The Welsh (Welsh: Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or
otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and
the Welsh language. The language, which falls within the Insular
Celtic family, has historically been spoken throughout Wales, with its
Common Brittonic once spoken throughout most of the island
of Great Britain. Prior to the 20th century, large numbers of Welsh
people spoke only Welsh, with little or no fluent knowledge of
English. Welsh remains the predominant language in parts of Wales,
particularly in North
Wales and West Wales, but English is the
predominant language in most parts of the country. Many Welsh people,
even in predominately English-speaking areas of Wales, are fluent or
semi-fluent in Welsh or, to varying degrees, capable of speaking or
understanding Welsh at limited or conversational proficiency levels.
Welsh language and its ancestors have been spoken in what
Wales since well before the Roman incursions into Britain,
historian John Davies argues that the origin of the "Welsh nation" can
be traced to the late 4th and early 5th centuries, following the Roman
departure. The term "Welsh people" applies to people from Wales
and people of Welsh ancestry perceiving themselves or being perceived
as sharing a cultural heritage and shared ancestral origins. Wales
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, and the majority of
people living in
Wales are British citizens.
In 2016, an analysis of the geography of
Welsh surnames commissioned
Welsh Government found that 718,000 people (nearly 35% of the
Welsh population) have a family name of Welsh origin, compared with
5.3% in the rest of the United Kingdom, 4.7% in New Zealand, 4.1% in
Australia, and 3.8% in the United States, with an estimated 16.3
million people in the countries studied having at least partial Welsh
ancestry. Over 300,000
Welsh people live in
3 Current identity
3.1 2001 census
3.2 2011 census
5 National symbols
6 Welsh emigration
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
The names "Wales" and "Welsh" are traced to the Proto-Germanic word
"Walhaz" meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker",
or "Celtic-speaker" which was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to
describe inhabitants of the former Roman Empire, who were largely
romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages. The same
etymological origin is shared by the names of various other Celtic or
Latin peoples such as the
Walloons and the Vlachs, as well as of the
Swiss canton of Valais. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry,
and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words (both of which are
pronounced [ˈkəm.rɨ]) are descended from the Brythonic word
combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen".
They thus carry a sense of "land of fellow-countrymen", "our country",
and notions of fraternity. The use of the word Cymry as a
self-designation derives from the post-Roman Era relationship of the
Welsh with the Brythonic-speaking peoples of northern
southern Scotland, the peoples of "Yr Hen Ogledd" (English: The Old
North). The word came into use as a self-description probably
before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to
Cadwallon ap Cadfan
Cadwallon ap Cadfan (Moliant Cadwallon, by Afan Ferddig) c.
633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the
Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term
Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic
peoples (including the Welsh) and was the more common literary term
until c. 1100. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether
it referred to the people or their homeland.
See also: History of
Wales and Genetic history of the British Isles
Sculpture of Owain Glyndŵr, the last native Welsh person to hold the
title Prince of Wales
During their time in Britain, the ancient Romans encountered tribes in
Wales that they called the Ordovices, the Demetae, the
Silures and the Deceangli. The people of what is now
not distinguished from the rest of the peoples of southern Britain;
all were called Britons and spoke the common British language, a
Brythonic Celtic tongue. Celtic language and culture seems to have
arrived in Britain during the Iron Age, though some archaeologists
argue that there is no evidence for large-scale Iron Age migrations
into Great Britain. The claim has also been made that
Indo-European languages may have been introduced to the British Isles
as early as the early
Neolithic (or even earlier), with
Brythonic languages developing indigenously. Others hold that
the close similarity between the
Goidelic and Brythonic branches, and
their sharing of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age terminology with
their continental relatives, point to a more recent introduction of
Indo-European languages (or close communication), with Proto-Celtic
itself unlikely to have existed before the end of the 2nd millennium
BC at the earliest. The genetic evidence in this case would show
that the change to
Celtic languages in Britain may have occurred as a
cultural shift rather than through migration as was previously
Some current genetic research supports the idea that people living in
British Isles are likely mainly descended from the indigenous
Paleolithic (Old Stone Age hunter gatherers) population
(about 80%), with a smaller
Neolithic (New Stone Age farmers) input
Paleolithic Europeans seem to have been a homogeneous
population, possibly due to a population bottleneck (or
near-extinction event) on the Iberian peninsula, where a small human
population is thought to have survived the glaciation, and expanded
into Europe during the Mesolithic. The assumed
genetic imprint of
Neolithic incomers is seen as a cline, with
Neolithic representation in the east of Europe and stronger
Paleolithic representation in the west of Europe. Most in
Wales today regard themselves as modern Celts, claiming a heritage
back to the Iron Age tribes, which themselves, based on modern genetic
analysis, would appear to have had a predominantly
Neolithic indigenous ancestry. When the Roman legions departed Britain
around 400, a
Romano-British culture remained in the areas the Romans
had settled, and the pre-Roman cultures in others.
In two recently published books, Blood of the Isles, by Brian Sykes
and The Origins of the British, by Stephen Oppenheimer, both authors
state that according to genetic evidence, most Welsh people, like most
Britons, descend from the Iberian Peninsula, as a result of different
migrations that took place during the
Mesolithic and the Neolithic
eras, and which laid the foundations for the present-day populations
in the British Isles, indicating an ancient relationship among the
populations of Atlantic Europe. According to Stephen
Oppenheimer 96% of lineages in
Llangefni in north
Wales derive from
Iberia. Genetic research on the Y-chromosome has shown that the Welsh,
like the Irish, share a large proportion of their ancestry with the
Basques of Northern Spain and South Western France, although the Welsh
have a greater presumed
Neolithic input than both the Irish and the
Basques. Genetic marker R1b averages from 83–89% amongst the
DNA research conducted by CymruDNA
Wales has shown that a percentage
of Welshmen living today are descended from ancient Kings and Princes
of Wales, the quintessential DNA signature R-L371 aka S300 snp
downstream from R1b-L21 (S145) is believed to have originated in North
Wales around 1000 AD. Recent DNA evidence suggests
Welsh people descended specifically from middle eastern DNA
carriers, an idea previously proposed at least as early as the 19th
century, in History of the Welsh Baptist by Jonathan Davis. 
The people in what is now
Wales continued to speak Brythonic languages
with additions from Latin, as did some other
Celts in areas of Great
Britain. The surviving poem
Y Gododdin is in early Welsh and refers to
the Brythonic kingdom of
Gododdin with a capital at Din Eidyn
(Edinburgh) and extending from the area of
Stirling to the Tyne.
John Davies places the change from Brythonic to Welsh between 400 and
Offa's Dyke was erected in the mid-8th century, forming a
Wales and Mercia.
Gene scientists at University College
London (UCL) have claimed that
the Welsh are the "true" Britons and are remnants of the
were pushed out by Anglo-Saxon invaders after the Roman withdrawal in
the fifth century. The genetic tests suggested that between 50% and
100% of the indigenous population of what was to become
wiped out. In 2001, research for a
BBC programme on the Vikings
suggested a possible strong link between the
Celts and Basques, dating
back tens of thousands of years. The UCL research suggested a
migration on a huge scale during the Anglo-Saxon period.
England is made up of an ethnic cleansing event from
people coming across from the continent after the Romans left," said
Dr Mark Thomas, of the Centre for Genetic Anthropology at UCL. "Our
findings completely overturn the modern view of the origins of the
The process whereby the indigenous population of 'Wales' came to think
of themselves as Welsh is not clear. There is plenty of evidence of
the use of the term Brythoniaid (Britons); by contrast, the earliest
use of the word Kymry (referring not to the people but to the
land—and possibly to northern Britain in addition to modern day
territory of Wales) is found in a poem dated to about 633. The name of
the region in northern
England now known as
Cumbria is derived from
the same root. Only gradually did Cymru (the land) and Cymry (the
people) come to supplant Brython. Although the
Welsh language was
certainly used at the time,
Gwyn A. Williams
Gwyn A. Williams argues that even at the
time of the erection of Offa's Dyke, the people to its west saw
themselves as Roman, citing the number of Latin inscriptions still
being made into the 8th century. However, it is unclear whether
such inscriptions reveal a general or normative use of Latin as a
marker of identity or its selective use by the early Christian Church.
There was immigration to
Wales after the Norman Conquest, several
Normans encouraged immigration to their new lands; the Landsker Line
Pembrokeshire "Englishry" and "Welshry" is still
detectable today. The terms Englishry and Welshry are used
similarly about Gower.
Population of Wales
The population of
Wales doubled from 587,000 in 1801 to 1,163,000 in
1851 and had reached 2,421,000 by 1911. Most of the increase came in
the coal mining districts especially Glamorganshire, which grew from
71,000 in 1801 to 232,000 in 1851 and 1,122,000 in 1911. Part of
this increase can be attributed to the demographic transition seen in
most industrialising countries during the Industrial Revolution, as
death-rates dropped and birth-rates remained steady. However, there
was also a large-scale migration of people into
Wales during the
industrial revolution. The English were the most numerous group, but
there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of
other ethnic groups, including Italians migrated to South
Wales received other immigration from various parts of the
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations in the 20th century, and
African-Caribbean and Asian communities add to the ethno-cultural mix,
particularly in urban Wales. Many of these self-identify as Welsh.
Recently, parts of
Wales have seen an increased number of immigrants
from recent EU accession countries such as Poland.
It is uncertain how many people in
Wales consider themselves to be of
Welsh ethnicity, because the 2001 UK census did not offer 'Welsh' as
an option; respondents had to use a box marked "Other". Ninety-six per
cent of the population of
Wales thus described themselves as being
White British. Controversy surrounding the method of determining
ethnicity began as early as 2000, when it was revealed that
Scotland and Northern
Ireland would be able to tick a
box describing themselves as of Scottish or of Irish ethnicity, an
option not available for Welsh or English respondents. Prior
to the census,
Plaid Cymru backed a petition calling for the inclusion
of a Welsh tick-box and for the National Assembly to have primary
law-making powers and its own National Statistics Office.
In the absence of a Welsh tick-box, the only other plausible
tick-boxes available were 'white-British,' 'Irish', or 'other'.
The Scottish parliament insisted that a Scottish ethnicity tick-box be
included in the census in Scotland, and with this inclusion as many as
88.11% claimed Scottish ethnicity. Critics argued that a higher
proportion of respondents would have described themselves as of Welsh
ethnicity had a Welsh tick-box been made available. Additional
criticism was levelled at the timing of the census, which was taken in
the middle of the Foot and Mouth crisis of 2001, a fact organizers
said did not affect the results. However, the Foot and Mouth
crisis did delay the UK General Elections, the first time since the
Second World War any event postponed an election.
In the census, as many as 14% of the population took the 'extra step'
to write in that they were of Welsh ethnicity. The highest
percentage of those identifying as of Welsh ethnicity was recorded in
Gwynedd (at 27%), followed by
Isle of Anglesey
Isle of Anglesey (19%). Among respondents between 16 and
74 years of age, those claiming Welsh ethnicity were predominantly in
professional and managerial occupations.
In advance of the 2011 UK Census, the Office for National Statistics
(ONS) launched a census consultation exercise. They received replies
from 28 different Welsh organisations and a large proportion of these
referred to Welsh ethnicity, language or identity.
For the first time ever in British census history the 2011 Census gave
the opportunity for people to describe their identity as Welsh or
English. A 'dress rehearsal' of the Census was carried out on the
Welsh island of
Anglesey because of its rural nature and its high
numbers of Welsh speakers.
The Census, taken on 27 March 2011, asked a number of questions
relating to nationality and national identity, including What is your
country of birth? ('Wales' was one of the options), How would you
describe your national identity? (for the first time 'Welsh' and
'English' were included as options), What is your ethnic group?
('White Welsh/English/Scottish/Northern Irish/British' was an option)
and Can you understand, speak, read or write Welsh?.
As of the 2011 census in Wales, 66 per cent (2.0 million) of residents
reported a Welsh national identity (either on its own or combined with
other identities). Most residents of
Wales (96 per cent, 2.9 million)
reported at least one national identity of English, Welsh, Scottish,
Northern Irish, or British. Of the 66 per cent (2.0 million) of Welsh
residents who considered themselves to have a Welsh national identity
Wales in 2011, 218,000 responded that they had Welsh and British
national identity. Just under 17 per cent (519,000) of people in Wales
considered themselves to have a British national identity only.
A survey published in 2001, by the Centre for Research into Elections
and Social Trends at Oxford University (sample size 1161), found that
14.6 per cent of respondents described themselves as British, not
Welsh; 8.3 per cent saw themselves as more British than Welsh; 39.0
per cent described themselves as equally Welsh and British; 20.2 per
cent saw themselves as more Welsh than British; and 17.9 per cent
described themselves as Welsh, not British.
See also: Culture of Wales
Part of a series on the
Culture of Wales
Welsh (Y Fro Gymraeg
Welsh medium education)
Traditional Welsh costume
Land division (Commote
Mythology and folklore
Tatws Pum Munud
List of Welsh dishes
List of restaurants in Wales
Dydd Santes Dwynwen
Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau
Saint David's Day
Gŵyl San Steffan
Music and performing arts
World Heritage Sites
Coat of arms
Flag of Saint David
Main articles: Welsh language, history of the Welsh language, and
The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census who said they could
According to the 2001 census the number of Welsh speakers in Wales
increased for the first time in 100 years, with 20.5% of a population
of over 2.9 million claiming fluency in Welsh. In addition, 28% of
the population of
Wales claimed to understand Welsh. The census
revealed that the increase was most significant in urban areas, such
Cardiff with an increase from 6.6% in 1991 to 10.9% in 2001, and
Rhondda Cynon Taf
Rhondda Cynon Taf with an increase from 9% in 1991 to 12.3% in
2001. However, the proportion of Welsh speakers declined in
Gwynedd from 72.1% in 1991 to 68.7% in 2001, and in
59.1% in 1991 to 51.8% in 2001. The greatest fluctuation was in
Ceredigion, with a 19.5% influx of new residents since 1991.
The decline in Welsh speakers in much of rural
Wales is attributable
to non-Welsh-speaking residents moving to North Wales, driving up
property prices above what locals may afford, according to former
Gwynedd county councillor Seimon Glyn of Plaid Cymru, whose
controversial comments in 2001 focused attention on the issue. As
many as a third of all properties in
Gwynedd are bought by people from
outside Wales. The issue of locals being priced out of the local
housing market is common to many rural communities throughout Britain,
Wales the added dimension of language complicates the issue, as
many new residents do not learn the Welsh language.
Plaid Cymru taskforce headed by Dafydd Wigley recommended land
should be allocated for affordable local housing, called for grants
for locals to buy houses, and recommended that council tax on holiday
homes should double.
However, the same census shows that 25% of residents were born outside
Wales. The number of Welsh speakers in other places in Britain is
uncertain, but there are significant numbers in the main cities, and
there are speakers along the Welsh-English border.
Even among Welsh speakers, very few people speak only Welsh, with
nearly all being bilingual in English. However, a large number of
Welsh speakers are more comfortable expressing themselves in Welsh
than in English. Some prefer to speak English in South
Wales or the
urbanised areas and Welsh in the North or in rural areas. A speaker's
choice of language can vary according to the subject domain (known in
linguistics as code-switching).
Due to an increase in Welsh-language nursery education, recent census
data reveals a reversal of decades of linguistic decline: there are
now more Welsh speakers under five years of age than over 60. For many
young people in Wales, the acquisition of Welsh is a gateway to better
careers, according to research from the
Welsh Language Board
Welsh Language Board and
Careers Wales. The
Welsh Government identified media as one of six
areas likely to experience greater demand for Welsh speakers: the
sector is Wales's third largest revenue earner.
Although Welsh is a minority language, and thus threatened by the
dominance of English, support for the language grew during the second
half of the 20th century, along with the rise of
Welsh nationalism in
the form of groups such as the political party
Plaid Cymru and
Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg
Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Society). The language is
used in the bilingual
Welsh Assembly and entered on its records, with
English translation. The high costs of translation from English to
Welsh have proved controversial. Technically it is not supposed to
be used in the
British Parliament as it is referred to as a "foreign
language" and is effectively banned as disruptive behaviour, but
several Speakers (most notably George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy,
himself born in Wales, near Tonypandy) spoke some Welsh within longer
English-language speeches.
Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the less urban
north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, inland Denbighshire,
northern and south-western Powys, the Isle of Anglesey,
Carmarthenshire, North Pembrokeshire, Ceredigion, and parts of western
Glamorgan, although first-language and other fluent speakers can be
found throughout Wales. However,
Cardiff is now home to an urban
Welsh-speaking population (both from other parts of
Wales and from the
growing Welsh-medium schools of
Cardiff itself) due to the
centralisation and concentration of national resources and
organisations in the capital.
For some, speaking Welsh is an important part of their Welsh identity.
Parts of the culture are strongly connected to the language —
Eisteddfod tradition, poetry and aspects of folk music and
Wales also has a strong tradition of poetry in the English
Patagonian Welsh (Cymraeg y Wladfa) is a dialect of the Welsh
language which is spoken in
Y Wladfa in the Argentine region,
See also: Religion in Wales
Welsh people of faith are affiliated with the Church in
other Christian denominations such as the Presbyterian Church of
Wales, or Catholicism, and there are also Russian Orthodox
Wales has a long tradition of nonconformism and Methodism.
Welsh people may be affiliated with include Buddhism,
Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and Sikhism.
The 2001 Census showed that slightly less than 10% of the Welsh
population are regular church or chapel goers (a slightly smaller
proportion than in
England or Scotland), although about 70% of the
population see themselves as some form of Christian.
Judaism has quite
a long history in Wales, with a Jewish community recorded in Swansea
from around 1730. In August 1911, during a period of public order and
industrial disputes, Jewish shops across the South
were damaged by mobs. Since that time the Jewish population of that
area, which reached a peak of 4,000–5,000 in 1913, has declined with
Cardiff retaining a sizeable Jewish population, of about 2000 in
the 2001 Census. The largest non-Christian faith in
Wales is Islam,
with about 22,000 members in 2001 served by about 40 mosques,
following the first mosque established in
Cardiff in 1860. A college
for training clerics has been established at
Llanybydder in West
Islam arrived in
Wales in the mid 19th century, and it is
thought that Cardiff's Yemeni community is Britain's oldest Muslim
community, established when the city was one of the world's largest
Buddhism each have about 5,000
adherents in Wales, with the rural county of
Ceredigion being the
centre of Welsh Buddhism. Govinda's temple and restaurant, run by the
Hare Krishnas in Swansea, is a focal point for many Welsh Hindus.
There are about 2,000 Sikhs in Wales, with the first purpose-built
gurdwara opened in the Riverside area of
Cardiff in 1989. In 2001 some
7,000 people classified themselves as following "other religions"
including a reconstructed form of Druidism, which was the
pre-Christian religion of
Wales (not to be confused with the Druids of
Gorsedd at the National
Eisteddfod of Wales). Approximately one
sixth of the population, some 500,000 people, profess no religious
The sabbatarian temperance movement was also historically strong among
the Welsh, the sale of alcohol being prohibited on Sundays in
Sunday Closing (Wales) Act 1881
Sunday Closing (Wales) Act 1881 – the first legislation
specifically issued for
Wales since the Middle Ages. From the early
1960s, local council areas were permitted to hold referendums every
seven years to determine whether they should be "wet" or "dry" on
Sundays: most of the industrialised areas in the east and south went
"wet" immediately, and by the 1980s the last district, Dwyfor in the
northwest, went wet; since then there have been no more Sunday-closing
Main article: National symbols of Wales
The Flag of
Wales (Y Ddraig Goch) incorporates the red dragon, a
popular symbol of
Wales and the Welsh people, along with the Tudor
colours of green and white. It was used by Henry VII at the Battle of
Bosworth Field in 1485, after which it was carried in state to St.
Paul's Cathedral. The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal
arms to signify their Welsh descent. It was officially recognised as
the Welsh national flag in 1959. Since the British
Union Flag does not
have any Welsh representation, the Flag of
Wales has become very
Flag of Saint David
Flag of Saint David is sometimes used as an alternative to the
national flag, and is flown on Saint David's Day.
The dragon, part of the national flag design, is also a popular Welsh
symbol. The oldest recorded use of the dragon to symbolise
from the Historia Brittonum, written around 820, but it is popularly
supposed to have been the battle standard of
King Arthur and other
ancient Celtic leaders. Following the annexation of
Wales by England,
the dragon was used as a supporter in the English monarch's coat of
The daffodil and the leek are also symbols of Wales. The origins of
the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became
popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd-George.
This may be due to confusion of the Welsh for leek, cenhinen, and that
for daffodil, cenhinen Bedr or St. Peter's leek. Both are worn as
symbols by the Welsh on Saint David's Day, 1 March.
The Prince of Wales's Feathers, the heraldic badge of the Prince of
Wales, is sometimes adapted by Welsh bodies for use in Wales. The
symbolism is explained on the article for Edward, the Black Prince,
who was the first Prince of
Wales to bear the emblem. The Welsh Rugby
Union uses such a design for its own badge.
Flag of the city of Puerto Madryn, Argentina, inspired by the Flag of
Wales, owing to the Welsh immigration
There has been migration from
Wales to the rest of Britain throughout
its history. During the
Industrial Revolution thousands of Welsh
people migrated, for example, to
Ashton-in-Makerfield. As a result, some people from England,
Ireland have Welsh surnames.
John Adams, the second President of the
United States (1797–1801),
whose paternal great-grandfather David Adams was born and bred at
"Fferm Penybanc", Llanboidy, Carmarthenshire, Wales and who
Wales in 1675.
Other Welsh settlers moved to other parts of Europe, concentrated in
certain areas. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a small
wave of contract miners from
Wales arrived in Northern France; the
centres of Welsh-French population are in coal mining towns of the
French department of Pas-de-Calais. Welsh settlers
Wales (and later Patagonian Welsh) arrived in Newfoundland in the
early 1900s, and founded towns Labrador's coast region.[citation
needed] In 1852
Thomas Benbow Phillips of
Tregaron established a
settlement of about 100
Welsh people in the state of Rio Grande do Sul
Welsh people have emigrated, in relatively small
numbers (in proportion to population, Irish emigration to the USA may
have been 26 times greater than Welsh emigration), to many
countries, including the USA (in particular, Pennsylvania),
Y Wladfa in Patagonia, Argentina.
Jackson County, Ohio
Jackson County, Ohio was
sometimes referred to as "Little Wales", and the
Welsh language was
commonly heard or spoken among locals by the mid 20th
century. Malad City in Idaho, which began as a Welsh
Mormon settlement, lays claim to a greater proportion of inhabitants
of Welsh descent than anywhere outside
Wales itself. Malad's local
High School is known as the "Malad Dragons", and flies the Welsh Flag
as its school colours.
Welsh people have also settled in New
Zealand and Australia.
Around 1.75 million Americans report themselves to have Welsh
ancestry, as did 458,705 Canadians in Canada's 2011 census. This
compares with 2.9 million people living in
Wales (as of the 2001
There is no known evidence which would objectively support the legend
that the Mandan, a Native American tribe of the central United States,
are Welsh emigrants who reached North America under Prince
The Ukrainian city of
Donetsk was founded in 1869 by a Welsh
businessman, John Hughes (an engineer from Merthyr Tydfil) who
constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the
town was thus named Yuzovka (Юзовка) in recognition of his role
in its founding ("Yuz" being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of
Former Australian Prime Minister
Julia Gillard was born in Barry,
Wales. After she suffered from bronchopneumonia as a child, her
parents were advised that it would aid her recovery to live in a
warmer climate. This led the family to migrate to
Australia in 1966,
settling in Adelaide.
List of Welsh people
Welsh History in Chicago
Welsh New Zealander
^ a b c Richard Webber. "The Welsh diaspora : Analysis of the
geography of Welsh names" (PDF). Welsh Assembly. Retrieved 26 June
^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for Wales, March
2011" (PDF). ons.gov.uk. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for Wales" (PDF).
Office for National Statistics. March 2011. p. 6. Retrieved 13
^ "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office
for National Statistics. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 6 January
^ a b "2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "
Welsh people in England".
Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ a b Statistics Canada. "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Retrieved 23
^ Australian Government - Department of Immigration and Border
Protection. "Welsh Australians". Retrieved 20 February 2014.
Wales and Argentina". Wales.com website. Welsh Government. 2008.
Retrieved 8 October 2010. [permanent dead link]
^ "City of Aberdeen: Census Stats and Facts page 25, section 18,
Country of birth" (PDF). City of Aberdeen. 2003. Retrieved 6 April
^ The 1996 census, which used a slightly different question, reported
9,966 people belonging to the Welsh ethnic group. Archived 8 March
2005 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Janet Davies, University of
Wales Press, Bath (1993). The Welsh
Language, page 34
^ Davies, John (1994) A History of Wales. Penguin: p.54;
^ The Welsh people: chapters on their origin, history and laws by Sir
John Rhys, Sir David Brynmor Jones. 1969
^ "The Countries of the UK". statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 October
^ "Canolfan i 300,000 o Gymry" [Centre for 300,000 Welsh].
Welsh). 5 November 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
^ Davies, J. A history of
Wales p. 69
^ a b Davies, John, A History of Wales, published 1990 by Penguin,
^ a b Davies (1994) p. 69
^ Lloyd, John Edward (1911). "A History of
Wales from the Earliest
Times to the Edwardian Conquest (Note to Chapter VI, the Name
"Cymry")". I (Second ed.). London: Longmans, Green, and Co. (published
^ Phillimore, Egerton (1891). "Note (a) to The Settlement of
Brittany". In Phillimore, Egerton. Y Cymmrodor. XI. London: Honourable
Society of Cymmrodorion (published 1892). pp. 97–101.
^ The poem is available online at Wikisource.
^ Davies (1994) p. 71, The poem contains the line: 'Ar wynep Kymry
^ Cunliffe, B. Iron Age communities in Britainpp. 115–118
BBC History – Ancient History in-depth:Native Tribes of Britain".
BBC website “The Deceangli, the
Ordovices and the
Silures were the
three main tribe groups who lived in the mountains of what is today
called Wales. However, in prehistory Wales,
not exist in anyway as distinctive entities in the ways they have done
so for the last 1000 years. “. BBC. 2010. Retrieved 6 April
^ a b Iron Age Britain by Barry Cunliffe. Batsford.
^ Britain BC: Life in Britain and
Ireland Before the Romans by Francis
Pryor, pp. 121–122. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-712693-X.
^ Mallory, J.P. In Search of the Indo-Europeans pp. 106–107, Thames
^ a b "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of
Europeans by Isabelle Dupanloup, Giorgio Bertorelle, Lounès Chikhi
and Guido Barbujani (2004). ''Molecular Biology and Evolution'':
21(7):1361–1372. Retrieved 10 July 2006". Mbe.oxfordjournals.org.
doi:10.1093/molbev/msh135. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ del Giorgio, J.F. 2006. The Oldest Europeans. A.J. Place,
^ "What happened after the fall of the Roman Empire?". BBC. Archived
from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
Special report: 'Myths of British ancestry' by Stephen
Oppenheimer". Prospect-magazine.co.uk. 21 October 2006. Retrieved 17
^ Adams, Guy (20 September 2006). "'
Celts descended from Spanish
fishermen, study finds'-This Britain, UK-The Independent 20 September
2006". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 24 July
2008. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ Wilson, JF; Weiss, DA; Richards, M; Thomas, MG; Bradman, N;
Goldstein, DB (2001). "From the Cover: Genetic evidence for different
male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British
Isles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America. 98 (9): 5078–5083. doi:10.1073/pnas.071036898.
PMC 33166 . PMID 11287634.
^ a b "Genes link
Basques 3 April 2001".
BBC News. 3 April
2001. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces
Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations".
Mbe.oxfordjournals.org. 22 October 1964. Retrieved 17 October
^ Bevan, Nathan (2014-09-25). "Dafydd Iwan's rare genetic roots
unveiled in new project". walesonline. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
^ Bodden, Tom (2014-09-26). "Dafydd Iwan 'descended from Welsh kings'
who ruled in England". northwales. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
^ "L371 (L21>DF13>L371) aka S300 and 17-14-10".
anthrogenica.com. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
^ Bevan, Nathan (2014-12-18). "DNA survey reveals 25% of Welsh men
directly descended from ancient kings and warlords". walesonline.
^ Radford, Tim (28 December 2015). "Irish DNA originated in Middle
East and eastern Europe". Theguardian.com.
^ Jarman, A.O.H. 1988. Y Gododdin: Britain's earliest heroic poem p.
^ Davies, J. A history of
Wales pp. 65–6
^ a b
Wales English and Welsh are races apart Archived 16
February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. 30 June 2002. Retrieved 21
^ Williams, Ifor. 1972. The beginnings of Welsh poetry University of
Wales Press. p. 71
^ Williams, Gwyn A., The Welsh in their History, published 1982 by
Croom Helm, ISBN 0-7099-3651-6
^ "The Flemish colonists in Wales: ''BBC'' website. Retrieved 17
August 2006". BBC. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ "Gower Historical Processes, Themes and Background". Ggat.org.uk.
Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ John Davies (1993). A History of Wales. Penguin. pp. 258–59,
319. ; Census 2001, 200 Years of the Census in ...
2011 Census, Population Estimates for UK
^ Brian R. Mitchell and Phyllis Deane, Abstract of British Historical
Statistics (Cambridge, 1962) pp 20, 22
^ "Industrial Revolution". BBC. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ LSJ Services [Wales] Ltd. "Population ''therhondda.co.uk''.
Retrieved 9 May 2006". Therhondda.co.uk. Archived from the original on
20 May 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
BBC Wales — History — Themes — Italian
immigration". BBC. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ Interview with Mohammed Asghar AM Archived 18 October 2011 at the
^ a b c d e f g h Dr John Davies (14 February 2003). "Census shows
Welsh language rise Friday, 14 February 2003 extracted 12-04-07". BBC
News. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ a b c "Census equality backed by Plaid 23 September 2000 extracted
BBC News. 23 September 2000. Retrieved 17 October
^ "Census results 'defy tick-box row' 30 September 2002 extracted
BBC News. 30 September 2002. Retrieved 17 October
^ Scottish Parliament's Review of Census Ethnicity Classifications
Consultation: June 2005 extrated 7 April 2008 Archived 4 February 2013
at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b c "NSO article: 'Welsh' on Census form published 8 January 2004,
extracted 7 April 2008". Statistics.gov.uk. 8 January 2004. Archived
from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ a b Walesonline.co.uk Pioneering census questionnaire for
help us shape the future Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback
Machine. published in Western Mail, 17 December 2009 (Retrieved 17
^ ONS website 2011 Census questions –
Wales Archived 22 September
2013 at the Wayback Machine. (Retrieved 17 October 2011)
^ "CREST Minority Nationalism published 2001, extracted 14 July 2010"
(PDF). crest.ox.ac.uk. 2001. p. 10. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
^ "Apology over 'insults' to English,
BBC Wales, 3 September 2001".
BBC News. 19 January 2001. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
Wales Plaid calls for second home controls,
BBC Wales, November
BBC News. 17 November 1999. Retrieved 17 October
^ "Plaid plan 'protects' rural areas,
BBC Wales, 19 June 2001". BBC
News. 19 June 2001. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ a b "Dewis Da - Why choose Welsh?". Careers Wales. Retrieved
^ Powys, Betsan (2012-05-22). "Mugshots and making headlines". BBC
News. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
^ "Oath of Allegiance (Welsh Language) (Hansard, 21 July 1966)".
Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 21 July 1966. Retrieved 17 October
^ "Patagonian Welsh".. 2017-04-03.
^ "2011 Census: First Results for Ethnicity, National Identity, and
Religion for Wales" (PDF). Gov.wales. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
^ Wales, Father Luke Holden - Orthodox Christian Contact. "Orthodox
^ Davies (2008) p. 189
^ Collinson, Dawn (28 February 2015). "St David's Day: why are
Liverpool's Welsh links so strong?". Liverpoolecho.co.uk.
Ashton-in-Makerfield U3A - About Ashton-in-Makerfield".
Ashtoninmakerfieldanddistrictu3a.co.uk. Retrieved 9 January
BBC - Hereford and Worcester - About Herefordshire - Herefordshire
in Wales?". Bbc.co.uk.
^ "Watch: 43 years on - should Oswestry be in
England or Wales?".
^ Fuller, Mike (8 July 2016). "Bore da! Cheshire West revealed as most
Welsh place in England". Chesterchronicle.co.uk.
^ "Why the people of Shrewsbury are 'more Welsh' than Cardiff".
Walesonline.co.uk. 12 September 2006.
BBC website; Archived 2 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. recalled 13
^ a b "Nineteenth Century Arrivals in Australia: ''University of
Wales, Lampeter'' website. Retrieved 3 August 2006". Lamp.ac.uk.
Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ Welsh in
Pennsylvania by Matthew S. Magda (1986), Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Retrieved 3 August 2006. Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Welsh: Multicultural Canada. Retrieved 3 August 2006. Archived 26
June 2007 at Archive.is
^ "South America — Patagonia: ''BBC —
Retrieved 3 August 2006". BBC. Archived from the original on 13 May
2006. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ "Tiny US town's big Welsh heritage: ''
BBC News,'' 20 July 2005.
Retrieved 3 August 2006".
BBC News. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 17 October
^ "Welsh History, The Welsh in North America, Utah". Ligtel.com.
Archived from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 17 October
Welsh immigration from ''Te Ara, The Encyclopedia of New Zealand''.
Retrieved 3 August 2003". Teara.govt.nz. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 17
^ "Estimated from population of
Wales from 2001 census
(2,903,085Census 2001 Wales". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 October
^ "Was there an Indian tribe descended from Welsh explorers to
America?". Straight Dope. 8 September 2006. Retrieved 17 October
^  Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
John Davies, A History of Wales, published 1990 by Penguin,
Norman Davies, The Isles, published 1991 by Papermac,
Gwyn A Williams, The Welsh in their History, published 1982 by Croom
Helm, ISBN 0-7099-3651-6
J.F. del Giorgio, The Oldest Europeans, published 2005 by A.J. Place,
Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion,
and Nationalism, published in 1997 by Cambridge University Press,
Find more aboutWelsh peopleat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
BBC Wales: Welsh Comings and Goings: The history of migration in and
out of Wales
BBC News report: The Numbers of Welsh (and Cornish)
BBC News report: Genes link
Celts to Basques
BBC: The Welsh in Patagonia
Glaniad – Welsh Settlements in Patagonia
data-wales.co.uk: Emigration from
Wales to America
data-wales.co.uk: Why do so many Black Americans have Welsh names?
Genetic data (1)
Genetic data (2)
Link2Wales: Encyclopedia of the alternative music scene in Wales
A Y chromosome census of the British Isles
418,000 write in 'Welsh' on 2001 Census form
Gathering the Jewels – Welsh Heritage and Culture
Rebecca Thomas of Cambridge University on parallel.cymru:Sut ddaeth
pobl Cymru’n Gymry (How the people of
Wales became Welsh)
Links to related articles
Early Middle Ages
Kingdom of Gwynedd
Kingdom of Powys
Medieval Welsh law
Late Middle Ages
Statute of Rhuddlan
Wales Acts 1535 and 1542
Mountains and hills
Secretary of State
Modern Welsh law
Agriculture (Sheep farming)
Literature in Welsh / in English
Men's 7s team
Women's 7s team
1904–1905 Welsh Revival
Church in Wales
Islam in Wales
Presbyterian Church of Wales
Welsh Methodist revival
Prince of Wales's feathers
Celtic League definition
Isle of Man
Breton nationalism (history)
Irish nationalism (incl. Republicanism)
Brythonic (Breton, Cornish & Welsh)
Goidelic (Irish, Manx & Scottish Gaelic)
Shelta & Bungee)
Britons (Bretons, Cornish & Welsh)
Gaels (Irish incl. Irish Travellers, Manx & Highland Scots incl.
Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Festival Interceltique de Lorient
Pan Celtic Festival
Hebridean Celtic Festival
Celtic Media Festival
Gaelic football (Ladies')
British Virgin Islanders
Hongkongers (British Nationals (Overseas))
Turks and Caicos Islanders
United Kingdom (England
Isle of Man
United Kingdom relations
British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference
British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly
Common Travel Area
Islands of the Clyde
Isle of Man
Isles of Scilly
Lists of islands of
Bailiwick of Guernsey
Bailiwick of Jersey
Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Irish Free State
Kingdom of England
Principality of Wales
Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Scotland
United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland
British Sign Language
Irish Sign Language
Ireland Sign Language