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Weimar
Weimar
(German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaɐ̯]; Latin: Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located between Erfurt
Erfurt
in the west and Jena
Jena
in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena
Jena
it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar
Weimar
is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history. The city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment
German Enlightenment
and home of the leading characters of the literary genre of Weimar
Weimar
Classicism, the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
and Friedrich Schiller. In the 19th century, famous composers like Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
made a music centre of Weimar
Weimar
and later, artists and architects like Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger
Lyonel Feininger
and Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
came to the city and founded the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
movement, the most important German design school of the interwar period. However, the political history of 20th-century Weimar
Weimar
was inconsistent: it was the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
period in German politics (1918–33), as well as one of the cities mythologized by the National Socialist propaganda. Until 1948, Weimar
Weimar
was the capital of Thuringia. Today, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage sites (either as part of the Weimar Classicism
Weimar Classicism
complex or as part of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
complex) and tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Relevant institutions in Weimar
Weimar
are the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library
Duchess Anna Amalia Library
and two leading courts of Thuringia
Thuringia
(Supreme Administrative Court and Constitutional Court). In 1999, Weimar
Weimar
was the European Capital of Culture.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistoric times 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Early Modern Period 1.4 Golden or Classical Age (1758–1832) 1.5 Silver Ages and The New Weimar
Weimar
(1832–1918) 1.6 Weimar
Weimar
Republic 1.7 Nazi Germany
Germany
and World War II 1.8 Since 1945

2 Geography and demographics

2.1 Topography 2.2 Climate 2.3 Administrative division 2.4 Demographics

3 Culture, sights and cityscape

3.1 Museums 3.2 Cityscape 3.3 Sights and architectural heritage

3.3.1 Religious buildings 3.3.2 Castles and palaces 3.3.3 Other sights

3.4 Events

4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Agriculture, industry and services 4.2 Transport

4.2.1 By rail 4.2.2 By road 4.2.3 By aviation 4.2.4 By bike 4.2.5 Bus
Bus
service

4.3 Education

5 Politics

5.1 Mayor and city council 5.2 Twin towns

6 Famous residents of Weimar 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Prehistoric times[edit] Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii
Thuringii
epoch (3rd to 6th centuries) show that the Weimar
Weimar
part of the Ilm valley was settled early, with a tight network of settlements where the city is today. Middle Ages[edit]

The Kasseturm is a relic of the former city wall at Goetheplatz

The oldest records regarding Weimar
Weimar
date to 899. Its name changed over the centuries from Wimares through Wimari to Wimar and finally Weimar; it is derived from Old High German
Old High German
wīh- (holy) and -mari (standing water, swamp).[2] Another theory derives the first element from OHG win (meadow, pasture).[3] The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, which was one of the mightiest actors in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the Thuringian Counts' War in 1346 and fell to the Wettins afterwards. The Weimar
Weimar
settlement emerged around the count's wooden castle and two small churches dedicated to St Peter (which became later the main church), and to St James. In 1240, the count founded the dynasty's monastery in Oberweimar, which ran under Cistercian nuns. Soon after, the counts of Weimar
Weimar
founded the town, which was an independent parish since 1249 and called civitas in 1254. From 1262 the citizens used their own seal. Nevertheless, the regional influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Hence, the new small town was relatively marginal in a regional context, also due to the fact that it was situated far away from relevant trade routes like the Via Regia. The settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century. After becoming part of the Wettin's territory in 1346, urban development improved. The Wettins fostered Weimar
Weimar
by abolishing socage and granting privileges to the citizens. Now Weimar
Weimar
became equal to other Wettinian cities like Weißensee and grew during the 15th century, with the establishment of a town hall and the current main church. Weimar
Weimar
acquired woad trade privileges in 1438. The castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century, making Weimar
Weimar
into a full city. Early Modern Period[edit] Main article: Saxe-Weimar

Market Square with some 16th-century Renaissance patricians' houses

Weimar
Weimar
in 1650

After the Treaty of Leipzig
Leipzig
(1485) Weimar
Weimar
became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with Wittenberg
Wittenberg
as capital. The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
was introduced in Weimar
Weimar
in 1525; Martin Luther
Martin Luther
stayed several times in the city. As the Ernestines lost the Schmalkaldic War
Schmalkaldic War
in 1547, their capital Wittenberg
Wittenberg
went also to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence. As the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar
Weimar
became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end of the monarchy in 1918. The first Ernestine territorial partition in 1572 was followed by various ones, nevertheless Weimar
Weimar
stayed the capital of different Saxe-Weimar states. The court and its staff brought some wealth to the city, so that it saw a first construction boom in the 16th century. The 17th century brought decline to Weimar, because of changing trade conditions (as in nearby Erfurt). Besides, the territorial partitions led to the loss of political importance of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and their finances shrunk. The city's polity weakened more and more and lost its privileges, leading to the absolutist reign of the dukes in the early 18th century. On the other hand, this time brought another construction boom to Weimar, and the city got its present appearance, marked by various ducal representation buildings. The city walls were demolished in 1757 and during the following decades, Weimar expanded in all directions. The biggest building constructed in this period was the Schloss as the residence of the dukes (north and east wing: 1789–1803, west wing 1832–1835, south wing: 1913–1914). Between 1708 and 1717 Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
worked as the court's organist in Weimar.

Golden or Classical Age (1758–1832)[edit] Main article: Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

The Grand-Ducal Palace.

The Goethe-Schiller Monument in front of the Deutsches Nationaltheater and Staatskapelle Weimar.

The period from the start of the regencies of Anna Amalia (1758–1775) and her son Carl August (1775–1828) through to Goethe's death in 1832 is denoted as the "golden" or the "classical" age because of the high level of cultural activity in Weimar. The city became an important cultural centre of Europe, having been home to such luminaries as Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland and Bertuch; and in music the piano virtuoso Hummel. It has been a site of pilgrimage for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar
Weimar
in 1775. Goethe was also active in civic duties while living there. He served as Privy Councilor to the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach for an extended period. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller, as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Goethe's Elective Affinities (1809) is set around the city of Weimar. In comparison to many major German states, the dukes' policy was liberal and tolerant in this period. The liberal Saxe-Weimar
Saxe-Weimar
constitution was brought into effect in 1816. Silver Ages and The New Weimar
Weimar
(1832–1918)[edit] The time after Goethe's death is denoted as the "silver" age because Weimar
Weimar
remained an influential cultural centre. The first emphasis was fostering music. In 1842, Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
moved to Weimar
Weimar
to become the Grand Ducal court conductor. Liszt organized the premiere of Richard Wagner's Lohengrin (1850) in the city. The Weimar
Weimar
School of Music was founded in 1872 as Germany's first orchestra school. Richard Strauss worked in Weimar
Weimar
between 1889 and 1894 as second conductor in the acclaimed Staatskapelle Weimar
Weimar
(the court orchestra founded in 1491). Several of his encores for works such as Don Juan and Macbeth were performed by the Staatskapelle Weimar. In 1897, Friedrich Nietzsche moved to Weimar
Weimar
and died here in 1900. In 1860 the Weimar
Weimar
Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School, the precursor of today's Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University, was founded. This was the beginning of academic arts education in Weimar. The institution created its own painting style, the " Weimar
Weimar
School" of painting with representatives such as Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
and Arnold Böcklin. The Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar
Weimar
was found by Henry van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
with the support of Grand Duke William Ernest in 1902 and represents the other root of the Bauhaus, known as "Das Neue Weimar" ("The New Weimar") around Harry Graf Kessler. It was a foundation against Prussia's restrictive arts policy favouring Historicism instead of international Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau. As early as the 19th century, the curation of Weimar
Weimar
and its heritage started. Many archives, societies and museums were founded to present and conserve the cultural sights and goods. In 1846, Weimar
Weimar
was connected by the Thuringian Railway. In the following decades, the city saw a construction and population boom (like most late-19th-century cities in Germany). Nevertheless, Weimar
Weimar
did not become industrialised, and remained a city of clerks, artists and rentiers. During the German Revolution of 1918–19
German Revolution of 1918–19
the last reigning grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, William Ernest, had to abdicate and went in exile to Heinrichau in Silesia. Weimar
Weimar
Republic[edit] The period in German history from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the Weimar
Weimar
Republic, as the Republic's constitution was drafted here. Berlin
Berlin
as the capital was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly to use as a meeting place, because of its street rioting after the 1918 German Revolution. The calm and centrally located Weimar
Weimar
had a suitable place of assembly (the theatre), hotels and infrastructure, so it was chosen as the capital. In 1920, the federal state of Thuringia
Thuringia
was founded by an association of eight former microstates (Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss- Gera
Gera
and Reuss-Greiz) and Weimar became its capital. Due to that fact, the city experienced another period of growth. In 1919, Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
founded the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
School by a merger of the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School
Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School
with the Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
in Weimar
Weimar
lasted from 1919 to 1925, when it moved to Dessau, after the newly elected right-wing Thuringian council put pressure on the School by withdrawing funding and forcing its teachers to quit. Many buildings in Weimar
Weimar
today have influences from the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
period. However, only one original Bauhaus
Bauhaus
building was constructed during 1919–1925, the Haus am Horn, now used for exhibitions and events on Bauhaus
Bauhaus
culture. The Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
era was marked by a constant conflict between "progressive" forces and right wing forces, the former represented by Harry Graf Kessler
Harry Graf Kessler
and the latter Adolf Bartels
Adolf Bartels
in Weimar. After 1929, the right wing forces prevailed and Weimar
Weimar
became an early centre of Nazism. Nazi Germany
Germany
and World War II[edit]

Buchenwald's main gate, with the slogan Jedem das Seine
Jedem das Seine
("to each his own")

Weimar
Weimar
was important to the Nazis for two reasons: first, it was where the hated Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
was founded, and second, it was a centre of German high culture during recent centuries. In 1926, the NSDAP
NSDAP
held its party convention in Weimar. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
visited Weimar
Weimar
more than forty times prior to 1933. In 1930, Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
became minister for internal affairs and education in Thuringia, the first NSDAP
NSDAP
minister in Germany. In 1932, the NSDAP
NSDAP
came to power in Thuringia
Thuringia
under Fritz Sauckel. In 1933, the first Concentration Camps were established around Weimar
Weimar
in Nohra
Nohra
(the first one in Germany) and Bad Sulza. Most prisoners at this time were communists and social democrats. After Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
in 1938, harassment of Jews became more intense, so that many of them emigrated or were arrested. The Weimar
Weimar
Synagogue was destroyed in 1938. During the 1930s, the barracks in Weimar
Weimar
was greatly extended. One famous person serving as a soldier in Weimar
Weimar
was Wolfgang Borchert, later a well known poet and playwright. As it was the capital of Thuringia, the Nazis built a new Roman-fascist-style administrative centre between the city centre and the main station. This Gauforum, designed by Hermann Giesler, was the only Nazi governmental building completed outside Berlin
Berlin
(though there were plans for all German state capitals). Today it hosts the Thuringian State Administration. Other Giesler buildings are the "Villa Sauckel", the Governor's palace and the "Hotel Elephant" in the city centre. In 1937, the Nazis established Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
only eight kilometres from Weimar
Weimar
city centre. The slogan Jedem das Seine ("to each his own") was placed over the camp's main entrance gate. Between July 1938 and April 1945, some 240,000 people were incarcerated in the camp by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs.[4] The number of deaths in Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545.[5] The Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
provided slave labour for local industry (arms manufacturer Wilhelm-Gustloff-Werk).[6] The city centre was partially damaged by US Air Force bombing in 1945 with some 1,800 people killed and many historic buildings destroyed. Nevertheless, most of the destroyed buildings were restored soon after the war because of their importance in German cultural history. The Allied ground advance into Germany
Germany
reached Weimar
Weimar
in April 1945, and the city surrendered to the US 80th Infantry Division on April 12, 1945.[7] The residents of Weimar
Weimar
were ordered to walk through Buchenwald, to see what had been happening so close to the city, as documented in Billy Wilder's film Death Mills. The city ended up in the Soviet zone of occupation, so US troops were soon replaced by Soviet forces. Since 1945[edit] From 1945 to 1950, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
used the occupied Buchenwald concentration camp as a NKVD special camp to imprison defeated Nazis and other Germans. The camp slogan remained Jedem das Seine. On 6 January 1950, the Soviets handed over Buchenwald to the East German Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1948, the East German
East German
government declared Erfurt
Erfurt
as Thuringia's new capital and Weimar
Weimar
lost its influence on German contemporary culture and politics. (The state of Thuringia
Thuringia
itself was dissolved in 1952 and replaced by three Bezirke (districts) in a local government reform.) The city was the headquarters of the Soviet Union's 8th Guards Army as part of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. Due to its fame and importance for tourism, Weimar
Weimar
received more financial subsidies from the GDR government and remained in better condition than most East German cities.

Destroyed Anna Amalia Library in 2004

After German Reunification in 1990, Weimar
Weimar
experienced significant economic hardship, but funding restored much that had deteriorated, and it was designated as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site in 1996 (Bauhaus) and 1998 (Classical Weimar). The European Council of Ministers selected the city as European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 1999. Tourism has become an important economic factor over the decades. Weimar
Weimar
is now a popular residence of people working in Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena, both less than 20 minutes away. In 2004, a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faust, in addition to a music collection of the Duchess. An authentic Lutheran Bible
Bible
from 1534 was saved from the fire. The library is one of the oldest in Europe, dating back to 1691, and is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site. Over one million volumes were housed in the library, of which forty to fifty thousand were damaged beyond repair. A number of books were shock-frozen in Leipzig
Leipzig
to save them from rotting. The library was reopened in 2007.[8] Geography and demographics[edit] Topography[edit] Weimar
Weimar
is situated within the valley of Ilm river, a tributary of Saale
Saale
river on the southern border of the Thuringian Basin, a fertile agricultural area between the Harz
Harz
mountains 70 km (43 mi) in the north and the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
50 km (31 mi) in the southwest. The municipal terrain is hilly; the height of the city centre in Ilm valley is approximately 200 m of elevation. To the north, the terrain rises to Ettersberg, the city's 482 m high backyard mountain. The range of hills in the south of Weimar
Weimar
rises up to 370 m and is part of the Ilm Saale
Saale
Plate Muschelkalk
Muschelkalk
formation. The eastern, central and western parts of the municipal territory are in agricultural use, whereas the Ettersberg and some southern areas are wooded. Climate[edit] Weimar
Weimar
has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system.[9][10] Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F) and lows of 12 °C (54 °F). Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of 2 °C (36 °F) and lows of −3 °C (27 °F). The city's topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position with sometimes inversion in winter (quite cold nights under −20 °C (−4 °F)). Annual precipitation is only 574 millimeters (22.6 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. Administrative division[edit]

Districts of Weimar

Weimar
Weimar
abuts the district of Weimarer Land
Weimarer Land
with the municipalities Berlstedt, Ettersburg, Kleinobringen, Großobringen
Großobringen
and Wohlsborn
Wohlsborn
in the north, Kromsdorf, Umpferstedt
Umpferstedt
and Mellingen in the east, Vollersroda, Buchfart, Hetschburg, Bad Berka
Bad Berka
and Troistedt
Troistedt
in the south and Nohra, Daasdorf am Berge, Hopfgarten and Ottstedt am Berge in the west. The city itself is divided into 10 inner urban and 11 suburban districts. The centre is formed by the district Altstadt (old town) and the Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
districts Nordvorstadt in the north, Parkvorstadt in the east and Westvorstadt in the south and west. Later additions are Südstadt in the south and Schönblick in the southwest. Finally, there are the Plattenbau
Plattenbau
settlements, constructed during the GDR period, Weststadt and Nordstadt as well as two industrial areas in the north and west. The 11 suburban districts are villages which got incorporated during the 20th century; however, they have mostly stayed rural to date:

Gaberndorf (incorporated in 1994) Gelmeroda (1994) Legefeld/Holzdorf (1994) Niedergrunstedt (1994) Oberweimar/Ehringsdorf (1922) Possendorf (1994) Schöndorf (1939) Süßenborn (1994) Taubach (1994) Tiefurt (1922) Tröbsdorf (1994)

Demographics[edit]

History of population until 2010

Over the centuries, Weimar
Weimar
remained a small town of less than 5,000 inhabitants. When it became the capital of Saxe-Weimar
Saxe-Weimar
in 1572, population growth was stimulated and population increased from 3,000 in 1650 to 6,000 in 1750. Around the year 1800, Weimar
Weimar
had 7,000 inhabitants. Their number grew constantly over the years to 13,000 in 1850, 28,000 in 1900 and 35,000 at the beginning of World War I. During the interwar period, the new capital of Thuringia
Thuringia
saw a population boom, which led to 65,000 inhabitants in 1940. Since that time, the population levels have stagnated. The years 2009 to 2012 brought a moderate growth of approximately 0.35% p. a., whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Weimar. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders. The birth surplus was +3 in 2012, this is +0.0 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: −4.5; national average: −2.4). The net migration rate was +4.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6).[11] The most important regions of origin of Weimar
Weimar
migrants are rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and Saxony
Saxony
as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Like other eastern German cities, Weimar
Weimar
has only a small amount of foreign population: circa 4.0% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 7.3% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Weimar are Vietnamese people, Russians and Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from 20% in 2005 to 8% in 2013. Due to the official atheism in former GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 20.3% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany
Germany
and 6.1% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census). Culture, sights and cityscape[edit]

Classical Weimar

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Park an der Ilm

Criteria Cultural: iii, vi

Reference 846

Inscription 1998 (22nd Session)

Museums[edit] Weimar
Weimar
has a great variety of museums:

The Goethe-Nationalmuseum
Goethe-Nationalmuseum
at Frauenplan shows the life of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his former residence. Goethe's garden house in the Park an der Ilm
Park an der Ilm
shows an exhibition about Goethe and his connection to nature. The Schiller-Museum at Schillerstraße shows the life of Friedrich Schiller in his former residence. The Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv at Hans-Wahl-Straße collects the estate of Goethe, Schiller and other various artists. In 2001, it became a member of the UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Programme. The Wittumspalais at Theaterplatz shows early-modern court lifestyle with items like furniture and porcelain. The Liszt-Haus at Marienstraße shows the life of Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
in his former summer residence. The Nietzsche-Archiv
Nietzsche-Archiv
at Humboldtstraße shows the life and estate of Friedrich Nietzsche. The Gedenkstätte Buchenwald in former Buchenwald concentration camp commemorates the victims of Nazi terror. The Bauhaus-Museum at Theaterplatz shows an exhibition about the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
design school. The Schlossmuseum inside the residence castle exhibits early-modern antiques and other objects of court life. The Duchess Anna Amalia Library
Duchess Anna Amalia Library
at Platz der Demokratie is an important early-modern library with various print objects. The Neues Museum at Weimarplatz shows an exhibition of contemporary art. The Stadtmuseum at Karl-Liebknecht-Straße exhibits the municipal history of Weimar. The Kunsthalle Harry Graf Kessler
Harry Graf Kessler
at Goetheplatz hosts rotating exhibitions of contemporary artists. The Haus am Horn
Haus am Horn
at Am Horn street is the only pattern residence built after the principles of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
design school. The Fürstengruft at the historic cemetery is a mausoleum of famous Weimar
Weimar
citizens like Goethe and Schiller as well as the dukes of Saxe-Weimar. The Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens (museum of pre- and protohistory of Thuringia) at Humboldtstraße exhibits various objects of early Thuringian history such as archaeological finds. The Deutsches Bienenmuseum (German bee museum) at Ilmstraße in Oberweimar district hosts the only pure exhibition about bees and apiculture in Germany.

Goethe-Nationalmuseum

Schiller-Museum

Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv

Bauhaus-Museum

Neues Museum

Stadtmuseum

Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens

Cityscape[edit] The historic city centre of Weimar
Weimar
is situated between the Ilm river in the east, Grabenstraße in the north, Goetheplatz and Theaterplatz in the west and Schillerstraße in the south. Its two central squares are the Marktplatz in the south (with the town hall) and the Herderplatz in the north (with the main church). Despite its medieval origin, there are only a few medieval buildings, many being destroyed by frequent fires throughout the city's history. Most buildings in this area date back to the 17th and 18th century. Furthermore, Weimar has two old suburbs: in the north, the Jakobsvorstadt around St. James' Church (medieval origin) and another one in the south around Frauenplan square. The majority of buildings in these areas are also of 17th- and 18th-century origin. During the late 19th and early 20th century, Weimar
Weimar
grew in all directions. Because of its function as an "officials' city", the houses in this areas are more extensive than in many comparable Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
quarters in Germany. The most uptown areas are those right and left of the Park an der Ilm
Park an der Ilm
in the southeast, whereas the western and northern quarters are more basic and mixed with industrial areas in their outer parts. During the GDR period, two new Plattenbau
Plattenbau
settlements were developed in the west and the north of the city. After 1990, suburbanization occurred for a short time and the rural districts of Weimar
Weimar
saw significant growth is a big city. Sights and architectural heritage[edit] Religious buildings[edit] The city's main church is the evangelical St. Peter and Paul at Herderplatz (also known as Herderkirche). It was rebuilt in late-Gothic style after a fire around 1500. Between 1726 and 1735, the interior got a Baroque renewal by Johann Adolf Richter. Johann Gottfried Herder was the dean of the church between 1766 and 1803. The second old evangelical church of Weimar
Weimar
is St. James at Rollplatz, rebuilt in 1712 in Baroque style. The catholic parish church of Weimar is devoted to Sacred Heart and was built between 1888 and 1891 in historicist forms imitating Florence
Florence
Cathedral. Another church is the Russian-Orthodox Chapel within the historic cemetery. It was built in 1862 as the funerary chapel of Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and was one of the first Russian-styled buildings in Germany. Interesting churches in the suburban districts are the Lutheran parish church of Gelmeroda, which was the inspiration for many paintings of Lyonel Feininger, and the Lutheran parish church of Oberweimar, which was a former monastery, and is a good example of Gothic architecture in Weimar.

St. Peter and Paul's Church

St. James' Church

Sacred Heart Church

Russian-Orthodox Chapel

Gelmeroda Parish Church

Oberweimar Parish Church

Castles and palaces[edit] Due to its function as a ducal residence, Weimar
Weimar
is rich in early-modern castles and palaces. The biggest one is the Stadtschloss at Burgplatz in the city centre. Today's four-wing building was started after a great fire in 1774. The tower and the Bastille building at its south-western edge are relics of older castles in this place. The Fürstenhaus at Platz der Demokratie was the first parliament building in Weimar, established in the 1770s. Today it is in use by the Weimar
Weimar
School of Music. The Green Castle next to the Fürstenhaus was built in the 1560s in Renaissance style and hosts today the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The Yellow Castle at Grüner Markt was built in 1703 and is the municipal library today. The neighbouring Red Castle is also part of the library and was built in the 1570s. The Wittumspalais is a smaller widow mansion near Theaterplatz, established in 1768. Outbildings of the ducal residence are the Husarenstall (1770), the later residence of Charlotte von Stein
Charlotte von Stein
at Ackerwand street, the Marstall (1870s) at Kegelplatz, today used as Thuringian State Archive and the Reithaus (1710s) within the Park an der Ilm.

Court of the Stadtschloss

Fürstenhaus

Green Castle

Red Castle

Wittumspalais

Husarenstall

Reithaus

Furthermore, there are some impressive ducal country residences around Weimar. They are marked by their beautiful parks and gardens. Schloss Belvedere, south-east of Weimar
Weimar
was built between 1724 and 1732 in Baroque style with an orangery near to a ducal hunting forest. North-east of Weimar, at Ettersburg
Ettersburg
lies another ducal hunting lodge next to the Ettersberg mountain and its forest. It was established between 1706 and 1711 also in Baroque style. The third summer residence, Schloss Tiefurt, is located in Tiefurt, north-east of Weimar. The small lodge in a wide park in Ilm valley was rebuilt in 1775 in late-Baroque forms.

Schloss Belvedere, main building

Schloss Belvedere, side buildings

Schloss Ettersburg

Schloss Tiefurt

Other sights[edit]

The town hall at Marktplatz was built between 1837 and 1841 in Neo-Gothic style by Heinrich Heß after the former one (15th-century) burnt down. The two main buildings of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University at Marienstraße are icons of 20th-century early-modern architecture. Both were built by Henry van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
between 1904 and 1911. They mark the transition from older Historicism and Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
to the new international modern style in Germany
Germany
by their functional forms (e. g. skylights for better working conditions inside). The German National Theatre at Theaterplatz was built in 1906/07 in neo-classicist forms. Two predecessors were in use after 1779 and 1825 as ducal court theatres during Weimar's golden age. In 1919, the Weimar National Assembly
Weimar National Assembly
developed the Weimar Constitution
Weimar Constitution
in this theatre. The Gauforum at Weimarplatz is a Roman-fascist style representative government district between the city centre and the main station. This Gauforum, designed by Hermann Giesler, was the only realized Nazi government district outside Berlin
Berlin
(whereas there were plans for all German state capitals). Today it hosts the Thuringian Administration State Department. The Park an der Ilm
Park an der Ilm
is the city's largest park along Ilm river between the ducal palace and the district of Oberweimar. It was established between 1778 and 1833 and is an English landscape garden
English landscape garden
today, part of UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage. Sights inside the park are Goethe's garden house (1690s) and Römisches Haus (in the style of a Roman temple, 1790s). The Historic Cemetery at Karl-Haußknecht-Straße was opened in 1818 and hosts the graves of Goethe, Schiller and many other famous people from Weimar. The Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal at Theaterplatz is the most famous memorial in Weimar. It was made by Ernst Rietschel
Ernst Rietschel
between 1852 and 1857 and is dedicated to Goethe and Schiller, the most important poets of German classical literature.

Town hall

Southern main building of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University

Northern main building of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University

Theatre and Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal

Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal

One building of the Gauforum

The Römisches Haus in Park an der Ilm

Events[edit] The Onion Market (Weimarer Zwiebelmarkt) is an annual festival held in October in Weimar
Weimar
and it is Thuringia's largest festival. The festival is held over 3 days and approximately 500 stalls and more than 100 stage performances are put up across the city.[12] Weimar
Weimar
first celebrated the Onion Market in 1653. Stalls typically offer onion plaits, themed arts and crafts and numerous onion-based foods, including onion cakes, onion soups and onion breads. The festival also hosts numerous beer gardens, live music, fairground attractions and a Ferris wheel. There are several clubs with live music once or twice a week. There is also a student club in the city centre which also features disco and live music events on Friday- and Saturday nights (Kasseturm). There are several smaller theatre and cabaret venues other than the large "DNT" (Deutsches National Theater). There are four cinemas including a 3-D cinema,[13] and a Bowling Alley[14] in the Weimar
Weimar
Atrium, the local mall. Economy and infrastructure[edit] Agriculture, industry and services[edit] The area around Weimar
Weimar
is relatively fertile and 48% of the municipal surface are used for agricultural production. Most common agricultures are cereals, maize and rapeseed, while famous agricultural products from the Weimar
Weimar
region are potatoes (especially from Heichelheim, 7 km (4 mi) to the north) for dishes with Thüringer Klöße ( Knödel
Knödel
from potatoes), onions (from Heldrungen
Heldrungen
and Oldisleben, 45 km (28 mi) to the north), which are sold on the Weimar Onion Market in October, and Saale-Unstrut
Saale-Unstrut
wine from Bad Sulza, 25 km (16 mi) to the north-east. Industry has never been dominant in Weimar, nevertheless there were several big factories from different sectors until 1990. After reunification, nearly all factories got closed, either because they failed the adoption of free market economy or because the German government sold them to west German businessmen who closed them to avoid competition to their own enterprises. On the other hand, the federal government started early in the 1990s to subsidize the foundation of new companies, but it took long time before the economic situation got stabilized around 2006. Since this time, unemployment decreased and overall, new jobs develop. Today, there are many small and medium-sized companies in Weimar
Weimar
with electro-technics and engineering in focus. Nevertheless, settlement of new factories isn't much in focus of the local government, because it concentrates itself on developing tourism and services. The biggest companies with production in Weimar
Weimar
are Bayer
Bayer
(pharmaceutical factory), Coca Cola (beverages) and Hydrema
Hydrema
(dump truck factory). A new big commercial zone was established in the 1990s in the neighbouring municipality of Nohra
Nohra
with focus on logistics and distribution. Due to its tradition as a capital, Weimar
Weimar
is a centre of governmental services to date. Furthermore, creative branches like media, advertising, architecture and design are important for Weimar's economy. The most important sector is tourism with 3,500 hotel beds, 350,000 visitors and 650,000 overnight stays in hotels in 2012 and a large number of German one-day visitors. Other services like retail, trade fairs and specialized hospitals are more brought by the near neighbour cities Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena
Jena
with their infrastructure. Transport[edit] By rail[edit]

Weimar
Weimar
Railway Station

Weimar
Weimar
is connected by the Thuringian Railway
Thuringian Railway
to Leipzig
Leipzig
in the east and to Frankfurt/ Kassel
Kassel
in the west. Furthermore, there are some regional railways to Gera
Gera
via Jena
Jena
and to Kranichfeld
Kranichfeld
via Bad Berka. Today, there are long-distance trains to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
via Erfurt
Erfurt
and Fulda
Fulda
and to Dresden
Dresden
via Leipzig
Leipzig
and regional trains to Göttingen
Göttingen
and Eisenach
Eisenach
via Erfurt, to Halle via Naumburg, to Altenburg, Glauchau, Zwickau
Zwickau
and Greiz
Greiz
via Jena
Jena
and Gera
Gera
and to Kranichfeld. When the new Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway
Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway
will open (in 2015), Weimar will be disconnected from the German long-distance train network. However the regional train service will be augmented to connect Weimar with ICE-stops in Erfurt, Halle and Leipzig. In freight transport exists an intermodal terminal in Vieselbach (Güterverkehrszentrum/GVZ) with connection to rail and Autobahn, 15 km (9 mi) west of Weimar. By road[edit] Weimar
Weimar
is located at the Bundesautobahn 4
Bundesautobahn 4
(Frankfurt–Dresden). Furthermore, there are two federal roads to Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena (Bundesstraße 7) and to Rudolstadt
Rudolstadt
and Kölleda
Kölleda
(Bundesstraße 85) as well as some regional roads to Sömmerda, Oßmannstedt
Oßmannstedt
and Magdala. A bypass road around Weimar
Weimar
was built in the 2000s in the north and west; the eastern and southern continuation are in discussion, but not in definite planning because of some difficulties in routing. By aviation[edit] The Erfurt-Weimar Airport
Erfurt-Weimar Airport
lies approximately 30 km (19 mi) west of Weimar. It was largely extended in the 1990s, but the anticipated rise in passengers did not occur so that there is only rare air traffic, mostly to Mediterranean holiday regions. Other flights are carried out via Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport, which can be reached in 3 hours, and prospective via Berlin
Berlin
Brandenburg Airport, which is scheduled to open in 2017 and is accessible within 3 hours. By bike[edit] Biking is getting more and more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. For tourism serve the Ilm track and the Thuringian city string track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette). Both connect points of tourist interest, the first along the Ilm valley from Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
to Saale
Saale
river and second near to medieval Via Regia
Via Regia
from Eisenach
Eisenach
via Gotha, Erfurt, Weimar
Weimar
and Jena
Jena
to Altenburg. Additionally, there are some theme routes like the Goethe cycle track and the Feininger cycle track. For inner city every-day traffic exist some cycle lanes along several main streets. Bike renting is offered in city centre. Bus
Bus
service[edit] For a small city, Weimar
Weimar
is well served by city bus routes, which also serve all of the annex towns and villages. An hourly bus route serves the Buchenwald Memorial and oldtimer buses go in city's historical centre. All bus routes are connected at Goethe Square in city centre, most run furthermore to the main station. Between 1899 and 1937 were trams in operation. Trolleybus service started in 1948 and was ceased in 1993. Education[edit]

University's main building

After the reunification, the educational system was realigned. Some academies were combined into the new Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University, founded in 1996 with approximately 4,200 students and focus on architecture, design and media. The Liszt School of Music is a university focussed on music and music education founded in 1872 with 850 students today. Furthermore, there are three regular Gymnasiums, the Musikgymnasium Schloss Belvedere, an elite boarding school with focus on music, and the Thuringia
Thuringia
International School with an international (and foreign language) curriculum. The most important archives in Weimar
Weimar
are the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv (member of UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Programme) with focus on German literary history and the Thuringia
Thuringia
Main State Archive with governmental documents from last 500 years. The Duchess Anna Amalia Library hosts books and documents of German literary and cultural history. Politics[edit] Mayor and city council[edit] The current mayor Stefan Wolf, SPD is in office since 2006. The last municipal election was held in 2009 with the result:

Party Percentage Seats in council

CDU (conservative) 23.2 10

The Left (post-socialistic left) 19.9 6

Weimarwerk Bürgerbündnis (citizen-oriented/populist) 18.4 8

Greens (green) 15.4 6

SPD (social democratic) 13.6 8

FDP (classical liberal) 6.4 3

NPD (far-right) 3.1 1

Two members of council switched from The Left to SPD in 2012. Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Weimar
Weimar
is twinned with:

Blois, France Hämeenlinna, Finland Siena, Italy Zamość, Poland[15] Trier, Germany Shiraz, Iran Sawtry, England[16]

Famous residents of Weimar[edit]

Anna Amalia Johann Sebastian Bach Hector Berlioz Hans von Bülow Peter Cornelius Lucas Cranach the Elder Marlene Dietrich Johann Peter Eckermann Lyonel Feininger Paul Feyerabend Caspar David Friedrich Uziel Gal Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Walter Gropius Nina Hagen

Johann Gottfried Herder John Horrocks Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johannes Itten Joseph Joachim Wassily Kandinsky Harry Graf Kessler Paul Klee Franz Liszt Martin Luther László Moholy-Nagy Friedrich Nietzsche Andreas Oswald Jean Paul Friedrich Preller the Elder

Friedrich Preller the Younger Joseph Joachim
Joseph Joachim
Raff Friedrich Schiller Oskar Schlemmer Arthur Schopenhauer Frédéric Soret Rudolf Steiner Richard Strauss Marcus Urban Henry van de Velde Richard Wagner Johann Gottfried Walther Christoph Martin Wieland Carl Zeiss

References[edit]

^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde, erfüllende/beauftragende Gemeinden, Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (in German). January 2018.  ^ Gitta Günther, Wolfram Huschke, and Walter Steiner, Weimar (Böhlau, 1993), p. 494. ^ Adrian Room, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historic Sights (McFarland, 2003: ISBN 0-7864-1814-1), p. 387. ^ Bartel, Walter: Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation [to future generations]—Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960. p. 87, line 8. (in German) ^ Podcast with one of 2000 Danish policemen in Buchenwald. Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Episode 6 is about statistics for the number of deaths at Buchenwald. ^ Edward Victor.Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps.www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List %20 of %20 camps.htm ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 150 ^ http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/phoenix-from-the-flames-weimar-s-duchess-anna-amalia-library-re-opens-a-512782.html ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (direct: Final Revised Paper) ^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik ^ Festivals & Concerts, Leisure (Aug 2011). "October 7th to 9th: the Onion Festival in Weimar". AroundGermany.  ^ http://www.weimar-atrium.de/?page_id=1037 ^ http://www.weimar-atrium.de/?page_id=1038 ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Zamość". Urząd Miasta Zamość
Zamość
(in Polish). Retrieved 2013-07-26.  ^ "Partnerschaften" (in German). Retrieved 19 December 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

John M. Jeep, ed. (2001). "Weimar". Medieval Germany: an Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-7644-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weimar.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Weimar.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Weimar.

Weimar's official website Historic tour in 49 pictures Deutsches Nationaltheater (German National Theater) The Weimar
Weimar
Story Ginkgo Museum, Weimar Latin Place Names

Places adjacent to Weimar

Nordhausen Sangerhausen Halle—Leipzig Naumburg

Eisenach—Erfurt

Weimar

Jena—Gera

Ilmenau Rudolstadt Saalfeld

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Thuringia
Thuringia
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Eisenach Erfurt Gera Jena Suhl Weimar

Rural districts

Altenburger Land Eichsfeld Gotha Greiz Hildburghausen Ilm-Kreis Kyffhäuserkreis Nordhausen Saale-Holzland-Kreis Saale-Orla-Kreis Saalfeld-Rudolstadt Schmalkalden-Meiningen Sömmerda Sonneberg Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis Wartburgkreis Weimarer Land

v t e

Cities in Thuringia
Thuringia
by population

100,000+

Erfurt Jena

50,000+

Gera Weimar

20,000+

Altenburg Apolda Arnstadt Eisenach Gotha Greiz Ilmenau Meiningen Mühlhausen Nordhausen Rudolstadt Saalfeld Sondershausen Sonneberg Suhl

10,000+

Bad Langensalza Bad Salzungen Eisenberg Heiligenstadt Hildburghausen Leinefelde-Worbis Meuselwitz Pößneck Schmalkalden Schmölln Sömmerda Waltershausen Zella-Mehlis Zeulenroda-Triebes

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Germany

For official site names, see each article or the List of World Heritage Sites in Germany.

Northern

Fagus Factory
Fagus Factory
in Alfeld Berlin
Berlin
Modernism Housing Estates Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar
Goslar
and Upper Harz
Harz
Water Management System Speicherstadt
Speicherstadt
and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus
Chilehaus
in Hamburg St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim Hanseatic City of Lübeck Historic Centres of Stralsund
Stralsund
and Wismar

Central

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and its Sites in Weimar
Weimar
and Dessau Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz Dresden
Dresden
Elbe Valley (delisted in 2009) Luther Memorials in Eisleben
Eisleben
and Wittenberg Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski1 Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle Classical Weimar

Western

Aachen Cathedral Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey Cologne Cathedral Upper Middle Rhine Valley Speyer Cathedral Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier Völklingen Ironworks Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
in Essen

Southern

Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
(Weissenhof Estate) Town of Bamberg Frontiers of the Roman Empire:2 Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Maulbronn Monastery
Maulbronn Monastery
Complex Margravial Opera House Old Town of Regensburg
Regensburg
with Stadtamhof Monastic Island of Reichenau Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
Church of Wies Würzburg Residence
Würzburg Residence
with the Court Gardens and Residence Square Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura

Natural

Ancient Beech Forests4 Messel Pit Fossil Site Wadden Sea5

1 Shared with Poland 2 Shared with the United Kingdom 3 Shared with Austria, France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland 4 Shared with Slovakia and Ukraine 5 Shared with the Netherlands and Denmark

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136822898 LCCN: n81042181 GN

.