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WELSH ENGLISH refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people . The dialects are significantly influenced by Welsh grammar and often include words derived from Welsh. In addition to the distinctive words and grammar, a variety of accents are found across Wales, including those of north Wales
Wales
, the Cardiff dialect , the South Wales
Wales
Valleys and west Wales
Wales
.

In the east and south east, it has been influenced by West Country dialects due to immigration, while in North Wales, the influence of Merseyside English is becoming increasingly prominent.

Part of a series on the

CULTURE OF WALES

HISTORY

PEOPLE

Languages

* Welsh ( Y Fro Gymraeg * History * Welsh placenames * Welsh surnames * Welsh medium education
Welsh medium education
) * Welsh English

Traditions

* Traditional Welsh costume * Welsh law * Land division ( Commote * Cantref * Historic counties )

Mythology and folklore

* Mythology

Cuisine

* Bara brith
Bara brith
* Bara Lafwr * Cawl * Cawl Cennin * Crempog * Gower cuisine * Selsig Morgannwg * Tatws Pum Munud * Welsh breakfast * Welsh cake * Welsh rarebit * List of Welsh dishes * List of restaurants in Wales
Wales

Festivals

* Calennig * Dydd Santes Dwynwen * Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau * Saint David\'s Day * Calan Mai * Calan Awst * Calan Gaeaf * Gŵyl Mabsant * Gŵyl San Steffan * Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod

RELIGION

ART

Literature

* in Welsh * in English * Medieval * Authors * Poets * Theatre

Music and performing arts

* Music

Media

* Radio * Television * Cinema

Sport

* Bando * Boxing * Cnapan * Cricket * Soccer * Golf * Horse racing * Pêl-Law * Rugby league * Rugby union

Monuments

* World Heritage Sites

Symbols

* Flag * Coat of arms * Flag of Saint David * Other flags * Welsh Dragon * Welsh heraldry * Celtic cross * Celtic knot

* * Wales
Wales
portal

* v * t * e

CONTENTS

* 1 Pronunciation

* 1.1 Vowels

* 1.1.1 Short monophthongs * 1.1.2 Long monophthongs * 1.1.3 Diphthongs

* 1.2 Consonants

* 2 Distinctive vocabulary and grammar * 3 Orthography * 4 History of the English language in Wales
Wales
* 5 Influence outside Wales
Wales
* 6 Literature * 7 Popular culture * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

PRONUNCIATION

VOWELS

Short Monophthongs

* The vowel of cat /æ/ is pronounced as a more central near-open front unrounded vowel . In Cardiff
Cardiff
, bag is pronounced with a long vowel . In Powys
Powys
, a pronunciation resembling its New Zealand and South African analogue is sometimes heard, i.e. trap is pronounced /trɛp/ * The vowel of end /ɛ/ is a more open vowel and thus closer to cardinal vowel than RP * The vowel of "kit" /ɪ/ often sounds closer to the schwa sound of above, an advanced close-mid central unrounded vowel * The vowel of hot /ɒ/ is raised towards and can thus be transcribed as or * The vowel of "bus" /ʌ/ is pronounced and is encountered as a hypercorrection in northern areas for foot. It is sometimes manifested in border areas of north and mid Wales
Wales
as an open front unrounded vowel /a/ or as a near-close near-back rounded vowel /ʊ/ in northeast Wales, under influence of Cheshire
Cheshire
and Merseyside accents. * In accents that distinguish between foot and strut , the vowel of foot is a more lowered vowel , particularly in the north * The schwa of better may be different from that of above in some accents; the former may be pronounced as , the same vowel as that of bus * The schwi tends to be supplanted by an /ɛ/ in final closed syllables, e.g. brightest /ˈbɾəi.tɛst/. The uncertainty over which vowel to use often leads to 'hypercorrections' involving the schwa, e.g. programme is often pronounced /ˈproː.ɡrəm/

Long Monophthongs

Monophthongs of Welsh English
Welsh English
as they are pronounced in Abercrave, from Coupland text-transform: lowercase;">NURSE vowel /ɜː/ is not shown. Monophthongs of Welsh English
Welsh English
as they are pronounced in Cardiff, from Coupland "> Diphthongs of Welsh English as they are pronounced in Abercrave, from Coupland "> Diphthongs of Welsh English
Welsh English
as they are pronounced in Cardiff, from Coupland ">) is used to mean "friend" or "mate"

There is no standard variety of English that is specific to Wales, but such features are readily recognised by Anglophones from the rest of the UK as being from Wales, including the (actually rarely used) phrase look you which is a translation of a Welsh language tag.

The word "tidy" has been described as "One of the most over-worked Wenglish words" and can have a range of meanings including - fine or splendid, long, decent, and plenty or large amount. A "tidy swill" is a wash involving at least face and hands.

ORTHOGRAPHY

Spellings are almost identical to other dialects of British English. Minor differences occur with words descended from Welsh that are not anglicised unlike in many other dialects of English.

In Wales, the valley is always "cwm", not the Anglicised version "coombe". As with other dialects of British English, -ise endings are preferred: "realise" instead of "realize". However, both forms are acceptable.

HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN WALES

The presence of English in Wales
Wales
intensified on the passing of the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts of 1535–1542 , the statutes having promoted the dominance of English in Wales; this, coupled with the closure of the monasteries , which closed down many centres of Welsh education, led to decline in the use of the Welsh language .

The decline of Welsh and the ascendancy of English was intensified further during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, when many Welsh speakers moved to England to find work and the recently developed mining and smelting industries came to be manned by Anglophones. David Crystal
David Crystal
, who grew up in Holyhead , claims that the continuing dominance of English in Wales
Wales
is little different from its spread elsewhere in the world.

INFLUENCE OUTSIDE WALES

While other British English accents have affected the accents of English in Wales, influence has moved in both directions. In particular, Scouse and Brummie (colloquial) accents have both had extensive Anglo-Welsh input through migration, although in the former case, the influence of Anglo-Irish is better known.

LITERATURE

Main article: Welsh literature in English Dylan Thomas' writing shed.

"Anglo-Welsh literature" and "Welsh writing in English" are terms used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers. It has been recognised as a distinctive entity only since the 20th century. The need for a separate identity for this kind of writing arose because of the parallel development of modern Welsh-language literature ; as such it is perhaps the youngest branch of English-language literature in the British Isles.

While Raymond Garlick discovered sixty-nine Welsh men and women who wrote in English prior to the twentieth century, Dafydd Johnston thinks it "debatable whether such writers belong to a recognisable Anglo-Welsh literature, as opposed to English literature in general". Well into the nineteenth century English was spoken by relatively few in Wales, and prior to the early twentieth century there are only three major Welsh-born writers who wrote in the English language: George Herbert
George Herbert
(1593–1633) from Montgomeryshire , Henry Vaughan (1622–1695) from Brecknockshire , and John Dyer (1699–1757) from Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
.

Welsh writing in English might be said to begin with the fifteenth-century bard Ieuan ap Hywel Swrdwal (?1430 - ?1480), whose Hymn to the Virgin was written at Oxford in England in about 1470 and uses a Welsh poetic form, the awdl , and Welsh orthography ; for example: O mighti ladi, owr leding - tw haf At hefn owr abeiding: Yntw ddy ffast eferlasting I set a braents ws tw bring.

A rival claim for the first Welsh writer to use English creatively is made for the poet, John Clanvowe (1341–1391).

The influence of Welsh English
Welsh English
can be seen in My People by Caradoc Evans , which uses it in dialogue (but not narrative); Under Milk Wood by Dylan Thomas
Dylan Thomas
, originally a radio play; and Niall Griffiths whose gritty realist pieces are mostly written in Welsh English.

POPULAR CULTURE

* In the UK TV series Thomas -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B C D E "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ A B C "Accents of English: - John C. Wells - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ A B C D E "A Handbook of Varieties of English: CD-ROM. - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ A B "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ Coupland & Thomas (1990 :95) * ^ "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ A B C "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ Paul Heggarty. "Sound Comparisons". Sound Comparisons. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ A B C "English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ A B C D E Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, pp. 335 * ^ "Accents of English: - John C. Wells - Google Books". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ "Why butty rarely leaves Wales". Wales
Wales
Online. 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2015-02-22. * ^ * ^ Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, p. 334 * ^ A B Raymond Garlick An Introduction to Anglo-Welsh Literature (University of Wales
Wales
Press, 1970) * ^ A Pocket Guide to the Literature of Wales
Wales
University of Wales Press: Cardiff, 1994, p. 91

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan R., eds. (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., ISBN 1-85359-032-0

FURTHER READING

* Penhallurick, Robert (2004), "Welsh English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 98–112, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 * Podhovnik, Edith (2010), "Age and Accent - Changes in a Southern Welsh English
Welsh English</