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The Info List - Welland Canal





The Welland
Welland
Canal is a ship canal in Ontario, Canada, connecting Lake Ontario
Ontario
and Lake Erie. It forms a key section of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Traversing the Niagara Peninsula
Niagara Peninsula
from Port Weller to Port Colborne, it enables ships to ascend and descend the Niagara Escarpment and bypass Niagara Falls. The canal carries about 3,000 ships which carry about 40,000,000 tons of cargo a year. It was a major factor in the growth of the city of Toronto, Ontario.[citation needed] The original canal and its successors allowed goods from Great Lakes
Great Lakes
ports such as Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago, as well as heavily industrialized areas of the United States
United States
and Ontario, to be shipped to the port of Montreal or to Quebec City, where they were usually reloaded onto ocean-going vessels for international shipping. The Welland
Welland
Canal eclipsed other, narrower canals in the region, such as the Trent-Severn Waterway
Trent-Severn Waterway
and, significantly, the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
(which linked the Atlantic and Lake Erie
Lake Erie
via New York City
New York City
and Buffalo, New York) by providing a shorter, more direct connection to Lake Erie. The southern, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
terminus of the canal is 99.5 metres (326 feet) higher than the northern terminus on Lake Ontario. The canal includes eight 24.4-metre-wide (80 ft) ship locks.[1] Seven of the locks (Locks 1–7, the 'Lift' locks) are 233.5 m (766 ft) long and raise (or lower) passing ships by between 13 and 15 m (43 and 49 ft) each. The southernmost lock, (Lock 8 – the 'Guard' or 'Control' lock) is 349.9 m (1,148 ft) in length.[2] The Garden City Skyway
Garden City Skyway
passes over the canal, restricting the maximum height of the masts of the ships allowed on this canal to 35.5 m (116 ft). All other highway or railroad crossings of the Welland
Welland
Canal are either movable bridges (of the vertical lift or bascule bridge types) or subterranean tunnels. The maximum permissible length of a ship in this canal is 225.5 metres (740 feet). It takes ships an average of about eleven hours to traverse the entire length of the Welland
Welland
Canal.

Contents

1 History

1.1 First Welland
Welland
Canal 1.2 Second Welland
Welland
Canal 1.3 Third Welland
Welland
Canal 1.4 Fourth (current) Welland
Welland
Canal

1.4.1 Welland
Welland
By-Pass

1.5 Fifth (proposed but uncompleted) Welland
Welland
Canal

2 Accidents 3 Sabotage 4 Shipping season 5 Facts and figures

5.1 Current canal 5.2 Increasing lock size 5.3 List of locks and crossings

6 Profile 7 Old alignment prior to Welland
Welland
By-Pass relocation 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Before the digging of the Welland
Welland
Canal, shipping traffic between Lake Ontario
Ontario
and Lake Erie
Lake Erie
used a portage road between Chippawa, Ontario, and Queenston, Ontario, both of which are located on the Niagara River—above and below Niagara Falls, respectively.[citation needed] First Welland
Welland
Canal[edit] Main article: First Welland
Welland
Canal The Welland
Welland
Canal Company was incorporated by the Province of Upper Canada, in 1824, after a petition by nine "freeholders of the District of Niagara". One of the petitioners was William Hamilton Merritt, who was in part looking to provide a regular flow of water for his many water-powered industries along the Twelve Mile Creek in Thorold. The construction began at Allanburg, Ontario, on November 30, at a point now marked as such on the west end of Bridge No. 11 (formerly Highway 20). This canal opened for a trial run on November 30, 1829 (exactly five years, to the day, after the ground-breaking in 1824). After a short ceremony at Lock One, in Port Dalhousie, the schooner Anne & Jane (also called "Annie & Jane" in some texts[3]) made the first transit, upbound to Buffalo, N.Y., with Merritt as a passenger on her deck. The first canal ran from Port Dalhousie, Ontario
Ontario
on Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
south along Twelve Mile Creek to St. Catharines. From there it took a winding route up the Niagara Escarpment
Niagara Escarpment
through Merritton, Ontario
Ontario
to Thorold, where it continued south via Allanburg to Port Robinson, Ontario
Ontario
on the Welland
Welland
River. Ships went east (downstream) on the Welland River
Welland River
to Chippawa, at the south (upper) end of the old portage road, where they made a sharp right turn into the Niagara River, upstream towards Lake Erie. Originally, the section between Allanburg and Port Robinson was planned to be carried in a subterranean tunnel. However, the sandy soil in this part of Ontario
Ontario
made a tunnel infeasible, and a deep open-cut canal was dug instead. A southern extension from Port Robinson opened in 1833, with the founding of Port Colborne. This extension followed the Welland
Welland
River south to Welland
Welland
(known then as the settlement of Aqueduct, for the wooden aqueduct that carried the canal over the Welland River
Welland River
at that point), and then split to run south to Port Colborne
Port Colborne
on Lake Erie. A feeder canal ran southwest from Welland
Welland
to another point on Lake Erie, just west of Rock Point Provincial Park
Rock Point Provincial Park
in Port Maitland. With the opening of the extension, the canal stretched 44 km (27 mi) between the two lakes, with 40 wooden locks. The minimum lock size was 33.5 by 6.7 m (110 by 22 ft), with a minimum canal depth of 2.4 m (7.9 ft). Deterioration of the wood used in the 40 locks and the increasing size of ships led to demand for the Second Welland
Welland
Canal, which used cut stone locks, within just a few years.[4] Second Welland
Welland
Canal[edit] In 1839 the government of Upper Canada
Canada
approved the purchase of shares in the private canal company in response to the company's continuing financial problems in the face of the continental financial panic of 1837. The public buyout was completed in 1841, and work began to deepen the canal and to reduce the number of locks to 27, each 45.7 by 8.1 m (150 by 27 ft). By 1846, a 2.7 m (9 ft) deep path was completed through the Welland
Welland
Canal, and by 1848 that depth was extended the rest of the way to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via the future path of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Competition came in 1854 with the opening of the Erie and Ontario Railway, running parallel to the original portage road. In 1859, the Welland
Welland
Railway opened, parallel to the canal and with the same endpoints. But this railway was affiliated with the canal, and was actually used to help transfer cargoes from the lake ships, which were too large for the small canal locks, to the other end of the canal (The Trillium Railway
Trillium Railway
owns the railway's remnants and Port Colborne Harbour Railway). Smaller ships called "canallers" also took a part of these loads. Due to this problem, it was soon apparent the canal would have to be enlarged again.[citation needed] Third Welland
Welland
Canal[edit] In 1887, a new shorter alignment was completed between St. Catharines and Port Dalhousie. One of the most interesting features of this third Welland
Welland
Canal was the Merritton Tunnel
Merritton Tunnel
on the Grand Trunk Railway
Grand Trunk Railway
line that ran under the canal at Lock 18. Another nearby tunnel carried the canal over a sunken section of the St David's Road. The new route had a minimum depth of 4.3 m (14 ft) with 26 stone locks, each 82.3 m (270 ft) long by 13.7 m (45 ft) wide. Even so, the canal was still too small for many boats. Fourth (current) Welland
Welland
Canal[edit] Construction on the current canal began in 1913, but work was put on hold from 1916 to 1919 due to a shortage of men and workers during World War I
World War I
(1914–18) and was completed and officially opened on August 6, 1932. Dredging to the planned 25 foot depth was not completed until 1935. The route was again changed north of St. Catharines, now running directly north to Port Weller. In this configuration, there are eight locks, seven at the Niagara Escarpment and the eighth, a guard lock, at Port Colborne
Port Colborne
to adjust with the varying water depth in Lake Erie. The depth was now 7.6 m (25 ft), with locks 233.5 m (766 ft) long by 24.4 m (80 ft) wide. This canal is officially known now as the Welland
Welland
Ship Canal. The Welland
Welland
Canal's first "hands-free" vacuum mooring was tested in Lock 7 prior to 2014.[5] Installation of the updated systems for Locks 1 through 7 will be completed in 2017.[6][7][8][9] Welland
Welland
By-Pass[edit] In the 1950s, with the building of the present St. Lawrence Seaway, a standard depth of 8.2 m (27 ft) was adopted. The 13.4-kilometre (8.3 mi) long Welland
Welland
By-Pass, built between 1967 and 1972, opened for the 1973 shipping season, providing a new and shorter alignment between Port Robinson and Port Colborne
Port Colborne
and by-passing downtown Welland. All three crossings of the new alignment—one an aqueduct for the Welland
Welland
River—were built as tunnels. Around the same time, the Thorold
Thorold
Tunnel was built at Thorold and several bridges were removed. Fifth (proposed but uncompleted) Welland
Welland
Canal[edit] These projects were to be tied into a proposed new canal, titled the Fifth Welland
Welland
Canal, which was planned to by-pass most of the existing canal to the east and to cross the Niagara Escarpment
Niagara Escarpment
in one large 'superlock'. While land for the project was expropriated and the design finalized, the project never got past the initial construction stages and has since been shelved. The present Welland
Welland
Ship Canal was originally designed to only last until 2030, almost 100 years after it first opened, and 200 years since the first full shipping season, in 1830, of the original canal. Subsequent improvements to the canal infrastructure mean that it may last much longer before it needs to be replaced.[10] Accidents[edit] On June 20, 1912, the government survey steamer La Canadienne lost control due to mechanical problems in the engine room and smashed into the upstream gates of Lock No. 22 of the 3rd Welland
Welland
Canal, forcing them open by six inches. The resulting surge of water flooded downstream, cresting the upstream gates of Lock No. 21 where five boys were fishing. One boy ran to safety and one of the boys, David Boucke, was saved by a government surveyor Hugh McGuire. But the remaining three, Willie Wallace Tifney (age 5), Willie Tacke (age 5) and Leonard Bretwick (age 4)[11] were knocked into the water, drowning in the surge.

Aftermath of the collision with the Port Robinson Bridge 12

On August 25, 1974, the northbound ore-carrier Steelton struck Bridge 12 in Port Robinson. The bridge was rising and the impact knocked the bridge over, destroying it. No one was killed. The bridge master, Albert Beaver, and a watchman on the ship suffered minor injuries. The bridge has not been replaced and the inhabitants of Port Robinson have been served by a ferry for many years. The Welland
Welland
Public Library archive has images of the aftermath. On August 11, 2001, the lake freighter Windoc collided with Bridge 11 in Allanburg, closing vessel traffic on the Welland
Welland
Canal for two days. The accident destroyed the ship's wheelhouse and funnel (chimney), ignited a large fire on board, and caused minor damage to the vertical lift bridge. The accident and portions of its aftermath were captured on amateur video.[12] The vessel was a total loss, but there were no reported injuries, and no pollution to the waterway. The damage to the bridge was focused on the centre of the vertical-lift span. It was repaired over a number of weeks and reopened to vehicular traffic on November 16, 2001. The Marine Investigation Report concluded, "it is likely that the [vertical lift bridge] operator's performance was impaired while the bridge span was lowered onto the Windoc."[13][14] At around noon on Wednesday September 30, 2015, the Lena J cargo ship collided with Bridge 19 in Port Colborne, closing the bridge to all vehicle and pedestrian traffic until an assessment could be made on the condition of the bridge.[15][16] The vessel had sustained damage to its bridge, but was still able to continue on its voyage to Burns Harbour, Indiana. Pictures of the damage sustained to the vessel and Bridge 19 were captured.[17] On Friday October 1, 2015, Chris Lee, an acting direct engineer for the City of Port Colborne, said that the St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway
Management Corporation (SLSMC) will likely close the bridge to all vehicle traffic until the end of the year. However, pedestrians will be able to cross the bridge, and emergency services will be able to cross the bridge on a limited basis.[18][19][15][20] On Tuesday October 6, 2015, the City of Port Colborne
Port Colborne
released a media statement, which stated that Bridge 19, "will remain closed to vehicular traffic until after the close of the shipping season in December. Repairs will begin in early January." Detour routes have been planned and mapped by the City of Port Colborne
Port Colborne
and the City of Welland
Welland
in order to ease the flow of traffic over Bridge 19A.[21] The Welland
Welland
Canal Fallen Workers Memorial at Lock 3 was unveiled on November 12, 2017. This commemorates the 137 workers who died while building the canal.[22] Sabotage[edit] The Welland
Welland
Canal has been the focus of plots on a number of occasions throughout its existence. However, only two have ever been carried out. The earliest and potentially most devastating attack occurred on September 9, 1841[23] at Lock No. 37 (Allanburg) of the First Welland Canal (43°04′41″N 79°12′36″W / 43.07796°N 79.20991°W / 43.07796; -79.20991) (approximately 180 m north of today's Allanburg bridge),[24] when an explosive charge destroyed one of the lock gates. However, a catastrophic flood was prevented when a guard gate located upstream of the lock closed into place preventing the upstream waters from careening down the route of the Canal and causing further damage and possible injury or loss of life. It was suspected that Benjamin Lett was responsible for the explosion. On April 21, 1900 about 6:30 in the evening,[25] a dynamite charge was set off against the hinges of Lock No. 24 of the Third Welland
Welland
Canal (just to the east of Lock No. 7 of today's canal (43°07′23″N 79°11′33″W / 43.122976°N 79.192372°W / 43.122976; -79.192372)), doing minor damage. This time, the saboteurs were caught in nearby Thorold. John Walsh, John Nolan and the ringleader "Dynamite" Luke Dillon (a member of Clan-na-Gael)[26] were tried at the Welland
Welland
Courthouse and found guilty, receiving life sentences at Kingston Penitentiary. The "star witness" at the trial was a 16-year-old Thorold
Thorold
girl named Euphemia Constable, who caught a good look at the bombers before being knocked unconscious by the blast. While waiting to testify, the girl received death threats, but, they turned out to be a hoax.[citation needed] As for the prisoners, Nolan lost his sanity while incarcerated, John Walsh was eventually released while Luke Dillon remained in custody until July 12, 1914[27] The First World War
First World War
brought with it plots against the canal and the most notable of them came to be known as "The Von Papen Plot". In April 1916, a United States
United States
federal grand jury issued an indictment against Franz von Papen, Captain Hans Tauscher, Captain Karl Boy-Ed, Constantine Covani and Franz von Rintelen
Franz von Rintelen
on charges of a plot to blow up the Welland
Welland
Canal.[28][29][30] However, Papen was at the time safely on German soil, having been expelled from the US several months previously for alleged earlier acts of espionage and attempted sabotage. Von Papen remained under indictment on these charges until he became Chancellor of Germany in 1932, at which time the charges were dropped. Shipping season[edit] The Welland
Welland
Canal closes in winter (January–March) when ice or weather conditions become a hazard to navigation. The shipping season reopens in spring when the waters are once again safe. In 2007, the season opened on the earliest date ever, March 20, just hours ahead of the vernal equinox. Facts and figures[edit] Current canal[edit]

Maximum vessel length: 225.5 m (740 ft) Maximum draft: 8.2 m (27 ft) Maximum above-water clearance: 35.5 m (116 ft) Elevation change between Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
and Lake Erie: 99.5 m (326 ft) Average transit time between the lakes: 11 hours Length of canal: 43.5 km (27.0 mi)

Increasing lock size[edit]

Canal First (1829) Second (1846) Third (1887) Fourth (1932)

Locks 40 27 26 8

Width (metres) 6.7 8.1 13.7 24.4

Length (metres) 33.5 45.7 82.3 261.8

Depth (metres) 2.4 2.7 4.3 8.2

List of locks and crossings[edit] Locks and crossings are numbered from north to south.

[

v t e

] Welland
Welland
Canals

Legend

Description km

Lake Ontario

Port Weller

Port Dalhousie

Lock #1 3.1

Lock #2 5.9

  Queen Elizabeth Way
Queen Elizabeth Way
- Garden City Skyway

Lock #3 10.2

Locks #4-6 12.6

Merritton Tunnel

Lock #7 13.9

Thorold
Thorold
Tunnel

Bridge 11, Allanburg

Deep Cut

Port Robinson

Welland
Welland
Recreational Waterway

Welland River
Welland River
to Niagara River

Main Street bridge - Main Street Tunnel

CPR bridge

Feeder Canal to Grand River

Townline Tunnel

Lock #8 at Port Colborne 39.3

Lake Erie 43.5

Municipality Lock or bridge number † Crossing Remarks

St. Catharines Lock 1

43°13′03″N 79°12′47″W / 43.217484°N 79.212992°W / 43.217484; -79.212992

St. Catharines Bridge 1 Lakeshore Road (Regional Road 87) Bascule bridge

St. Catharines Bridge 2 Church Road (Now Linwell Road) Never installed

St. Catharines Lock 2

43°11′35″N 79°12′08″W / 43.193131°N 79.202178°W / 43.193131; -79.202178

St. Catharines Bridge 3A Carlton Street (Regional Road 83) Bascule bridge. Replaced original Bridge 3 (destroyed in accident)

St. Catharines Bridge 4A Garden City Skyway: Queen Elizabeth Way

St. Catharines Bridge 4 Queenston Street (Regional Road 81) (former Highway 8) Bascule bridge, also known as "Homer Lift Bridge"

St. Catharines Lock 3

43°09′19″N 79°11′35″W / 43.155230°N 79.193058°W / 43.155230; -79.193058 location of Welland
Welland
Canal Information Centre

St. Catharines Bridge 5 Glendale Avenue (Regional Road 89) Vertical-lift bridge

St Catharines Bridge 6 Great Western Railway (Ontario) (now Canadian National Railway) Bascule bridge

St Catharines Lock 4

twinned flight lock

Thorold Locks 5–6

43°08′03″N 79°11′31″W / 43.134283°N 79.191899°W / 43.134283; -79.191899 twinned flight locks

Thorold Lock 7

43°07′24″N 79°11′38″W / 43.123446°N 79.193895°W / 43.123446; -79.193895 southernmost lift over the Niagara Escarpment

Thorold Bridge 7 Hoover Street removed

Thorold Bridge 8 Niagara Central Railway (now Canadian National Railway) removed

Thorold

Thorold
Thorold
Tunnel, carries Highway 58

Thorold Bridge 9 Ormond Street removed

Thorold Bridge 10 Welland
Welland
Railway (now Canadian National Railway) removed winter 1998

Thorold Bridge 11 Canboro Road (Regional Road 20) (former Highway 20) Vertical-lift bridge. Lowered prematurely on Windoc in 2001

Thorold Bridge 12 Bridge Street (Regional Road 63) destroyed by the Steelton in 1974

Welland

Main Street Tunnel: (Highway 7146)

Welland

Townline Tunnel: Highway 58A and Canadian National Railway/Penn Central

Port Colborne Bridge 19 Main Street (Regional Road 3) Highway 3 Bascule bridge

Port Colborne Lock 8

42°53′57″N 79°14′46″W / 42.899122°N 79.246166°W / 42.899122; -79.246166 control lock

Port Colborne Bridge 19A Mellanby Avenue (Regional Road 3A) Bascule bridge

Port Colborne Bridge 20 Buffalo and Lake Huron
Lake Huron
Railroad (now Canadian National Railway) removed winter 1997

Port Colborne Bridge 21 Clarence Street Vertical-lift bridge

Profile[edit] The following illustration depicts the profile of the Welland
Welland
Canal. The horizontal axis is the length of the canal. The vertical axis is the elevation of the canal segments above mean sea level.

Profile of the Welland
Welland
Canal from Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
(left) to Lake Erie (right)

Old alignment prior to Welland
Welland
By-Pass relocation[edit]

Municipality Bridge Number † Crossing Remarks

Welland
Welland
Recreational Waterway branches off from the Welland
Welland
By-Pass at Port Robinson

Thorold

Canadian National Railway built during the relocation

Thorold

Highway 406 built after the relocation

Welland

Woodlawn Road (Regional Road 41) built after the relocation

Welland Bridge 13 East Main Street/West Main Street (Regional Road 27) vertical lift bridge, counterweights removed 42°59′30″N 79°15′05″W / 42.99167°N 79.25139°W / 42.99167; -79.25139 ( Welland
Welland
Canal, Bridge 13)

Welland

Division Street (Regional Road 527) built after the relocation

Welland Bridge 14 Lincoln Street rebuilt as fixed-span after the relocation 42°59′01″N 79°15′16″W / 42.98361°N 79.25444°W / 42.98361; -79.25444 ( Welland
Welland
Canal, Bridge 14)

Welland Bridge 15 Canada
Canada
Southern Railway (Penn Central) rare Baltimore truss swing bridge[31] 42°58′37″N 79°15′21″W / 42.97694°N 79.25583°W / 42.97694; -79.25583 ( Welland
Welland
Canal, Bridge 15)

Welland Bridge 16 Ontario
Ontario
Road/Broadway Avenue rebuilt as fixed-span after the relocation, the new span located to the north of the original site of Bridge 16 42°58′25″N 79°15′21″W / 42.97361°N 79.25583°W / 42.97361; -79.25583 ( Welland
Welland
Canal, Bridge 16)

cut by western approaches to Townline Tunnel
Townline Tunnel
(Highway 58A and Canadian National Railway/Penn Central)

Welland Bridge 17 Canada
Canada
Air-Line Railway (now Canadian National Railway) vertical lift bridge, counterweights still present 42°56′57″N 79°15′00″W / 42.94917°N 79.25000°W / 42.94917; -79.25000 ( Welland
Welland
Canal, Bridge 17)

Welland Bridge 18 Forks Road vertical lift bridge, towers and counterweights removed 42°56′50″N 79°14′58″W / 42.94722°N 79.24944°W / 42.94722; -79.24944 ( Welland
Welland
Canal, Bridge 18)

Welland
Welland
Recreational Waterway merges with the Welland
Welland
By-Pass at Ramey's Bend in Port Colborne

† If assigned by the St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway
Authority. The original bridges across the fourth canal were numbered in order. Numbering was not changed as bridges were removed. See also[edit]

Container on barge

References[edit]

^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway
System – The Welland
Welland
Canal Section of the St. Lawrence Searey" (Pdf).  ^ "The Welland
Welland
Canal – Navigation, Locks, Distances, and Passage Information".  ^ Merrit, Jedediah (1875). Biography of the Hon. W. H. Merritt, M. P. St. Catherines: E. S. Leavenworth. p. 123. Retrieved 6 April 2015.  ^ Chambers, Melanie (26 February 2008). Frommer's Niagara Region. John Wiley & Sons. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-470-15324-6.  ^ Pilotage on the Welland
Welland
Canal page 6 ^ "Vacuum pads suck ships on canal". 8 August 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2017. next up are the flight Locks 4, 5 and 6, which will be prepped over the winter with installation scheduled for next year.  ^ Construction of new Cavotec vacuum mooring system at Locks 4 & 5 on YouTube ^ Construction of new Cavotec vacuum mooring system at Lock 4 on YouTube ^ Welland
Welland
Canal, suction lift mooring system on YouTube ^ "WELLAND CANAL (B. 1829) STILL A WORK IN PROGRESS". www.joc.com. Retrieved 2017-12-07.  ^ "Three Boys Drowned When Steamer Broke Thru Gates Of Canal". Toronto World. June 21, 1912.  ^ "Windoc Bridge Accident". YouTube.  ^ "Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Canada
– Marine Investigation Report M01C0054".  ^ "YouTube".  ^ a b " Port Colborne
Port Colborne
bridge still closed to vehicles after collision with ship". October 2, 2015.  ^ "Cargo Ship clips bridge in Port Colborne, Canada
Canada
- Vesselfinder". www.vesselfinder.com.  ^ " St. Catharines
St. Catharines
News - Latest Daily Breaking News Stories - StCatharinesStandard.ca". StCatharinesStandard.ca.  ^ "City of Port Colborne
Port Colborne
- Bridge Status". portcolborne.ca.  ^ " Welland
Welland
News - Latest Daily Breaking News Stories - WellandTribune.ca". WellandTribune.ca.  ^ Release, Press (October 2, 2015). "Status of Bridge 19 Port Colborne".  ^ http://portcolborne.ca/fileBin/library/Media%20Release%20-%20Port%20Colborne%20Bridge%20Closures.pdf ^ " Welland
Welland
Canal Fallen Workers Memorial". Retrieved November 17, 2017.  ^ "Canal has been terrorist target: Brock prof". Niagara This Week. February 26, 2010.  ^ http://wellandcanals.com/forum/index.php?topic=396.0 ^ Clark The Irish relations: trials of an immigrant tradition, p.121 ^ "Dynamite Luke among canal's terrorists". Welland
Welland
Tribune. February 19, 2010.  ^ Clark The Irish relations: trials of an immigrant tradition, p.122 ^ "Tauscher, Figure In 1916 Plot, Dies. Acquitted of Charges That He Planned to Blow Up Welland
Welland
Canal in World War. Served Krupp Interests. Ex-Aide of von Papen Had Arms Firms Here. Husband of Johanna Gadski, Singer". New York Times. September 6, 1941. Retrieved March 21, 2015. Captain Hans Tauscher, former officer of the Imperial German Army, who was indicted with Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
during the World War but acquitted by a Federal jury of charges that he conspired to blow up the strategic Welland
Welland
Canal, died here yesterday in St. Clare's Hospital. ...  ^ "Indict Von Papen As Canal Plotter. Federal Jury Names Recalled Attache and Four Others in Welland
Welland
Conspiracy. One Name is Kept Secret. Captain, Tauscher, Fritzen, Covani, and Another Accused". New York Times. April 18, 1916. Captain Franz von Papen, Military Attache of the German Embassy, who was recently, at the request of the United States Government, recalled to Germany, was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury yesterday as one of the heads of the alleged conspiracy that was hatched in this country in the first weeks of the war to destroy the Welland
Welland
Canal, which forms the navigating link in Canadian territory between Lakes Erie and Ontario. ...  ^ " Welland
Welland
Canal Case". Information Annual. 1917. p. 652. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ " Welland
Welland
Railway Bridge". 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Welland
Welland
Canal.

Wellandcanals.ca – Detailed phototours of all Four Welland
Welland
Canals Survey maps of the First and Second Welland
Welland
Canals at Brock University Official Seaway Schedule Page Official Seaway Traffic Map Page "New Inland Canal Rivals Panama", February 1931, Popular Science The Old Welland
Welland
Canals Field Guide Exploring the Old Welland
Welland
Canals (Google map) Railway Maps (includes details of the Welland
Welland
Realignment) The Welland
Welland
Canal Section of the St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway
(PDF) Has information about Niagara Region bridges, including many Welland Canal Bridges. Welland
Welland
Public Library archive of canal history images & clippings Images from the Historic Niagara Digital Collections Art works from the collection of the Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
Public Library "Windoc Bridge Accident." Youtube, 2006-09-30. Al Miller, "Windoc Accident." The "Great Swivel Link": Canada's Welland
Welland
Canal, a history of the canals published by the Champlain Society in 2000. Welland
Welland
Canal Records Brock University Library Digital Repository Hamilton Merritt Welland
Welland
Canal circular RG 506 Brock University Library Digital Repository Sykes fonds Welland
Welland
Canal Scrapbook RG 341 Brock University Library Digital Repository Ivan S. Brookes fonds RG 182 Brock University Library Digital Repository

Coordinates: 43°09′20.00″N 79°11′37.50″W / 43.1555556°N 79.1937500°W / 43.1555556; -79.1937500

v t e

Welland
Welland
Canal

History

First canal Second canal Third canal Fourth canal Welland
Welland
By-Pass Fifth canal (never built)

Communities

Port Dalhousie Port Weller St. Catharines Thorold Allanburg Port Robinson Welland Dain City Port Colborne

Crossings

Garden City Skyway Thorold
Thorold
Tunnel Main Street Tunnel Townline Tunnel

People

William Hamilton Merritt

part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway

v t e

Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America

Main lakes

Erie Huron Michigan Ontario Superior

Secondary lakes

Nipigon Nipissing St. Clair Simcoe Winnebago

Bays and Waterways

Detroit
Detroit
River Erie Canal French River Georgian Bay Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Waterway Green Bay Lake George Lake Kagawong Lake Manitou Lake Nicolet Manitou Passage Lake Mindemoya Munuscong Lake Niagara River Nipigon River North Channel Potagannissing Bay St. Clair River Saint Lawrence River Saint Lawrence Seaway St. Marys River Sault Ste. Marie Canal Soo Locks Straits of Mackinac Trent–Severn Waterway Welland
Welland
Canal

Islands

Detroit
Detroit
River Michigan (state) (in Lake Huron, part of Isle Royale National Park) Ontario

Historic geology

Lake Agassiz Lake Chicago Lake Maumee Mackinac Falls Midcontinent Rift System Niagara Escarpment Wisconsin glaciation

Government

Conference of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Commission Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Fishery Commission International Joint Commission

Related topics

Basin Bays of the Great Lakes Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region Great Lake ships Lake-effect snow Lake Michigan–Huron Marine protected areas Megalopolis Native American tribes (US) Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Settlements Great Lakes
Great Lakes
museum and historic ships Lake freighter Tall ships Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Areas of Concern Great La

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