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Web of Science
Science
(previously known as Web of Knowledge) is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now maintained by Clarivate Analytics
Clarivate Analytics
(previously the Intellectual Property and Science
Science
business of Thomson Reuters[1]), that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline.[2]

Contents

1 Background and history

1.1 Search and analysis

2 Coverage 3 Citation databases

3.1 Regional databases 3.2 Contents 3.3 Abstracting and indexing

4 Limitations in the use of citation analysis 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Background and history A citation index is built on the fact that citations in science serve as linkages between similar research items, and lead to matching or related scientific literature, such as journal articles, conference proceedings, abstracts, etc. In addition, literature which shows the greatest impact in a particular field, or more than one discipline, can be easily located through a citation index. For example, a paper's influence can be determined by linking to all the papers that have cited it. In this way, current trends, patterns, and emerging fields of research can be assessed. Eugene Garfield, the "father of citation indexing of academic literature,"[3] who launched the Science
Science
Citation Index (SCI), which in turn led to the Web of Science,[4] wrote:

Citations are the formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common. A citation index is built around these linkages. It lists publications that have been cited and identifies the sources of the citations. Anyone conducting a literature search can find from one to dozens of additional papers on a subject just by knowing one that has been cited. And every paper that is found provides a list of new citations with which to continue the search. The simplicity of citation indexing is one of its main strengths.[5]

Search and analysis Web of Science
Science
is described as a unifying research tool which enables the user to acquire, analyze, and disseminate database information in a timely manner. This is accomplished because of the creation of a common vocabulary, called ontology, for varied search terms and varied data. Moreover, search terms generate related information across categories. Acceptable content for Web of Science
Science
is determined by an evaluation and selection process based on the following criteria: impact, influence, timeliness, peer review, and geographic representation.[6] Web of Science
Science
employs various search and analysis capabilities. First, citation indexing is employed, which is enhanced by the capability to search for results across disciplines. The influence, impact, history, and methodology of an idea can be followed from its first instance, notice, or referral to the present day. This technology points to a deficiency with the keyword-only method of searching. Second, subtle trends and patterns relevant to the literature or research of interest, become apparent. Broad trends indicate significant topics of the day, as well as the history relevant to both the work at hand, and particular areas of study. Third, trends can be graphically represented.[6][7] Coverage

Entering a search query on Web of Science.

Expanding the coverage of Web of Science, in November 2009 Thomson Reuters introduced Century of Social Sciences. This service contains files which trace social science research back to the beginning of the 20th century,[8][9] and Web of Science
Science
now has indexing coverage from the year 1900 to the present.[10][11] As of 3 September 2014[update], the multidisciplinary coverage of the Web of Science
Science
encompasses over 50,000 scholarly books, 12,000 journals and 160,000 conference proceedings.[12] The selection is made on the basis of impact evaluations and comprise open-access journals, spanning multiple academic disciplines. The coverage includes: the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities, and goes across disciplines.[10][13] However, Web of Science
Science
does not index all journals. There is a significant and positive correlation between Impact Factor and CiteScore. However, analysis by Elsevier [14]has identified 216 journals from 70 publishers to be in the top 10 percent of the most-cited journals in their subject category based on the CiteScore while they did not have Impact Factor. It appears that Impact Factor does not provide a comprehensive and an unbiased coverage of high quality journals. Similar results can be observed by comparing Impact Factor with SCImago Journal Rank.

Furthermore, as of September 3, 2014 the total file count of the Web of Science
Science
was 90 million records, which included over a billion cited references. This citation service on average indexes around 65 million items per year, and it is described as the largest accessible citation database.[13] Titles of foreign-language publications are translated into English and so cannot be found by searches in the original language.[15] Citation databases

Web of Science
Science
databases.

Web of Science
Science
consists of seven online databases:[16][17]

Conference Proceedings Citation Index covers more than 160,000 conference titles in the Sciences starting from 1990 to the present day Science Citation Index Expanded covers more than 8,500 notable journals encompassing 150 disciplines. Coverage is from the year 1900 to the present day. Social Sciences Citation Index covers more than 3,000 journals in social science disciplines. Range of coverage is from the year 1900 to the present day. Arts & Humanities Citation Index covers more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals starting from 1975. In addition, 250 major scientific and social sciences journals are also covered. Index Chemicus lists more than 2.6 million compounds. The time of coverage is from 1993 to present day. Current Chemical Reactions
Current Chemical Reactions
indexes over one million reactions, and the range of coverage is from 1986 to present day. The INPI archives from 1840 to 1985 are also indexed in this database. Book Citation Index covers more than 60,000 editorially selected books starting from 2005.

Regional databases Since 2008, the Web of Science
Science
hosts a number of regional citation indices. The Chinese Science
Science
Citation Database, produced in partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was the first one in a language other than English.[18] It was followed in 2013 by the SciELO Citation Index, covering Brazil, Spain, Portugal, the Caribbean and South Africa, and more 12 countries of Latin America;[19] by the Korea Citation Index (KCI) in 2014, with updates from the South Korean National Research Foundation;[20] and by the Russian Science
Science
Citation index in 2015.[21] Contents The seven citation indices listed above contain references which have been cited by other articles. One may use them to undertake cited reference search, that is, locating articles that cite an earlier, or current publication. One may search citation databases by topic, by author, by source title, and by location. Two chemistry databases, Index Chemicus and Current Chemical Reactions
Current Chemical Reactions
allow for the creation of structure drawings, thus enabling users to locate chemical compounds and reactions. Abstracting and indexing The following types of literature are indexed: scholarly books, peer reviewed journals, original research articles, reviews, editorials, chronologies, abstracts, as well as other items. Disciplines included in this index are agriculture, biological sciences, engineering, medical and life sciences, physical and chemical sciences, anthropology, law, library sciences, architecture, dance, music, film, and theater. Seven citation databases encompasses coverage of the above disciplines.[11][12][16] Limitations in the use of citation analysis Main articles: Citation analysis
Citation analysis
and San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment As with other scientific approaches, scientometrics and bibliometrics have their own limitations. Recently, a criticism was voiced pointing toward certain deficiencies of the journal impact factor (JIF) calculation process, based on Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
Web of Science, such as: journal citation distributions usually are highly skewed towards established journals; journal impact factor properties are field-specific and can be easily manipulated by editors, or even by changing the editorial policies; this makes the entire process essentially non-transparent.[22] Regarding the more objective journal metrics, there is a growing view that for greater accuracy it must be supplemented with article-level metrics and peer-review.[22] Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
replied to criticism in general terms by stating that "no one metric can fully capture the complex contributions scholars make to their disciplines, and many forms of scholarly achievement should be considered."[23] See also

CSA databases Dialog (online database) Energy Citations Database Energy Science
Science
and Technology Database ETDEWEB Google Scholar h-index List of academic journal search engines Materials Science
Science
Citation Index PASCAL database PubMed Central ResearchGate SciELO Scopus SCImago Journal Rank Serbian Citation Index Russian Science
Science
Citation Index Indian Citation Index Chinese Science
Science
Citation Database Korea Citation Index VINITI Database RAS

References

^ Analytics, Clarivate. "Acquisition of the Thomson Reuters Intellectual Property and Science
Science
Business by Onex and Baring Asia Completed". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ Drake, Miriam A. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York, N.Y.: Marcel Dekker, 2004. ^ Jacso, Peter. The impact of Eugene Garfield
Eugene Garfield
through the prizm of Web of Science. Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol. 57, September 2010, P. 222. PDF ^ Garfield, Eugene, Blaise Cronin, and Helen Barsky Atkins. The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, 2000. ^ Garfield, Garfield, Eugene. Citation indexing: Its theory and application in science, technology, and humanities. New York: Wiley, 1979, P. 1. PDF ^ a b Overview and Description. ISI Web of Knowledge. Thomson Reuters. 2010. Accessed on 2010-06-24 ^ "Web of Knowledge > Real Facts > Quality and Quantity". Retrieved 2010-05-05.  ^ " Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
introduces century of social sciences". Information Today 26.10 (2009): 10. General OneFile. Web. 23 June 2010. Document URL. ^ Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
introduces century of social sciences." Computers in Libraries 29.10 (2009): 47. General OneFile. Internet. 23 June 2010. Document URL ^ a b "Overview - Web of Science" (Overview of coverage gleaned from promotional language.). Thomson Reuters. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-23.  ^ a b Lee, Sul H. (2010). "Citation Indexing and ISI's Web of Science" (Discussion of finding literature manually. Description of citation indexing, and Web of Science.). The University of Oklahoma Libraries. Retrieved 2010-06-23.  ^ a b Reuters, Thomson. "Web of Knowledge - Real Facts - IP & Science
Science
- Thomson Reuters". Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ a b Bulleted fact sheet. Thomson Reuters. 2014. ^ [1] Survey by Elsevier ^ "Some Searching Conventions". President and Fellows of Harvard College. December 3, 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-23.  ^ a b "Coverage - Web of Science" (Overview of coverage gleaned from promotional language.). Thomson Reuters. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-23.  ^ Jo Yong-Hak. Web of Science. Thomson Reuters, 2013 ^ "Chinese Science
Science
Citation Database".  ^ " Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
Collaborates with SciELO to Showcase Emerging Research Centers within Web of Knowledge".  ^ " Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
Collaborates with National Research Foundation of Korea to Showcase the Region's Research in Web of Science".  ^ Reuters, Thomson. "RSCI - IP & Science
Science
- Thomson Reuters". Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ a b San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment: Putting science into the assessment of research, December 16, 2012 ^ Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
Statement Regarding the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment [2]

External links

About Web of Science Web of Science Searching the Citation Indexes (Web of Science) Harvard College Library. 2010. (archive) MIT Web of Science
Science
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