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A WEB PORTAL is a specially designed website that brings information together from diverse sources in a uniform way like emails, forums, and search engines etc. Usually, each information source gets its dedicated area on the page for displaying information (a portlet ); often, the user can configure which ones to display. Variants of portals include mashups and intranet "dashboards" for executives and managers. The extent to which content is displayed in a "uniform way" may depend on the intended user and the intended purpose, as well as the diversity of the content. Very often design emphasis is on a certain "metaphor" for configuring and customizing the presentation of the content and the chosen implementation framework and/or code libraries. In addition, the role of the user in an organization may determine which content can be added to the portal or deleted from the portal configuration.

A portal may use a search engine API
API
to permit users to search intranet as opposed to extranet content by restricting which domains may be searched. Apart from this common search engines feature, web portals may offer other services such as e-mail , news, stock quotes, information from databases and even entertainment content. Portals provide a way for enterprises and organizations to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications and databases, which otherwise would have been different web entities at various URLs . The features available may be restricted by whether access is by an authorized and authenticated user (employee, member) or an anonymous site visitor.

Examples of early public web portals were AOL
AOL
, Excite , Netvibes , iGoogle , MSN , Naver , Lycos , Prodigy , Indiatimes , Rediff , and Yahoo! . See for example, the "My Yahoo!" feature of Yahoo! that may have inspired such features as the later Google "iGoogle" (discontinued as of November 1, 2013.) The configurable side-panels of, for example, the modern Opera browser and the option of "Speed Dial" pages by most browsers continue to reflect the earlier "portal" metaphor.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Classification

* 3 Types of Web portals

* 3.1 Personal Web portals * 3.2 Government Web portals * 3.3 Cultural portals * 3.4 Corporate Web portals * 3.5 Stock portals

* 3.6 Search portals

* 3.6.1 Property search portals

* 3.7 Tender portals * 3.8 Hosted Web portals * 3.9 Domain-specific portals

* 4 Engineering aspects

* 4.1 Overview * 4.2 Standards

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading

HISTORY

In the late 1990s the Web portal was a Web IT buzzword. After the proliferation of Web browsers in the late-1990s many companies tried to build or acquire a portal to attempt to obtain a share of an Internet market. The Web portal gained special attention because it was, for many users, the starting point of their Web browsing if it was set as their home page. The content and branding of a portal could change as Internet companies merged or were acquired. Netscape
Netscape
became a part of America Online
America Online
, the Walt Disney Company launched Go.com , IBM and others launched Prodigy (-only users.) Portal
Portal
metaphors are widely used by public library sites for borrowers using a login as users and by university intranets for students and for faculty. Vertical markets remain for ISV's offering management and executive intranet "dashboards" for corporations and government agencies in areas such as GRC and risk management.

CLASSIFICATION

Web portals are sometimes classified as _horizontal_ or _vertical_. A horizontal portal is used as a platform to several companies in the same economic sector or to the same type of manufacturers or distributors. A vertical portal (also known as a "vortal") is a specialized entry point to a specific market or industry niche, subject area, or interest. Some vertical portals are known as "vertical information portals" (VIPs). VIPs provide news, editorial content, digital publications, and e-commerce capabilities. In contrast to traditional vertical portals, VIPs also provide dynamic multimedia applications including social networking, video posting, and blogging.

TYPES OF WEB PORTALS

PERSONAL WEB PORTALS

A personal portal is a Web page at a Web site on the World Wide Web or a local HTML home page including JavaScript and perhaps running in a modified Web browser. A personal portal typically provides personalized capabilities to its visitors or its local user, providing a pathway to other content. It may be designed to use distributed applications , different numbers and types of middleware and hardware to provide services from a number of different sources and may run on a non-standard local Web server. In addition, business portals can be designed for sharing and collaboration in workplaces. A further business-driven requirement of portals is that the content be presented on multiple platforms such as personal computers , personal digital assistants (PDAs), and cell phones/mobile phone/mobile phones . Information, news, and updates are examples of content that would be delivered through such a portal. Personal portals can be related to any specific topic such as providing friend information on a social network or providing links to outside content that may help others beyond your reach of services. Portals are not limited to simply providing links. Outside of business intracet user, very often simpler portals become replaced with richer mashup designs. Within enterprises, early portals were often replaced by much more powerful "dashboard" designs. Some also have relied on newer protocols such as some version of RSS aggregation and may or may not involve some degree of Web harvesting. Examples of personal portals include:

* home.psafe.com – A personal portal based on adaptive neural network technology provides customizable content according to each user's navigation, and provide full security against viruses, malware, phishing and bank fraud. The portal is developed by Brazilian online security company PSafe .

GOVERNMENT WEB PORTALS

At the end of the dot-com boom in the 1990s, many governments had already committed to creating portal sites for their citizens. These included primary portals to the governments as well as portals developed for specific audiences. Examples of government Web portals include:

* australia.gov.au for Australia
Australia
. * USA.gov for the United States (in English) & Gobierno USA.gov (in Spanish).

* www.gov.lk for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. * Disability.gov for citizens with disabilities in the United States. * Europa (Web portal)
Europa (Web portal)
links to all EU agencies and institutions in addition to press releases and audiovisual content from press conferences. * gov.uk for citizens users wanted personalization and customization. Webmasters, if skilled enough, were able to offer some capabilities, but for the most part ended up driving users away from using the intranet.

Many companies began to offer tools to help webmasters manage their data, applications and information more easily, and through personalized views. Portal
Portal
solutions can also include workflow management, collaboration between work groups, and policy-managed content publication. Most can allow internal and external access to specific corporate information using secure authentication or single sign-on .

JSR168 Standards emerged around 2001. Java Specification Request (JSR) 168 standards allow the interoperability of portlets across different portal platforms. These standards allow portal developers, administrators and consumers to integrate standards-based portals and portlets across a variety of vendor solutions.

The concept of content aggregation seems to still gain momentum and portal solution will likely continue to evolve significantly over the next few years. The Gartner Group predicts generation 8 portals to expand on the Business Mashups concept of delivering a variety of information, tools, applications and access points through a single mechanism.

With the increase in user generated content, disparate data silos, and file formats, information architects and taxonomist will be required to allow users the ability to tag (classify) the data. This will ultimately cause a ripple effect where users will also be generating ad hoc navigation and information flows.

Corporate Portals also offer customers a prime example of this trend would be the growth in property portals that give access to services such as estate agents , removal firm , and solicitors that offer conveyancing . Along the same lines, industry-specific news and information portals have appeared, such as the clinical trials-specific portal .

ENGINEERING ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

The main concept is to present the user with a single Web page that brings together or aggregates content from a number of other systems or servers.

The application server or architecture performs most of the crucial functions of the application. This application server is in turn connected to database servers, and may be part of a clustered server environment. High-capacity portal configurations may include load balancing strategies.

For portals that present application functionality to the user, the portal server is in reality the front piece of a server configuration that includes some connectivity to the application server. For early Web browsers permitting HTML frameset and iframe elements, diverse information could be presented without violating the browser same-source security policy (relied upon to prevent a variety of cross-site security breaches.) More recent client-side technologies rely on JavaScript frameworks and libraries that rely on more recent Web functionality such as WebSockets and async callbacks using XMLHttpRequests.

The server hosting the portal may only be a "pass through" for the user. By use of portlets , application functionality can be presented in any number of portal pages. For the most part, this architecture is transparent to the user.

In such a design, security and concurrent user capacity can be important issues, and security designers need to ensure that only authenticated and authorized users can generate requests to the application server. If the security design and administration does not ensure adequate authentication and authorization, then the portal may inadvertently present vulnerabilities to various types of attacks.

STANDARDS

* Web Services for Remote Portlets v1 * JSR 168 (Java) * JSR 286 (Java Portlet v2.0 Definition Standard)

SEE ALSO

* Applet * Client portal * Content management system (CMS) * Enterprise portal * Extranet * Framing (World Wide Web) * Intranet portal * Rich Internet Application * Web scraping

* Business portal * Computer portal * Internet portal * Technology portal

REFERENCES

* ^ "What is horizontal portal? definition and meaning". BusinessDictionary.com. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ "What is vertical portal? definition and meaning". BusinessDictionary.com. Retrieved 8 August 2011. * ^ "PSafe launches new Internet portal based on adaptive neural network technology". Retrieved December 10, 2014. * ^ "Home". _Saudi.gov.sa_. Retrieved 1 January 2014.

FURTHER READING

Find more aboutWEB PORTALat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* "Untangle the Web". Communication News_: 82–83. September 2001. ISSN 0010-3632 .

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