Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is an online
subscription-based scientific citation indexing service originally
produced by the
Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now
Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual
Science business of Thomson Reuters), that provides a
comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases
that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth
exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific
1 Background and history
1.1 Search and analysis
3 Citation databases
3.1 Regional databases
3.3 Abstracting and indexing
4 Limitations in the use of citation analysis
5 See also
7 External links
Background and history
A citation index is built on the fact that citations in science serve
as linkages between similar research items, and lead to matching or
related scientific literature, such as journal articles, conference
proceedings, abstracts, etc. In addition, literature which shows the
greatest impact in a particular field, or more than one discipline,
can be easily located through a citation index. For example, a paper's
influence can be determined by linking to all the papers that have
cited it. In this way, current trends, patterns, and emerging fields
of research can be assessed. Eugene Garfield, the "father of citation
indexing of academic literature," who launched the
Index (SCI), which in turn led to the Web of Science, wrote:
Citations are the formal, explicit linkages between papers that have
particular points in common. A citation index is built around these
linkages. It lists publications that have been cited and identifies
the sources of the citations. Anyone conducting a literature search
can find from one to dozens of additional papers on a subject just by
knowing one that has been cited. And every paper that is found
provides a list of new citations with which to continue the search.
The simplicity of citation indexing is one of its main strengths.
Search and analysis
Science is described as a unifying research tool which enables
the user to acquire, analyze, and disseminate database information in
a timely manner. This is accomplished because of the creation of a
common vocabulary, called ontology, for varied search terms and varied
data. Moreover, search terms generate related information across
Acceptable content for Web of
Science is determined by an evaluation
and selection process based on the following criteria: impact,
influence, timeliness, peer review, and geographic representation.
Science employs various search and analysis capabilities.
First, citation indexing is employed, which is enhanced by the
capability to search for results across disciplines. The influence,
impact, history, and methodology of an idea can be followed from its
first instance, notice, or referral to the present day. This
technology points to a deficiency with the keyword-only method of
Second, subtle trends and patterns relevant to the literature or
research of interest, become apparent. Broad trends indicate
significant topics of the day, as well as the history relevant to both
the work at hand, and particular areas of study.
Third, trends can be graphically represented.
Entering a search query on Web of Science.
Expanding the coverage of Web of Science, in November 2009 Thomson
Reuters introduced Century of Social Sciences. This service contains
files which trace social science research back to the beginning of the
20th century, and Web of
Science now has indexing coverage from
the year 1900 to the present. As of
3 September 2014[update], the multidisciplinary coverage of
the Web of
Science encompasses over 50,000 scholarly books, 12,000
journals and 160,000 conference proceedings. The selection is made
on the basis of impact evaluations and comprise open-access journals,
spanning multiple academic disciplines. The coverage includes: the
sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities, and goes across
disciplines. However, Web of
Science does not index all
There is a significant and positive correlation between Impact Factor
and CiteScore. However, analysis by Elsevier has identified 216
journals from 70 publishers to be in the top 10 percent of the
most-cited journals in their subject category based on the CiteScore
while they did not have Impact Factor. It appears that Impact Factor
does not provide a comprehensive and an unbiased coverage of high
quality journals. Similar results can be observed by comparing Impact
Factor with SCImago Journal Rank.
Furthermore, as of September 3, 2014 the total file count of the Web
Science was 90 million records, which included over a billion cited
references. This citation service on average indexes around 65 million
items per year, and it is described as the largest accessible citation
Titles of foreign-language publications are translated into English
and so cannot be found by searches in the original language.
Science consists of seven online databases:
Conference Proceedings Citation Index covers more than 160,000
conference titles in the Sciences starting from 1990 to the present
Science Citation Index Expanded covers more than 8,500 notable
journals encompassing 150 disciplines. Coverage is from the year 1900
to the present day.
Social Sciences Citation Index covers more than 3,000 journals in
social science disciplines. Range of coverage is from the year 1900 to
the present day.
Arts & Humanities Citation Index covers more than 1,700 arts and
humanities journals starting from 1975. In addition, 250 major
scientific and social sciences journals are also covered.
Index Chemicus lists more than 2.6 million compounds. The time of
coverage is from 1993 to present day.
Current Chemical Reactions
Current Chemical Reactions indexes over one million reactions, and the
range of coverage is from 1986 to present day. The INPI archives from
1840 to 1985 are also indexed in this database.
Book Citation Index covers more than 60,000 editorially selected books
starting from 2005.
Since 2008, the Web of
Science hosts a number of regional citation
indices. The Chinese
Science Citation Database, produced in
partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was the first one in
a language other than English. It was followed in 2013 by the
SciELO Citation Index, covering Brazil, Spain, Portugal, the Caribbean
and South Africa, and more 12 countries of Latin America; by the
Korea Citation Index (KCI) in 2014, with updates from the South Korean
National Research Foundation; and by the Russian
index in 2015.
The seven citation indices listed above contain references which have
been cited by other articles. One may use them to undertake cited
reference search, that is, locating articles that cite an earlier, or
current publication. One may search citation databases by topic, by
author, by source title, and by location. Two chemistry databases,
Index Chemicus and
Current Chemical Reactions
Current Chemical Reactions allow for the creation
of structure drawings, thus enabling users to locate chemical
compounds and reactions.
Abstracting and indexing
The following types of literature are indexed: scholarly books, peer
reviewed journals, original research articles, reviews, editorials,
chronologies, abstracts, as well as other items. Disciplines included
in this index are agriculture, biological sciences, engineering,
medical and life sciences, physical and chemical sciences,
anthropology, law, library sciences, architecture, dance, music, film,
and theater. Seven citation databases encompasses coverage of the
Limitations in the use of citation analysis
Citation analysis and San Francisco Declaration on
As with other scientific approaches, scientometrics and bibliometrics
have their own limitations. Recently, a criticism was voiced pointing
toward certain deficiencies of the journal impact factor (JIF)
calculation process, based on
Thomson Reuters Web of Science, such as:
journal citation distributions usually are highly skewed towards
established journals; journal impact factor properties are
field-specific and can be easily manipulated by editors, or even by
changing the editorial policies; this makes the entire process
Regarding the more objective journal metrics, there is a growing view
that for greater accuracy it must be supplemented with article-level
metrics and peer-review.
Thomson Reuters replied to criticism in
general terms by stating that "no one metric can fully capture the
complex contributions scholars make to their disciplines, and many
forms of scholarly achievement should be considered."
Dialog (online database)
Energy Citations Database
Science and Technology Database
List of academic journal search engines
Science Citation Index
SCImago Journal Rank
Serbian Citation Index
Science Citation Index
Indian Citation Index
Science Citation Database
Korea Citation Index
VINITI Database RAS
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Thomson Reuters Statement Regarding the San Francisco Declaration on
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About Web of Science
Web of Science
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MIT Web of