit, emphasizing that it is not a meat dish.

Acknowledging that there is more than one way to make a rarebit, some cookbooks have included two recipes: the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book of 1896 provides one béchamel-based recipe and another with beer, Le Guide Culinaire of 1907 has one with ale and one without, and the Constance Spry Cookery Book of 1956 has one with flour and one without.

VARIANTS

Hannah Glasse
Hannah Glasse
, in her 1747 cookbook The Art of Cookery , gives recipes for "Scotch rabbit", "Welch rabbit" and two versions of "English rabbit".

To make a Scotch rabbit, toast the bread very nicely on both sides, butter it, cut a slice of cheese about as big as the bread, toast it on both sides, and lay it on the bread.

To make a Welch rabbit, toast the bread on both sides, then toast the cheese on one side, lay it on the toast, and with a hot iron brown the other side. You may rub it over with mustard.

To make an English rabbit, toast the bread brown on both sides, lay it in a plate before the fire, pour a glass of red wine over it, and let it soak the wine up. Then cut some cheese very thin and lay it very thick over the bread, put it in a tin oven before the fire, and it will be toasted and browned presently. Serve it away hot.

Or do it thus. Toast
Toast
the bread and soak it in the wine, set it before the fire, rub butter over the bottom of a plate, lay the cheese on, pour in two or three spoonfuls of white wine, cover it with another plate, set it over a chafing-dish of hot coals for two or three minutes, then stir it till it is done and well mixed. You may stir in a little mustard; when it is enough lay it on the bread, just brown it with a hot shovel. Buck rarebit ( Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
with an egg)

Served with an egg on top, a Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
is known as a buck rabbit or a golden buck.

Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
blended with tomato (or tomato soup) is known as Blushing Bunny.

ORIGIN

The first recorded reference to the dish was "Welsh rabbit" in 1725, but the origin of the term is unknown.

There is some suggestion that Welsh Rabbit derives from a South Wales Valleys staple, in which a generous lump of cheese is placed into a mixture of beaten eggs and milk, seasoned with salt and pepper, and baked in the oven until the egg mixture has firmed and the cheese has melted. Onion
Onion
may be added and the mixture would be eaten with bread and butter and occasionally with the vinegar from pickled beetroot .

WELSH

The word Welsh may have been adopted because it was used by the English to mean "foreign" or "inferior". It is also possible that the dish was attributed to the Welsh because they were considered particularly fond of cheese, as evidenced by Andrew Boorde
Andrew Boorde
in his Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge (1542), when he wrote "I am a Welshman, I do love cause boby, good roasted cheese." In Boorde's account, "cause boby" is the Welsh caws pobi, meaning "baked cheese", but whether it implies a recipe like Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
is a matter of speculation.

RAREBIT

The word rarebit is a corruption of rabbit, "Welsh rabbit" being first recorded in 1725 and the variant "Welsh rarebit" being first recorded in 1785 by Francis Grose
Francis Grose
. According to the Oxford English Dictionary , 'Welsh rarebit' is an "etymologizing alteration. There is no evidence of the independent use of rarebit". The word rarebit has no other use than in Welsh rabbit.

"Eighteenth-century English cookbooks reveal that it was then considered to be a luscious supper or tavern dish, based on the fine cheddar-type cheeses and the wheat breads . Surprisingly, it seems there was not only a Welsh Rabbit, but also an English Rabbit, an Irish and a Scotch Rabbit, but nary a rarebit."

Michael Quinion writes: " Welsh rabbit is basically cheese on toast (the word is not 'rarebit' by the way, that's the result of false etymology; 'rabbit' is here being used in the same way as 'turtle' in \'mock-turtle soup\' , which has never been near a turtle, or 'duck' in ' Bombay duck
Bombay duck
', which was actually a dried fish called bummalo)".

The entry in Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
's Dictionary of English Usage is "Welsh rabbit, Welsh rarebit" and states: "When Francis Grose
Francis Grose
defined Welsh rabbit in A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue in 1785, he mistakenly indicated that rabbit was a corruption of rarebit. It is not certain that this erroneous idea originated with Grose...."

In his 1926 edition of the Dictionary of Modern English Usage, the grammarian H. W. Fowler states a forthright view: "Welsh Rabbit is amusing and right. Welsh Rarebit is stupid and wrong."

IN CULTURE

The notion that toasted cheese was a favourite dish irresistible to the Welsh has existed since the Middle Ages. In A C Merie Talys (100 Merry Tales), a printed book of jokes of 1526 AD (of which William Shakespeare made some use), it is told that God became weary of all the Welshmen in heaven, 'which with their krakynge and babelynge trobelyd all the others', and asked the Porter of Heaven Gate, St Peter, to do something about it. So St Peter went outside the gates and called in a loud voice ' Cause bobe, yt is as moche to say as rostyd chese ': at which all the Welshmen ran out, and when St Peter saw they were all outside, he went in and locked the gates, which is why there are no Welshmen in heaven. The 1526 compiler says he found this story 'Wryten amonge olde gestys'.

A legend mentioned in Betty Crocker\'s Cookbook
Cookbook
claims that Welsh peasants were not allowed to eat rabbits caught in hunts on the estates of the nobility , so they used melted cheese as a substitute. The author also claims that Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
and Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
ate Welsh rarebit at Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese
Cheese
, a pub in London. There is no good evidence for any of this; what is more, Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
died almost a century before the term Welsh rabbit is first attested.

According to the American satirist Ambrose Bierce
Ambrose Bierce
, the continued use of rarebit was an attempt to rationalise the absence of rabbit, writing in his 1911 Devil's Dictionary: "RAREBIT n. A Welsh rabbit, in the speech of the humorless, who point out that it is not a rabbit. To whom it may be solemnly explained that the comestible known as toad in the hole is really not a toad, and that ris de veau à la financière is not the smile of a calf prepared after the recipe of a she-banker."

"Gomer, the Welsh Rarebit Fiend" Season 3 Episode 24 of Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. , indulging in Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
causes Gomer (and later Sgt. Carter) to sleepwalk.

SEE ALSO

Look up WELSH RAREBIT , WELSH RABBIT , or RAREBIT in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* United Kingdom portal * Food portal

* Dream of the Rarebit Fiend * Gomer, the Welsh Rarebit Fiend * Beer soup * Cheese
Cheese
on toast * Cheese
Cheese
roll * Croque-monsieur and croque-madame * Dagwood sandwich * Grilled cheese sandwich
Grilled cheese sandwich
* Horseshoe sandwich * Hot Brown * Jiggs dinner * List of cheese dishes
List of cheese dishes
* Mollete
Mollete
* Monte Cristo sandwich * List of Sandwiches

REFERENCES

* ^ "Welsh Rabbit - Definition of Welsh rabbit by Merriam-Webster".

* ^ " Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
- definition of Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
in English from the Oxford dictionary". * ^ Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press, 2006, ISBN 0-7862-8517-6 * ^ A B C The Constance Spry Cookery Book by Constance Spry and Rosemary Hume * ^ A B C D Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
, Second Edition, 1989. * ^ A B Le Guide Culinaire by Georges Auguste Escoffier , translated by H. L. Cracknell and R. J. Kaufmann * ^ Le Répertoire de la Cuisine by Louis Saulnier , translated by E. Brunet. * ^ Hering's Dictionary of Classical and Modern Cookery, edited and translated by Walter Bickel * ^ Recipes published on the labels of Lea and Perrins (Heinz ) Worcestershire sauce, * ^ "IT TAKES MORE THAN BEER TO MAKE A PERFECT RAREBIT". * ^ A B Farmer, Fannie M. , Boston Cooking-School Cook Book Boston, 1896, ISBN 0-451-12892-3 * ^ Glasse, Hannah , The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy, ...by a Lady (Posthumous edition, L. Wangford, London, c. 1770), p. 146. Online 1774 edition read here * ^ "Definition of "buck rabbit" - Collins English Dictionary". * ^ "Golden Buck - Definition of Golden buck by Merriam-Webster". * ^ Lily Haxworth Wallace, Rumford Chemical Works, The Rumford complete cook book, 1908, full text, p. 196 * ^ Stephens, M, 1986. Oxford Companion to the Literature of Wales, OUP * ^ Written recollections of the artist John Selway, 2013 * ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". * ^ Andrew Boorde
Andrew Boorde
: The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, the whyche dothe teache a man to speake parte of all maner of languages, and to know the usage and fashion of all maner of countreys (1542) * ^ The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition (2006) * ^ "Hunting The Welch Rabbit, Hearth to Hearth Article, JOA&C May 2000 Issue". * ^ Michael Quinion, World Wide Words http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/welsh.htm * ^ Merriam-Webster\'s Dictionary of English Usage, p. 592 at books.google.com (accessed 9 November 2007) * ^ Fowler, H. W., A Dictionary of Modern English Usage , Oxford University Press, 1926 * ^ In two known editions, one undated. W. Carew Hazlitt (Ed.), A Hundred Merry Tales: The Earliest English Jest-Book, facsimile (privately published, 1887), fol xxi, verso Read here. See also Hermann Oesterley (Ed.), Shakespeare's Jest Book. A Hundred Mery Talys, from the only perfect copy known (London 1866). * ^ Betty Crocker's Cookbook. Prentice Hall. 1989. p. 184. * ^ Devil\'s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce
Ambrose Bierce
, 1911 * ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0589982/

* v * t * e

Cheese
Cheese
dishes

DISHES

* Aligot * Almogrote
Almogrote
* Arizona cheese crisp * Bagel and cream cheese * Barfi
Barfi
* Beer cheese * Bryndzové halušky * Calzone * Carbonara
Carbonara
* Cauliflower cheese
Cauliflower cheese
* Cervelle de canut * Cheese
Cheese
bun * Cheese
Cheese
fries * Cheese
Cheese
on toast * Cheese
Cheese
pudding * Cheese
Cheese
puffs * Cheese
Cheese
roll * Cheese
Cheese
slaw * Cheese
Cheese
spread * Cheesecake
Cheesecake
* Chèvre chaud * Chhena gaja * Chhena jalebi * Chhena kheeri * Chhena poda
Chhena poda
* Chile con queso
Chile con queso
* Curd snack
Curd snack
* Fondue * Frico * Fried cheese * Frito pie
Frito pie
* Gougère * Gratin
Gratin
* Gujia * Gulab jamun
Gulab jamun
* Hauskyjza
Hauskyjza
* Insalata Caprese * Jalapeño popper * Kaasstengels * Kasseropita
Kasseropita
* Khachapuri
Khachapuri
* Khira sagara
Khira sagara
* Lasagne
Lasagne
* Lazy varenyky
Lazy varenyky
* Liptauer
Liptauer
* Macaroni and cheese
Macaroni and cheese
* Malakoff * Mattar paneer * Moretum
Moretum
* Mornay sauce * Mozzarella sticks
Mozzarella sticks
* Mote de queso * Nachos * Obatzda
Obatzda
* Omelette
Omelette
* Ostkaka * Parmigiana
Parmigiana
* Paskha * Pastizz * Peda * Pepperoni roll
Pepperoni roll
* Pimento cheese * Pizza
Pizza
* Poulet au fromage * Poutine
Poutine
* Provoleta * Quarkkäulchen * Quesadilla * Quesito
Quesito
* Queso flameado * Raclette * Ras malai
Ras malai
* Rasabali * Rasgulla
Rasgulla
* Saganaki * Sandesh * Shahi paneer * Smažený sýr * Soups * Spanakopita * Stromboli * Stuffed peppers * Supplì * Syrniki
Syrniki
* Taco
Taco
* Tirokafteri
Tirokafteri
* Tiropita
Tiropita
* Túró Rudi * Túrós csusza * Urnebes * Vatrushka
Vatrushka
* Welsh rarebit

SANDWICHES

* Bacon, egg and cheese sandwich * Breakfast sandwich * Carrozza * Cheese
Cheese
dog * Cheese
Cheese
dream * Cheese
Cheese
sandwich * Cheese
Cheese
and pickle sandwich * Cheeseburger
Cheeseburger
* Cheesesteak * Croissan\'Wich * Croque-monsieur * Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
* Dagwood sandwich * Grilled cheese
Grilled cheese
* Ham and cheese sandwich * Jucy/Juicy Lucy * McMuffin * Monte Cristo sandwich * Patty melt * Reuben sandwich * Submarine sandwich
Submarine sandwich

LIST ARTICLES

* List of cheese dishes
List of cheese dishes
* List of cheese soups

* v * t * e

English cuisine
English cuisine

PERIODS

ROMAN TIMES

DISHES

* Sausages

MIDDLE AGES

EXEMPLARS

* The Forme of Cury (c. 1390)

DISHES

* Apple pie
Apple pie
* Bacon
Bacon
* Banbury cake
Banbury cake
* Cheesecake
Cheesecake
* Custard
Custard
* Game pie
Game pie
* Gingerbread
Gingerbread
* Kippers
Kippers
* Mince pie
Mince pie
* Mortis * Pasty
Pasty
* Pease pudding
Pease pudding
* Pie
Pie
* Pottage
Pottage

16TH CENTURY

EXEMPLARS

* Thomas Dawson ( The Good Huswifes Jewell , 1585)

DISHES

* Black pudding
Black pudding
* Fruit fool
Fruit fool
* Pancake
Pancake
* Scones * Syllabub * Trifle
Trifle
(without jelly)

17TH CENTURY

EXEMPLARS

* Elinor Fettiplace (Receipt Book , 1604) * Gervase Markham ( The English Huswife
The English Huswife
, 1615) * Robert May ( The Accomplisht Cook
The Accomplisht Cook
, 1660) * Hannah Woolley ( The Queen-like Closet or Rich Cabinet 1670) * John Evelyn
John Evelyn
(Acetaria a Discourse of Sallets 1699) * Kenelm Digby
Kenelm Digby
( The Closet Opened 1699)

DISHES

* Battalia pie * Currant bun
Currant bun
* Queen of Puddings * Sponge cake
Sponge cake
* Sussex pond pudding * Sweet and sour
Sweet and sour
* Tea
Tea

18TH CENTURY

EXEMPLARS

* Mary Kettilby
Mary Kettilby
( A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts 1714) * John Nott ( The Cooks and Confectioners Dictionary , 1723) * Eliza Smith ( The Compleat Housewife
The Compleat Housewife
1727) * Hannah Glasse
Hannah Glasse
( The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy 1747) * Elizabeth Raffald ( The Experienced English Housekeeper 1769) * Richard Briggs ( The English Art of Cookery 1788) * William Augustus Henderson (The Housekeeper\'s Instructor 1791)

DISHES

* Bread
Bread
and butter pudding * Christmas pudding
Christmas pudding
* Chutney
Chutney
* Cottage or Shepherd\'s pie * Eccles cake
Eccles cake
* Jellied eels * Jugged hare * Ketchup
Ketchup
* Marmalade
Marmalade
* Parkin * Piccalilli
Piccalilli
* Pork pie
Pork pie
* Roast beef
Roast beef
* Sandwich
Sandwich
* Scouse * Suet pudding * Toad in the hole * Trifle
Trifle
(with jelly) * Welsh rabbit * Yorkshire pudding
Yorkshire pudding

19TH CENTURY

EXEMPLARS

* Mrs Rundell ( A New System of Domestic Cookery
A New System of Domestic Cookery
1806) * Eliza Acton ( Modern Cookery for Private Families 1845) * Charles Elmé Francatelli ( The Modern Cook 1846) * Isabella Beeton
Isabella Beeton
(Mrs Beeton\'s Book of Household Management 1861)

DISHES

* Bubble and squeak
Bubble and squeak
* Cauliflower cheese
Cauliflower cheese
* Cobbler * Devilled kidneys
Devilled kidneys
* Faggots * Fish and chips
Fish and chips
* Full English breakfast * HP Sauce
Sauce
* Ice cream cone
Ice cream cone
* Lancashire hotpot
Lancashire hotpot
* Potted shrimps * Sausage
Sausage
roll * Steak and kidney pudding
Steak and kidney pudding
* Battenberg cake * Eton mess
Eton mess
* Eve\'s pudding * Jam roly-poly * Lardy cake * Madeira cake
Madeira cake
* Summer pudding * Worcestershire sauce
Worcestershire sauce

20TH CENTURY

EXEMPLARS

* Elizabeth David
Elizabeth David
( A Book of Mediterranean Food 1950) * Dorothy Hartley ( Food in England
Food in England
1954) * Constance Spry ">DISHES

* Bakewell tart * Beef Wellington
Beef Wellington
* Carrot cake
Carrot cake
* Chicken tikka masala
Chicken tikka masala
* Crumble * Knickerbocker glory
Knickerbocker glory
* Ploughman\'s lunch * Salad cream

21ST CENTURY

EXEMPLARS

* Michel Roux Jr. ( Le Gavroche ) * Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall ( River Cottage ) * Antony Worrall Thompson
Antony Worrall Thompson
(GI Diet 2005) * Heston Blumenthal
Heston Blumenthal
( The Fat Duck ) * Mary Berry
Mary Berry
(Baking Bible 2009) * Clarissa Dickson Wright
Clarissa Dickson Wright
( A History of English Food 2011) * Nadiya Hussain (Nadiya\'s British Food Adventure 2017)

RELATED

* List of English dishes * List of English cheeses * List of puddings * Rationing in the Unite

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