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Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
and Sons, commonly known as Wedgwood, is a fine china, porcelain, and luxury accessories company founded on 1 May 1759[1] by English potter and entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood. In 1987, Wedgwood
Wedgwood
merged with Waterford Crystal
Waterford Crystal
to create Waterford Wedgwood, an Ireland-based luxury brands group. The main assets of Waterford Wedgwood were purchased by the New York City-based private equity firm KPS Capital Partners in 2009, and the group became known as WWRD Holdings Limited, an acronym for " Waterford Wedgwood Royal Doulton". On 2 July 2015, Fiskars Corporation
Fiskars Corporation
acquired WWRD.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Waterford Wedgwood 1.2 WWRD Group Holdings

2 Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Museums and the Museum Trust

2.1 Minton Archive

3 Wedgwood
Wedgwood
locality 4 Notes and references 5 External links

History[edit]

Typical wedgwood blue plate with white decor

At the outset, Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
worked with the established potter Thomas Whieldon
Thomas Whieldon
until 1759, when relatives leased him the Ivy House in Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent, which allowed him to start his own pottery business. His marriage to Sarah Wedgwood, a distant cousin with a sizable dowry, helped him launch his new venture. In 1765, Wedgwood
Wedgwood
created a new form of earthenware, which impressed the then British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who gave official permission to call it "Queen's Ware". This new form sold extremely well across Europe. In 1766, Wedgwood
Wedgwood
bought Etruria, a large Staffordshire
Staffordshire
estate, as both a home and factory site. Wedgwood developed a number of further industrial innovations for his company, notably a way of measuring kiln temperatures accurately and the new ware types Black Basalt and Jasper Ware.

Portland Vase, about 1790

Detail of First Edition Portland Vase
Portland Vase
by Wedgwood. Circa 1795

Wedgwood's best known product is jasperware, created to look like ancient cameo glass. It was inspired by the Portland Vase, a Roman vessel which is now a museum piece. The first jasperware color was Portland Blue, an innovation that required experiments with more than 3,000 samples. In recognition of the importance of his pyrometric beads (pyrometer), Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1783. The Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Prestige collection sold replicas of the original designs, as well as modern neo-classical style jasperware. The main Wedgwood
Wedgwood
motifs in jasperware – as well as in other wares like basaltware, queensware, caneware, etc. – were decorative designs that were highly influenced by the ancient cultures being studied and rediscovered at that time, especially as Great Britain was expanding its empire. Many motifs were taken from ancient mythologies: Roman, Greek and Egyptian. Meanwhile, archaeological fever caught the imagination of many artists. Nothing could have been more suitable to satisfy this huge business demand than to produce replicas of ancient artefacts. Many representations of royalty, nobles and statesmen in silhouette were created, as well as political symbols. These were often set in jewellery, as well as in architectural features like fireplace mantels, mouldings and furniture. Wedgwood
Wedgwood
has honoured American individuals and corporations as well, both historically and recently. In 1774 he employed the then 19-year-old John Flaxman
John Flaxman
as an artist, who would work for the next 12 years mostly for Wedgwood. The "Dancing Hours" may be his most well known design. Other artists known to have worked for Wedgwood
Wedgwood
include among others Lady Elizabeth Templetown, George Stubbs, Emma Crewe
Emma Crewe
and Lady Diana Beauclerk.

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood

Wedgwood
Wedgwood
had increasing success with hard paste porcelain which attempted to imitate the whiteness of tea-ware imported from China, an extremely popular product amongst high society. High transport costs and the demanding journey from the Far East
Far East
meant that the supply of chinaware could not keep up with increasingly high demand. Towards the end of the 18th century other Staffordshire
Staffordshire
manufacturers introduced bone china as an alternative to translucent and delicate Chinese porcelain.[2] In 1812 Wedgwood
Wedgwood
produced their own bone china[3] which, though not a commercial success at first[2] eventually became an important part of an extremely profitable business.

Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Room with porcelain panels, in the palace of Archduke Albert in Vienna

Belt clasp designed by Lady Templeton and Miss Crew for Josiah Wedgwood's factory.[4] The Walters Art Museum.

Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
was also a patriarch of the Darwin– Wedgwood
Wedgwood
family. Many of his descendants were closely involved in the management of the company down to the time of the merger with the Waterford Company:

John Wedgwood, eldest son of Josiah I, was a partner in the firm from 1790 to 1793 and again from 1800 to 1812. Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
II (1769–1843), second son of Josiah I, succeeded his father as proprietor in 1795 and introduced the production by the Wedgwood
Wedgwood
company of bone china. In 1815, during Josiah II's time as proprietor, the great English Romantic poet William Blake (1757–1827) spent time engraving for Wedgwood's china catalogues.[5] Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
III (1795–1880), son of Josiah II, was a partner in the firm from 1825 until he retired in 1842. Francis Wedgwood, son of Josiah II, was a partner in the firm from 1827 and sole proprietor following his father's death until joined by his own sons. Financial difficulties caused him to offer for sale soon after taking over the firm its factory at Etruria and the family home Etruria Hall, but in the event and fortunately for the company only the hall was sold. He continued as senior partner until his retirement to Barlaston Hall
Barlaston Hall
in 1876. Godfrey Wedgwood (1833–1905), son of Francis Wedgwood, was a partner in the firm from 1859 to 1891. He and his brothers were responsible for the reintroduction of bone china c.1876 and the employment of the artists Thomas Allen and Emile Lessore. Clement Wedgwood (1840–1889), son of Francis Wedgwood, was a partner. Laurence Wedgwood (1844–1913), son of Francis Wedgwood, was a partner. Major Cecil Wedgwood DSO (1863–1916), son of Godfrey Wedgwood, partner from 1884, first Mayor of the federated County Borough of Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
(1910–1911), was chairman and managing director of Wedgwood
Wedgwood
until his death in battle in 1916. Kennard Laurence Wedgwood (1873–1949), son of Laurence Wedgwood, was a partner. In 1906 he went to the United States and set up the firm's New York office, which became Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
and Sons USA, an incorporated subsidiary, in 1919. Francis Hamilton Wedgwood (1867–1930), eldest son of Clement Wedgwood, was chairman and managing director from 1916 until his sudden death in 1930. Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
V (1899–1968), grandson of Clement Wedgwood and son of Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, was managing director of the firm from 1930 until 1968 and credited with turning the company's fortunes around. He was responsible for the enlightened decision to move production to a modern purpose built factory in a rural setting at Barlaston. It was designed by Keith Murray in 1936 and built between 1938 and 1940. He was succeeded as managing director by Arthur Bryan (later Sir Arthur), who was the first non-member of the Wedgwood family to run the firm.

Enoch Wedgwood (1813–1879), a distant cousin of the first Josiah, was also a potter and founded his own firm, Wedgwood
Wedgwood
& Co, in 1860. It was taken over by Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
& Sons in 1980. In 1968, Wedgwood
Wedgwood
purchased many English potteries including Mason's Ironstone, Johnson Brothers, Royal Tuscan, William Adams & Sons, J. & G. Meakin and Crown Staffordshire. In 1979, Waterford Wedgwood
Wedgwood
purchased the Franciscan Ceramics
Franciscan Ceramics
division of Interpace
Interpace
in the United States. The Los Angeles plant closed in 1984 and production of the Franciscan brand was moved to Johnson Brothers in Britain. In 1986, Waterford Glass Group plc purchased Wedgwood
Wedgwood
plc forming the company Waterford Wedgwood. Waterford Wedgwood[edit] Main article: Waterford Wedgwood In 1986, Waterford Glass Group plc purchased Wedgwood
Wedgwood
plc for US$360 million, with Wedgwood
Wedgwood
delivering a 38.7 million USD profit in 1998 (while Waterford itself lost $28.9 million) after which the group was renamed Waterford Wedgwood. From early 1987 to early 1989, the CEO was Patrick Byrne, previously of Ford, who then became CEO of the whole group. During his time, he sold off non-core businesses, and reduced the range of Wedgwood
Wedgwood
patterns from over 400 to around 240. In the late 1990s, the CEO was Brian Patterson. From 1 January 2001, the Deputy CEO was Tony O'Reilly, Junior, who was appointed CEO in November of the same year and resigned in September 2005. He was succeeded by the then president of Wedgwood
Wedgwood
USA, Moira Gavin up until the company went into administration in 2009. In 2001 Wedgwood
Wedgwood
launched a collaboration with designer Jasper Conran which started with a white fine bone china collection then expanded to include seven patterns. In March 2009, KPS Capital Partners acquired Waterford Wedgwood group assets. Assets including Wedgwood, Waterford and Royal Doulton
Royal Doulton
were placed into WWRD Group Holdings Ltd. WWRD Group Holdings[edit] Main article: WWRD Group Holdings On 5 January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood
Wedgwood
was placed into administration[6] on a "going concern" basis, with 1,800 employees remaining. On 27 February 2009, Waterford Wedgwood's receiver Deloitte
Deloitte
announced that the New York-based private equity firm KPS Capital Partners had purchased certain Irish and UK assets of Waterford Wedgwood and the assets of its Irish and UK subsidiaries.[7] In March 2009, KPS Capital Partners announced that it had acquired group assets in a range of countries, including the UK, USA and Indonesia, would invest €100 million, and move a number of jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profitability.[8] In a move that had begun under the previous owners, approximately 1,500 jobs were cut in the UK, leaving 800 workers in the UK producing only the high-end Wedgwood
Wedgwood
products.[9] KPS Capital Partners has placed Wedgwood
Wedgwood
into a group of companies known as WWRD, an abbreviation for " Waterford Wedgwood Royal Doulton." On 11 May 2015 in a deal expected to close July 2015, the Fiskars Corporation, a Finnish maker of home products, agreed to buy 100% of the holdings of WWRD.[10] On 2 July 2015 the acquisition of WWRD by Fiskars Corporation
Fiskars Corporation
was completed including brands Waterford, Wedgwood, Royal Doulton, Royal Albert and Rogaška. The acquisition was approved by the US antitrust authorities.[11] Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Museums and the Museum Trust[edit] Wedgwood's founder wrote as early as 1774 that he wished he had preserved samples of all the company's works, and began to do so. The first formal museum was opened in May 1906, with a curator named Isaac Cook, at the main (Etruria) works. The contents of the museum were stored for the duration of the Second World War
Second World War
and relaunched in a gallery at the new Barlaston
Barlaston
factory in 1952. A new purpose-built visitor centre and museum was built in 1975 and remodelled in 1985 with pieces displayed near items from the old factory works in cabinets of similar period. A video theatre was added and a new gift shop as well as an expanded demonstration area where visitors could watch pottery being made. A further renovation costing £4.5 million was carried out in 2000, including access to the main factory itself.[citation needed] Adjacent to the museum and visitor centre are a restaurant and tea room, serving on Wedgwood
Wedgwood
ware. The museum, managed by a dedicated trust, closed in 2000 and on 24 October 2008 reopened in a new multimillion-pound building. In June 2009, the Wedgwood Museum
Wedgwood Museum
won a UK Art Fund Prize for Museums and Art Galleries for its displays of Wedgwood
Wedgwood
pottery, skills, designs and artefacts.[12] In May 2011, the archive of the museum was inscribed in UNESCO's UK Memory of the World Register.[13][14][15] The collection with 80,000 works of art, ceramics, manuscripts, letters and photographs faced being sold off to help satisfy pension debts inherited when Waterford Wedgwood plc went into receivership in 2009. The Heritage Lottery Fund, the Art Fund, various trusts and businesses contributed donations to purchase the collection.[16] On December 1 2014, the collection was purchased and donated to the Victoria and Albert Museum. The collection will continue to be on display at the Wedgwood Museum
Wedgwood Museum
on loan from the Victoria and Albert Museum.[17] Minton Archive[edit] The Minton Archive comprises papers and drawings of the designs, manufacture and production of the defunct pottery company Mintons. It was acquired by Waterford Wedgwood in 2005 along with other assets of the Royal Doulton
Royal Doulton
group.[18] At one time it seemed the Archive would become part of the Wedgwood
Wedgwood
collection. In the event, the Archive was presented by the Art Fund to the City of Stoke-on-Trent, but it was envisaged that some material would be displayed at Barlaston
Barlaston
as well as the Potteries Museum and Art Gallery.[19] Wedgwood
Wedgwood
locality[edit] Wedgwood railway station
Wedgwood railway station
was opened in 1940 to serve the Wedgwood complex in Staffordshire, England. Notes and references[edit]

^ "Pottery firm marks 250th birthday". BBC. 1 May 2005. Retrieved 1 May 2009.  ^ a b Brian Dolan, Wedgwood: The First Tycoon, Viking 2004, p335 ^ The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, ed. Campbell, OUP 2006, Volume 2, p547 ^ "Belt Clasp with a Female Making a Sacrifice". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Michael Davis, William Blake: A New Kind of Man, University of California Press, 1977, pages 140–141 ^ " Wedgwood
Wedgwood
goes into administration". BBC. 5 January 2009.  ^ " Waterford Wedgwood bought by US equity firm KPS Capital". The Irish Times. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009.  ^ Arnold, Martin (26 March 2009). "New Wedgwood
Wedgwood
owner to invest €100m". Financial Times. London. Retrieved 26 March 2009.  ^ " Waterford Wedgwood shifts to Asia to save company The Jakarta Post". thejakartapost.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.  ^ Bray, Chad. " Fiskars
Fiskars
Agrees to Buy Owner of Waterford and Wedgwood". New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2015.  ^ " Fiskars Corporation
Fiskars Corporation
has completed the acquisition of WWRD and extended its portfolio with iconic luxury home and lifestyle brands". NASDQ Global News Wire. Retrieved 6 July 2015.  ^ " Wedgwood
Wedgwood
wins £100,000 art prize". BBC. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.  ^ "2011 UK Memory of the World Register", United Kingdom National Commission for UNESCO, 2011. Accessed 4 June 2011. ^ " Wedgwood Museum
Wedgwood Museum
archive recognised by UNESCO," Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Museum. Accessed 4 June 2011. ^ "Unesco recognises Wedgwood Museum
Wedgwood Museum
archive collection", BBC, 24 May 2011. Accessed 4 June 2011. ^ " Wedgwood
Wedgwood
collection 'saved for nation'". BBC. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ "Loan of Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Collection to Barlaston
Barlaston
finalised". Save the Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Collection. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ "Art Fund helps save the Minton Archive for the nation" (PDF). Art Fund. Retrieved 21 June 2015.  ^ " Minton Archive saved for the nation" (Press release). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
and Sons.

Official Wedgwood
Wedgwood
UK website Official Wedgwood
Wedgwood
USA website Wedgwood
Wedgwood
Museum Wedgwood
Wedgwood
buttons, made 1785–1800, from the Victoria & Albert Museum jewellery collection. Sydney Cove Medallion at the National Museum of Australia

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Arabia Brunton, Inc. Gerber Legendary Blades

Gerber Mark II Gerber 31-001901 Bear Grylls Ultimate Pro

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Royal Copenhagen
Royal Copenhagen
2010 plaquettes

Royal Doulton Waterford Crystal Wedgwood

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History

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family Federation of Stoke-on-Trent History of Port Vale F.C. History of Stoke City F.C. Staffordshire
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Porcelain

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Types:

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Europe

General:

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Types:

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Fonthill Vase
(1338) Tichelaar (1572) Medici (1575) Rouen (1673) Nevers Saint-Cloud (1693) Meissen (1710) Vienna (1716) Rörstrand
Rörstrand
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Wedgwood
(1759) Berlin (1763) Wallendorf (1764) Revol (1768) Etiolles (1770) Limoges (1771) Loosdrechts Porselein (1774) Copenhagen (1775) Clignancourt (1775) Mintons
Mintons
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Zsolnay
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Porsgrund
(1885)

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painting Factory mark

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124089998 LCCN: n50022708 ISNI: 0000 0001 2106 7149 BNF: cb12206587h (data) ULAN: 50026

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