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Waziristan
Waziristan
( Pashto
Pashto
and Urdu: وزیرستان‎, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan
North Waziristan
and South Waziristan
Waziristan
agencies, FR Bannu, and the western part of Tank in northwestern Pakistan, and the Janikhel, Gurbuz and Barmal districts of eastern Afghanistan. Waziristan
Waziristan
covers some 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 sq mi). The area is mostly populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe.[1] The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Wazir dialect. Most of the region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Waziristan
Waziristan
lies between the Tochi River to the north and the Gomal River to the south. It is bordered by Bannu
Bannu
and Tank Districts, FR DI Khan, and Kurram Agency
Kurram Agency
to the east and northeast, Sherani and Musakhel Districts to the south, and Khost, Paktia, and Paktika Provinces to the west and north. Before 1894, the Waziristan
Waziristan
region was under the government of the Afghan Empire, which was based in Kabul. The British entered Waziristan
Waziristan
in 1894. After the British military operations in 1894–95, Waziristan
Waziristan
was divided into two "agencies", North Waziristan
North Waziristan
and South Waziristan. The estimated populations as of 1998 were 361,246 and 429,841, respectively. The two parts have quite distinct characteristics, though both are inhabited by the Wazir tribe. They have a reputation as formidable warriors.[2] The Wazir tribes are divided into clans governed by male village elders who meet in a tribal jirga. Socially and religiously, Waziristan
Waziristan
is an extremely conservative area. Women are carefully guarded, and every household must be headed by a male figure. Tribal cohesiveness is also kept strong by means of the so-called Collective Responsibility Acts in the Frontier Crimes Regulations. Taliban
Taliban
presence in the area has been an issue of international concern in the War on Terrorism
War on Terrorism
particularly since the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, but has a history back to the later 19th Century.[3] In 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from Waziristan
Waziristan
as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a military offensive conducted by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces along the Durand Line.[4][5]

Contents

1 North Waziristan 2 South Waziristan 3 History

3.1 Waziristan
Waziristan
Revolt (1919–1920) 3.2 Faqir of Ipi 3.3 War on Terror

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

North Waziristan[edit] Main article: North Waziristan North Waziristan's capital is Miramshah. The area is mostly inhabited by the Dawar Tribe and the Utmanzai branch of the Darwesh Khel Waziris, who are related to Ahmedzai Waziris of South Waziristan, who live in fortified mountain villages, including Razmak, Datta Khel, Spin wam, Dosali, Shawa and Shawal. The Dawars (also known as Daurr or Daur), who live in the main Tochi Valley, farm in the valleys below in villages including Miramshah, Dande Darpakhel, Amzoni, Ali Khel, Mirali, Edak, Hurmaz, Mussaki, Hassu Khel, Ziraki, Tapi, Issori, Haider Khel, Khaddi and Arabkot irrigated by the river Tochi. South Waziristan[edit] Main article: South Waziristan The South Waziristan's Agency has its district headquarters at Wanna. South Waziristan, comprising about 6,500 square kilometres (2,500 sq mi), is the most volatile agency of Pakistan. Not under the direct administration of the government of Pakistan, South Waziristan
Waziristan
is indirectly governed by a political agent, who has been either an outsider or a Waziri—a system inherited from the British Raj. In south Waziristan
Waziristan
Agency, there are three tribes, Wazir, Maseed and Burki. History[edit] Before 1894, Waziristan
Waziristan
were under the government of the Afghan Empire. The British entered Waziristan
Waziristan
in 1894 and made agreements with the tribes. The British introduced a regular system of land record and revenue administration for the most fertile part of the Tochi valley. After the British military operations in 1894–95, a Political Agent for South Waziristan
South Waziristan
was permanently appointed with its headquarters at Wanna; another was appointed for North Waziristan with headquarters at Miramshah. Waziristan
Waziristan
Revolt (1919–1920)[edit] Main article: Waziristan
Waziristan
campaign 1919–1920

A flag used by a resistance movement in Waziristan
Waziristan
against the British during the 1930s, with the Takbir
Takbir
written on it

In the rugged and remote region of Waziristan
Waziristan
on British India's northwest border with Afghanistan, mountain tribes of Muslim fighters gave the British Indian Army a difficult time in numerous operations. The Waziristan
Waziristan
Revolt of 1919–1920 was sparked by the Afghan invasion of British India
British India
in 1919. Though the British made peace with the Afghans, the Waziri and Mahsud tribesmen gave the imperial (almost entirely Indian) forces a very difficult fight. Some of the tribesmen were veterans of the British-organised local militias that were irregular elements of the Indian Army, and used some modern Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles against the Indian forces sent into Waziristan. One aspect of this conflict was the effective use of air power against the Waziris and Mahsuds. This is similar to Royal Air Force tactics in suppressing the Arab Revolt in Iraq
Iraq
in 1920 and 1921. Faqir of Ipi[edit] Main articles: Mirzali Khan, Waziristan
Waziristan
campaign (1936–1939), and Bannu
Bannu
Resolution In 1935–36, a Hindu-Muslim clash occurred over a Hindu
Hindu
girl of Bannu, who had married a Muslim. The tribesmen rallied around Mirzali Khan, a Tori Khel Wazir, who was later given the title of "the Faqir of Ipi" by the British. Jihad
Jihad
was declared against the British. Mirzali Khan, with his huge lashkar (force), started a guerrilla warfare against the British forces in Waziristan. In 1938, Mirzali Khan
Mirzali Khan
shifted from Ipi to Gurwek, a remote village on the Durand Line, where he declared an independent state and continued the raids against the British forces. In June 1947, Mirzali Khan, along with his allies, including the Khudai Khidmatgars
Khudai Khidmatgars
and members of the Provincial Assembly, declared the Bannu
Bannu
Resolution. The resolution demanded that the Pashtuns be given a choice to have an independent state of Pashtunistan, composing all Pashtun majority territories of British India, instead of being made to join Pakistan. However, the British Raj
British Raj
refused to comply with the demand of this resolution.[6][7] After the creation of Pakistan
Pakistan
in August 1947, Mirzali Khan
Mirzali Khan
and his followers refused to recognise Pakistan, and launched a compaign against Pakistan. They continued their guerilla warfare against the new nation’s government.[8] In 1950, they announced the creation of Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
as an independent nation. A Pashtun tribal jirga, held in Razmak, appointed Mirzali Khan
Mirzali Khan
as the President of the National Assembly for Pashtunistan. He didn't surrender to the government of Pakistan
Pakistan
throughout his life. However, his popularity among the people of Waziristan
Waziristan
declined over the years, with several jirgas in Waziristan
Waziristan
deciding to support Pakistan. He died a natural death in 1960 in Gurwek.[9] War on Terror[edit] In the early stage of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, when the Taliban
Taliban
started fleeing into Pakistan, the local leaders, or Maliks, began a campaign among their locals to host the foreigners. Since then, around 200 Maliks have been assassinated by local Taliban through targeted killings. To end the Waziristan
Waziristan
war, Pakistan
Pakistan
signed the Waziristan Accord with chieftains from the self-styled Islamic Emirate of Waziristan
Islamic Emirate of Waziristan
on 5 September 2006. The Islamic militants
Islamic militants
in Waziristan
Waziristan
are said to have close affiliations with the Taliban.[10] Waziristan
Waziristan
is often mentioned as a haven for al-Qaeda fighters. There is speculation that some al-Qaeda leaders have found refuge in the area controlled by the Emirate, which is a staging ground for militant operations in Afghanistan.[11] On 4 June 2007, the National Security Council of Pakistan
Pakistan
met to decide the fate of Waziristan
Waziristan
and take up a number of political and administrative issues in order to control the "Talibanization" of the area. The meeting was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and attended by the Chief Ministers and Governors of all four provinces. They discussed the deteriorating law and order situation and the threat posed to state security. The government decided to take a number of actions to stop the "Talibanization" and to crush the armed militancy in the Tribal regions and the NWFP. Due to the ongoing military operations against the Taliban, nearly 100,000 people have already fled to Afghanistan's Khost province to seek shelter. The UN and other aid agencies are helping more than 470,000 people who have been displaced from Pakistan's North Waziristan
Waziristan
region due to the ongoing military operations. [12] The Ministry of the Interior has played a large part in the information gathering for the operations against the militants and their institutions. The Ministry of the Interior has prepared a list of militant commanders operating in the region and they have also prepared a list of seminaries for monitoring. ( Waziristan
Waziristan
is a tribal area, and in any tribal area of Pakistan, no body can deploy police. There are other options like frontier corps (militia) and khasadar (local tribesmen force).) The government is also trying to strengthen law enforcement in the area by providing the NWFP Police with weapons, bullet-proof jackets, and night-vision devices. The paramilitary Frontier Corps is to be provided with artillery and APCs. The state agencies are also studying ways to jam illegal FM radio channels.[13] The US drone programme has been responsible for numerous bombings in Waziristan, carried out with the approval of the Pakistani government.[14] See also[edit]

Mirzali Khan Mullah Powindah War in North-West Pakistan Islamic Emirate of Waziristan Manzoor Pashteen Pashtun Protection Movement

References[edit]

^ "Tribe: Ahmadzai Wazir" (PDF). Naval Postgraduate School.  ^ "A powerful tribal chief has warned militants linked with al-Qaeda to leave a Pakistani border district after the death of eight members of his clan supporting peace efforts in the troubled region. Maulavi Nazir, who drove out hundreds of Uzbek fighters in a bloody battle last year, said his armed followers would attack those loyal to an al-Qaeda linchpin in South Waziristan. Mr Nazir, who represents the influential Wazir tribe, blamed Baitullah Mehsud..." (Australian News Network), 8 January 2008 (on-line) ^ Beattie, Hugh (2014-02-04). "The Taliban: past and present". RadicalisationResearch.org. Retrieved 2014-02-05.  ^ North Waziristan
North Waziristan
IDPs figure reaches 800,000. Dawn. July 8, 2014. ^ "Air raids flatten 5 militant hideouts". The Express Tribune. 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.  ^ Ali Shah, Sayyid Vaqar (1993). Marwat, Fazal-ur-Rahim Khan, ed. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Frontier. University of Michigan: Emjay Books International. p. 256.  ^ H Johnson, Thomas; Zellen, Barry (2014). Culture, Conflict, and Counterinsurgency. Stanford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 9780804789219.  ^ The Faqir of Ipi of North Waziristan. The Express Tribune. November 15, 2010. ^ The legendary guerilla Faqir of Ipi unremembered on his 115th anniversary. The Express Tribune. April 18, 2016. ^ South Asia Defence and Strategic Year Book. Panchsheel. 2009. p. 260.  ^ Rohde, David (10 September 2006). "Al Qaeda Finds Its Center of Gravity". New York Times. Retrieved 12 September 2006.  ^ "UN's AID TO WAZIRISTAN". ABP Live. 3 July 2014.  ^ Khan, Ismail (2007). "Plan ready to curb militancy in Fata, settled areas". Newsweek international edition. www.Dawn.com. Retrieved 2007-06-27.  ^ Drone Warfare, Killing by Remote Control. Medea Benjamin, Harper Collins, 2012 p.140

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Waziristan". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Fürstenberg, Kai (2012) Waziristan: Solutions for a Troubled Region in Spotlight South Asia, No. 1, ISSN 2195-2787 (http://www.apsa.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/SSA-1.pdf) Roe, Andrew M. Waging War in Waziristan: The British Struggle in the Land of Bin Laden, 1849–1947 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2010) 313 pages Operations in Waziristan
Waziristan
1919–1920, Compiled by the General Staff, Army Headquarters, India, 1923 (Reprinted by Naval & Military Press and Imperial War Museum, ISBN 1-84342-773-7) Systems of Survival
Systems of Survival
(1992) by Jane Jacobs. Jacobs cites a story from the 16 July 1974 issue of The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
in which a Pathan husband in Waziristan
Waziristan
reportedly cut off his wife's nose because he was jealous. Thinking the better of it, he took her to a surgeon to have the injury repaired. Upon finding out that an operation would cost thirty rupees, he called it off, saying he could buy a new wife for eighty rupees. Jacobs cites this incident as evidence contradicting the platitude that society is based on the family. Instead, each family is based on whatever society it finds itself in. (Jacobs' discussion in her book is viewable on Amazon.com. Search for "Pathan".)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Waziristan.

Waziristan
Waziristan
and Mughal empire Nehru in Waziristan Sketch map of Waziristan Mehsuds and Wazirs, the King-makers in a game of thrones Lawrence of Arabia in Waziristan Audio slideshow: Waziristan's impossible border

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul- Jihad
Jihad
al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism

.