The WELSH (Welsh : Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or
otherwise associated with,
Wales and the
Welsh language . The
language, which falls within the
Insular Celtic family, has
historically been spoken throughout Wales, with its predecessor Common
Brittonic once spoken throughout most of the island of
Great Britain .
Prior to the 20th century, large numbers of
Welsh people spoke only
Welsh, with little or no fluent knowledge of English . While Welsh
remains the predominant language in some areas of Wales, particularly
in the north and the west , English is now the predominant language in
most parts of the country; however, many Welsh people, even in
predominately English-speaking areas of Wales, are fluent or
semi-fluent in Welsh or, to varying degrees, capable of speaking or
understanding Welsh at limited or conversational proficiency levels.
Welsh language and its ancestors have been spoken in
what is now
Wales since well before the Roman incursions into Britain
, historian John Davies argues that the origin of the "Welsh nation"
can be traced to the late 4th and early 5th centuries, following the
Roman departure . The term "Welsh people" applies to people from
Wales and people of Welsh ancestry perceiving themselves or being
perceived as sharing a cultural heritage and shared ancestral origins.
Wales is a country that is part of the
United Kingdom , and the
majority of people living in
Wales are British citizens .
In 2016, an analysis of the geography of
Welsh surnames commissioned
Welsh Government found that 718,000 people (nearly 35% of the
Welsh population) have a family name of Welsh origin, compared with
5.3% in the rest of the United Kingdom, 4.7% in New Zealand, 4.1% in
Australia, and 3.8% in the United States, with an estimated 16.3
million people in the countries studied having at least partial Welsh
ancestry. Over 300,000
Welsh people live in
* 1 Terminology
* 2 History
* 3 Current identity
* 3.1 2001 census
* 3.2 2011 census
* 3.3 Surveys
* 4 Culture
* 4.1 Language
* 4.2 Religion
* 5 National symbols
* 6 Welsh emigration
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
The names "Wales" and "Welsh" are traced to the Proto-Germanic word
Walhaz " meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker",
or "Celtic-speaker" which was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to
describe inhabitants of the former Roman Empire, who were largely
romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages. The same etymological
origin is shared by the names of various other Celtic or Latin peoples
such as the
Walloons and the Vlachs , as well as of the Swiss canton
Valais . The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru
is the Welsh name for Wales. These words (both of which are pronounced
) are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning
They thus carry a sense of "land of fellow-countrymen", "our
country", and notions of fraternity. The use of the word Cymry as a
self-designation derives from the post-Roman Era relationship of the
Welsh with the Brythonic-speaking peoples of northern
southern Scotland, the peoples of "Yr
Hen Ogledd " (English: The Old
North). The word came into use as a self-description probably before
the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap
Cadfan (Moliant Cadwallon, by Afan Ferddig) c. 633. In Welsh
literature , the word Cymry was used throughout the
Middle Ages to
describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid
continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples
(including the Welsh) and was the more common literary term until c.
1100. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh. Until c.
1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it
referred to the people or their homeland.
See also: History of
Genetic history of the British Isles
Owain Glyndŵr , the last native Welsh person to hold
the title Prince of
During their time in Britain , the ancient Romans encountered tribes
Wales that they called the
Ordovices , the
Silures and the
Deceangli . The people of what is now
not distinguished from the rest of the peoples of southern Britain;
all were called Britons and spoke the common British language , a
Brythonic Celtic tongue. Celtic language and culture seems to have
arrived in Britain during the Iron Age , though some archaeologists
argue that there is no evidence for large-scale Iron Age migrations
into Great Britain. The claim has also been made that Indo-European
languages may have been introduced to the
British Isles as early as
Neolithic (or even earlier), with
Goidelic and Brythonic
languages developing indigenously. Others hold that the close
similarity between the
Goidelic and Brythonic branches, and their
sharing of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age terminology with their
continental relatives, point to a more recent introduction of
Indo-European languages (or close communication), with Proto-Celtic
itself unlikely to have existed before the end of the 2nd millennium
BC at the earliest. The genetic evidence in this case would show that
the change to
Celtic languages in Britain may have occurred as a
cultural shift rather than through migration as was previously
Some current genetic research supports the idea that people living in
British Isles are likely mainly descended from the indigenous
Paleolithic (Old Stone Age hunter gatherers ) population
(about 80%), with a smaller
Neolithic (New Stone Age farmers ) input
Paleolithic Europeans seem to have been a homogeneous
population, possibly due to a population bottleneck (or
near-extinction event) on the
Iberian peninsula , where a small human
population is thought to have survived the glaciation, and expanded
into Europe during the
Mesolithic . The assumed genetic imprint of
Neolithic incomers is seen as a cline , with stronger Neolithic
representation in the east of Europe and stronger Paleolithic
representation in the west of Europe. Most in
Wales today regard
themselves as modern
Celts , claiming a heritage back to the Iron Age
tribes, which themselves, based on modern genetic analysis, would
appear to have had a predominantly
Paleolithic and Neolithic
indigenous ancestry. When the Roman legions departed Britain around
Romano-British culture remained in the areas the Romans had
settled, and the pre-Roman cultures in others.
In two recently published books, Blood of the Isles, by Brian Sykes
and The Origins of the British, by
Stephen Oppenheimer , both authors
state that according to genetic evidence, most Welsh people, like most
Britons, descend from the
Iberian Peninsula , as a result of different
migrations that took place during the
Mesolithic and the Neolithic
eras, and which laid the foundations for the present-day populations
in the British Isles, indicating an ancient relationship among the
Atlantic Europe . According to Stephen Oppenheimer
96% of lineages in
Llangefni in north
Wales derive from Iberia.
Genetic research on the Y-chromosome has shown that the Welsh, like
the Irish, share a large proportion of their ancestry with the Basques
of Northern Spain and South Western France, although the Welsh have a
Neolithic input than both the Irish and the Basques.
Genetic marker R1b averages from 83–89% amongst the Welsh.
The people in what is now
Wales continued to speak Brythonic
languages with additions from Latin , as did some other
Celts in areas
of Great Britain. The surviving poem
Y Gododdin is in early Welsh and
refers to the Brythonic kingdom of
Gododdin with a capital at Din
Edinburgh ) and extending from the area of
Stirling to the
Tyne. John Davies places the change from Brythonic to Welsh between
400 and 700. Offa\'s Dyke was erected in the mid-8th century, forming
a barrier between
Gene scientists at University College
London (UCL) have claimed that
the Welsh are the "true" Britons and are remnants of the
were pushed out by Anglo-Saxon invaders after the Roman withdrawal in
the fifth century. The genetic tests suggested that between 50% and
100% of the indigenous population of what was to become
wiped out. In 2001, research for a
BBC programme on the Vikings
suggested a possible strong link between the
Celts and Basques, dating
back tens of thousands of years. The UCL research suggested a
migration on a huge scale during the Anglo-Saxon period.
England is made up of an ethnic cleansing event from
people coming across from the continent after the Romans left," said
Dr Mark Thomas, of the Centre for Genetic Anthropology at UCL. "Our
findings completely overturn the modern view of the origins of the
The process whereby the indigenous population of 'Wales' came to
think of themselves as Welsh is not clear. There is plenty of evidence
of the use of the term Brythoniaid (Britons); by contrast, the
earliest use of the word Kymry (referring not to the people but to the
land—and possibly to northern Britain in addition to modern day
territory of Wales) is found in a poem dated to about 633. The name of
the region in northern
England now known as
Cumbria is derived from
the same root. Only gradually did Cymru (the land) and Cymry (the
people) come to supplant Brython. Although the
Welsh language was
certainly used at the time,
Gwyn A. Williams argues that even at the
time of the erection of Offa's Dyke, the people to its west saw
themselves as Roman, citing the number of Latin inscriptions still
being made into the 8th century. However, it is unclear whether such
inscriptions reveal a general or normative use of Latin as a marker of
identity or its selective use by the early
Christian Church .
There was immigration to
Wales after the
Norman Conquest , several
Normans encouraged immigration to their new lands; the Landsker Line
Pembrokeshire "Englishry" and "Welshry" is still
detectable today. The terms Englishry and Welshry are used similarly
about Gower .
POPULATION OF WALES
The population of
Wales doubled from 587,000 in 1801 to 1,163,000 in
1851 and had reached 2,421,000 by 1911. Most of the increase came in
the coal mining districts especially
Glamorganshire , which grew from
71,000 in 1801 to 232,000 in 1851 and 1,122,000 in 1911. Part of this
increase can be attributed to the demographic transition seen in most
industrialising countries during the
Industrial Revolution , as
death-rates dropped and birth-rates remained steady. However, there
was also a large-scale migration of people into
Wales during the
industrial revolution. The English were the most numerous group, but
there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of
other ethnic groups, including Italians migrated to South Wales.
Wales received other immigration from various parts of the British
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations in the 20th century, and African-Caribbean and
Asian communities add to the ethno-cultural mix, particularly in urban
Wales. Many of these self-identify as Welsh. Recently, parts of Wales
have seen an increased number of immigrants from recent EU accession
countries such as
It is uncertain how many people in
Wales consider themselves to be of
Welsh ethnicity, because the 2001 UK census did not offer 'Welsh' as
an option; respondents had to use a box marked "Other". Ninety-six per
cent of the population of
Wales thus described themselves as being
White British . Controversy surrounding the method of determining
ethnicity began as early as 2000, when it was revealed that
Scotland and Northern
Ireland would be able to tick a
box describing themselves as of Scottish or of Irish ethnicity, an
option not available for Welsh or English respondents. Prior to the
Plaid Cymru backed a petition calling for the inclusion of a
Welsh tick-box and for the National Assembly to have primary
law-making powers and its own
National Statistics Office .
In the absence of a Welsh tick-box, the only other plausible
tick-boxes available were 'white-British,' 'Irish', or 'other'. The
Scottish parliament insisted that a Scottish ethnicity tick-box be
included in the census in Scotland, and with this inclusion as many as
88.11% claimed Scottish ethnicity. Critics argued that a higher
proportion of respondents would have described themselves as of Welsh
ethnicity had a Welsh tick-box been made available. Additional
criticism was levelled at the timing of the census, which was taken in
the middle of the Foot and Mouth crisis of 2001, a fact organizers
said did not affect the results. However, the Foot and Mouth crisis
did delay the UK General Elections , the first time since the Second
World War any event postponed an election.
In the census, as many as 14% of the population took the 'extra step'
to write in that they were of Welsh ethnicity. The highest percentage
of those identifying as of Welsh ethnicity was recorded in
27%), followed by
Ceredigion (22%) and the Isle
Anglesey (19%). Among respondents between 16 and 74 years of age,
those claiming Welsh ethnicity were predominantly in professional and
In advance of the 2011 UK Census, the Office for National Statistics
(ONS) launched a census consultation exercise. They received replies
from 28 different Welsh organisations and a large proportion of these
referred to Welsh ethnicity, language or identity.
For the first time ever in British census history the 2011 Census
gave the opportunity for people to describe their identity as Welsh or
English. A 'dress rehearsal' of the Census was carried out on the
Welsh island of
Anglesey because of its rural nature and its high
numbers of Welsh speakers.
The Census, taken on 27 March 2011, asked a number of questions
relating to nationality and national identity, including What is your
country of birth? ('Wales' was one of the options), How would you
describe your national identity? (for the first time 'Welsh' and
'English' were included as options), What is your ethnic group?
('White Welsh/English/Scottish/Northern Irish/British' was an option)
and Can you understand, speak, read or write Welsh?. In December 2012
census results revealed that 66% of residents considered themselves to
have a singular Welsh national identity, with another 10% stating they
had a Welsh and British identity.
According to the 2001/02 Labour Force Survey, 87 per cent of
Wales-born residents claimed Welsh ethnic identity. Respondents in
the local authority areas of Gwynedd, Ceredigion, Carmarthenshire, and
Merthyr Tydfil each returned results of between 91 and 93 per cent
claiming Welsh ethnicity, of those born in Wales. Neath Port Talbot,
Bridgend, Rhondda Cynon Taff, returned results 88–91 per cent of
Wales-born respondents claiming Welsh ethnicity. Powys, Anglesey,
Denbighshire, Caerphilly, and the Vale of
Glamorgan returned results
of 86–88 per cent of respondents born in
Wales claiming Welsh
ethnicity. Pembrokeshire, Swansea, Cardiff, Newport, Torfaen, Blaenau
Gwent, Conwy, Flintshire, and Wrexham returned results of 78–86 per
cent of those born in
Wales claiming Welsh ethnicity.
According to the survey, when factoring non-
Wales born residents, 67
per cent of those surveyed claimed Welsh identity and an additional 7%
ticked Welsh and another option, such as Welsh- British, giving a
total of 74% overall. This reflects a residential population which
includes 30 per cent born outside Wales. The survey, from the ONS,
identified the remaining 33 per cent of respondents as 'Not Welsh'.
A survey published in 2001, by the Centre for Research into Elections
and Social Trends at Oxford University (sample size 1161), found that
14.6 per cent of respondents described themselves as British, not
Welsh; 8.3 per cent saw themselves as more British than Welsh; 39.0
per cent described themselves as equally Welsh and British; 20.2 per
cent saw themselves as more Welsh than British; and 17.9 per cent
described themselves as Welsh, not British.
See also: Culture of
Part of a series on the
CULTURE OF WALES
* Welsh (
Y Fro Gymraeg
Welsh medium education )
Traditional Welsh costume
* Land division (
* Historic counties )
Mythology and folklore
* Bara Lafwr
* Gower cuisine
* Selsig Morgannwg
Tatws Pum Munud
* Welsh breakfast
List of Welsh dishes
* List of restaurants in
Dydd Santes Dwynwen
Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau
* Saint David\'s Day
* Calan Awst
* Gŵyl San Steffan
* in Welsh
* in English
Music and performing arts
* Horse racing
* Rugby league
* Rugby union
* World Heritage Sites
* Coat of arms
Flag of Saint David
Flag of Saint David
* Other flags
Welsh language , history of the
Welsh language , and
Welsh English The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census
who said they could speak Welsh.
According to the 2001 census the number of Welsh speakers in Wales
increased for the first time in 100 years, with 20.5% of a population
of over 2.9 million claiming fluency in Welsh. In addition, 28% of
the population of
Wales claimed to understand Welsh. The census
revealed that the increase was most significant in urban areas, such
Cardiff with an increase from 6.6% in 1991 to 10.9% in 2001, and
Rhondda Cynon Taf with an increase from 9% in 1991 to 12.3% in 2001.
However, the proportion of Welsh speakers declined in
72.1% in 1991 to 68.7% in 2001, and in
Ceredigion from 59.1% in 1991
to 51.8% in 2001. The greatest fluctuation was in Ceredigion, with a
19.5% influx of new residents since 1991.
The decline in Welsh speakers in much of rural
Wales is attributable
to non-Welsh-speaking residents moving to North Wales, driving up
property prices above what locals may afford, according to former
Gwynedd county councillor Seimon Glyn of
Plaid Cymru , whose
controversial comments in 2001 focused attention on the issue. As
many as a third of all properties in
Gwynedd are bought by people from
outside Wales. The issue of locals being priced out of the local
housing market is common to many rural communities throughout Britain,
Wales the added dimension of language complicates the issue, as
many new residents do not learn the Welsh language.
Plaid Cymru taskforce headed by Dafydd Wigley recommended land
should be allocated for affordable local housing, called for grants
for locals to buy houses, and recommended that council tax on holiday
homes should double.
However, the same census shows that 25% of residents were born
outside Wales. The number of Welsh speakers in other places in Britain
is uncertain, but there are significant numbers in the main cities,
and there are speakers along the Welsh-English border .
Even among Welsh speakers, very few people speak only Welsh, with
nearly all being bilingual in English. However, a large number of
Welsh speakers are more comfortable expressing themselves in Welsh
than in English. Some prefer to speak English in South
Wales or the
urbanised areas and Welsh in the North or in rural areas. A speaker's
choice of language can vary according to the subject domain (known in
linguistics as code-switching ).
Due to an increase in Welsh-language nursery education, recent census
data reveals a reversal of decades of linguistic decline: there are
now more Welsh speakers under five years of age than over 60. For many
young people in Wales, the acquisition of Welsh is a gateway to better
careers, according to research from the
Welsh Language Board and
Careers Wales. The
Welsh Government identified media as one of six
areas likely to experience greater demand for Welsh speakers: the
sector is Wales's third largest revenue earner.
Although Welsh is a minority language , and thus threatened by the
dominance of English, support for the language grew during the second
half of the 20th century, along with the rise of
Welsh nationalism in
the form of groups such as the political party
Plaid Cymru and
Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Society). The language is
used in the bilingual
Welsh Assembly and entered on its records, with
English translation. The high costs of translation from English to
Welsh have proved controversial. Technically it is not supposed to be
used in the
British Parliament as it is referred to as a "foreign
language" and is effectively banned as disruptive behaviour, but
several Speakers (most notably
George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy ,
himself born in Wales, near
Tonypandy ) spoke some Welsh within longer
Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the less urban
north and west of Wales, principally
Gwynedd , inland
northern and south-western
Powys , the
Isle of Anglesey ,
Carmarthenshire , North
Ceredigion , and parts of
Glamorgan , although first-language and other fluent speakers
can be found throughout Wales. However,
Cardiff is now home to an
urban Welsh-speaking population (both from other parts of
from the growing Welsh-medium schools of
Cardiff itself) due to the
centralisation and concentration of national resources and
organisations in the capital.
For some, speaking Welsh is an important part of their Welsh
identity. Parts of the culture are strongly connected to the language
— notably the
Eisteddfod tradition, poetry and aspects of folk music
Wales also has a strong tradition of poetry in the English
Patagonian Welsh (Cymraeg y Wladfa) is a dialect of Welsh which is
spoken in the region of the Argentine
Patagonia in South America. The
language is spoken principally in
Y Wladfa with sporadic speakers
Argentina by Welsh Argentines.
See also: Religion in
Welsh people of faith are affiliated with the Church in
other Christian denominations such as the Presbyterian Church of Wales
, or Catholicism, and there are also
Russian Orthodox chapel . Wales
has a long tradition of nonconformism and
Methodism . Other religions
Welsh people may be affiliated with include
Islam , and
The 2001 Census showed that slightly less than 10% of the Welsh
population are regular church or chapel goers (a slightly smaller
proportion than in
England or Scotland), although about 70% of the
population see themselves as some form of Christian.
Judaism has quite
a long history in Wales, with a Jewish community recorded in Swansea
from around 1730. In August 1911, during a period of public order and
industrial disputes, Jewish shops across the South
were damaged by mobs. Since that time the Jewish population of that
area, which reached a peak of 4,000–5,000 in 1913, has declined with
Cardiff retaining a sizeable Jewish population, of about 2000 in
the 2001 Census. The largest non-Christian faith in
Wales is Islam,
with about 22,000 members in 2001 served by about 40 mosques,
following the first mosque established in
Cardiff in 1860. A college
for training clerics has been established at
Llanybydder in West Wales
Islam arrived in
Wales in the mid 19th century, and it is thought
that Cardiff's Yemeni community is Britain's oldest Muslim community,
established when the city was one of the world's largest
Buddhism each have about 5,000
adherents in Wales, with the rural county of
Ceredigion being the
centre of Welsh Buddhism.
Govinda 's temple and restaurant, run by the
Hare Krishnas in
Swansea , is a focal point for many Welsh Hindus.
There are about 2,000 Sikhs in Wales, with the first purpose-built
gurdwara opened in the Riverside area of
Cardiff in 1989. In 2001 some
7,000 people classified themselves as following "other religions"
including a reconstructed form of
Druidism , which was the
pre-Christian religion of
Wales (not to be confused with the Druids of
Gorsedd at the National
Eisteddfod of Wales). Approximately one
sixth of the population, some 500,000 people, profess no religious
The sabbatarian temperance movement was also historically strong
among the Welsh, the sale of alcohol being prohibited on Sundays in
Wales by the
Sunday Closing (Wales) Act 1881 – the first legislation
specifically issued for
Wales since the Middle Ages. From the early
1960s, local council areas were permitted to hold referendums every
seven years to determine whether they should be "wet" or "dry" on
Sundays: most of the industrialised areas in the east and south went
"wet" immediately, and by the 1980s the last district, Dwyfor in the
northwest, went wet; since then there have been no more Sunday-closing
Main article: National symbols of
Flag of Wales (Y Ddraig Goch) incorporates the red dragon , a
popular symbol of
Wales and the Welsh people, along with the Tudor
colours of green and white. It was used by Henry VII at the Battle of
Bosworth Field in 1485, after which it was carried in state to St.
Paul's Cathedral. The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal
arms to signify their Welsh descent. It was officially recognised as
the Welsh national flag in 1959. Since the British
Union Flag does not
have any Welsh representation, the
Flag of Wales has become very
Flag of Saint David
Flag of Saint David is sometimes used as an alternative to the
national flag, and is flown on Saint David\'s Day .
* The dragon , part of the national flag design, is also a popular
Welsh symbol. The oldest recorded use of the dragon to symbolise Wales
is from the
Historia Brittonum , written around 820, but it is
popularly supposed to have been the battle standard of
King Arthur and
other ancient Celtic leaders. Following the annexation of
England, the dragon was used as a supporter in the English monarch's
coat of arms.
* The daffodil and the leek are also symbols of Wales. The origins
of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil
became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by
David Lloyd-George .
This may be due to confusion of the Welsh for leek, cenhinen, and
that for daffodil, cenhinen Bedr or St. Peter's leek. Both are worn as
symbols by the Welsh on Saint David\'s Day , 1 March.
* The Prince of Wales's Feathers, the heraldic badge of the Prince
Wales , is sometimes adapted by Welsh bodies for use in Wales. The
symbolism is explained on the article for Edward, the Black Prince ,
who was the first Prince of
Wales to bear the emblem. The Welsh Rugby
Union uses such a design for its own badge.
Flag of the city of
Puerto Madryn , Argentina, inspired by the
Flag of Wales , owing to the
There has been migration from
Wales to the rest of Britain throughout
its history. During the
Industrial Revolution thousands of Welsh
people migrated, for example, to
As a result, some people from England,
John Adams , the second President of the
United States (1797–1801), whose paternal great-grandfather David
Adams was born and bred at "Fferm Penybanc",
Wales and who emigrated from
Wales in 1675.
Other Welsh settlers moved to other parts of Europe, concentrated in
certain areas. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a small
wave of contract miners from
Wales arrived in Northern France; the
centres of Welsh-French population are in coal mining towns of the
French department of
Pas-de-Calais . Welsh settlers from
later Patagonian Welsh) arrived in Newfoundland in the early 1900s,
and founded towns
Labrador 's coast region. In 1852 Thomas Benbow
Tregaron established a settlement of about 100 Welsh
people in the state of
Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.
Welsh people have emigrated, in relatively small
numbers (in proportion to population, Irish emigration to the USA may
have been 26 times greater than Welsh emigration), to many countries,
including the USA (in particular,
Canada and Y Wladfa
Patagonia , Argentina.
Jackson County, Ohio was sometimes
referred to as "Little Wales", and the
Welsh language was commonly
heard or spoken among locals by the mid 20th century. Malad City in
Idaho , which began as a Welsh
Mormon settlement, lays claim to a
greater proportion of inhabitants of Welsh descent than anywhere
Wales itself. Malad's local High School is known as the
"Malad Dragons", and flies the
Welsh Flag as its school colours.
Welsh people have also settled in
New Zealand and Australia.
Around 1.75 million Americans report themselves to have Welsh
ancestry, as did 458,705 Canadians in Canada\'s 2011 census . This
compares with 2.9 million people living in
Wales (as of the 2001
There is no known evidence which would objectively support the legend
Mandan , a Native American tribe of the central United
States, are Welsh emigrants who reached North America under Prince
Madog in 1170.
The Ukrainian city of
Donetsk was founded in 1869 by a Welsh
businessman, John Hughes (an engineer from
Merthyr Tydfil ) who
constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the
town was thus named Yuzovka (Юзовка) in recognition of his role
in its founding ("Yuz" being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of
Former Australian Prime Minister
Julia Gillard was born in Barry,
Wales. After she suffered from bronchopneumonia as a child, her
parents were advised that it would aid her recovery to live in a
warmer climate. This led the family to migrate to
Australia in 1966,
settling in Adelaide.
List of Welsh people
Welsh History in Chicago
Welsh New Zealander
* ^ A B C Richard Webber. "The Welsh diaspora : Analysis of the
geography of Welsh names" (PDF). Welsh Assembly. Retrieved 26 June
* ^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for Wales,
March 2011" (PDF). ons.gov.uk. 16 July 2012. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
* ^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for Wales"
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics . March 2011. p. 6. Retrieved 13
* ^ "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Wales, March 2011" (PDF).
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics . 11 December 2012. Retrieved 6 January
* ^ A B "2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United
States Census Bureau . Retrieved 6 January 2016.
* ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "
Welsh people in England".
Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
* ^ A B Statistics
Canada . "2011 National Household Survey: Data
tables". Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ Australian Government - Department of Immigration and Border
Protection. "Welsh Australians". Retrieved 20 February 2014.
* ^ "
Wales and Argentina". Wales.com website.
Welsh Government .
2008. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
* ^ "City of Aberdeen: Census Stats and Facts page 25, section 18,
Country of birth" (PDF). City of
Aberdeen . 2003. Retrieved 6 April
* ^ The 2001
New Zealand census reports 3,342 people stating they
belong to the Welsh ethnic group.
* ^ The 1996 census, which used a slightly different question,
reported 9,966 people belonging to the Welsh ethnic group. Archived 8
March 2005 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Janet Davies, University of
Wales Press , Bath (1993). The
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