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WAZIRISTAN ( Pashto
Pashto
and Urdu : وزیرستان‎, "land of the Wazir ") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan and South Waziristan
Waziristan
agencies, FR Bannu , and the western part of Tank in northwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
, and the Janikhel , Gurbuz and Barmal districts of eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Waziristan
Waziristan
covers some 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 sq mi). The area is mostly populated by ethnic Pashtuns . It is named after the Wazir tribe. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto
Pashto
, predominantly the Wazir dialect . Most of the region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas .

Waziristan
Waziristan
comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar
Peshawar
between the Tochi River to the north and the Gomal River to the south. Bannu , Tank and FR DI Khan lie immediately to the east, Kurram Valley lies to the northeast, while Paktia , Khost and Paktika lie to the west and north. The region was an independent tribal territory until 1893, remaining outside the British Empire
British Empire
. Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, eliciting frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. The region became part of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947.

For administrative purposes, Waziristan
Waziristan
was divided into two "agencies", North Waziristan and South Waziristan , with an estimated populations in 1998 of 361,246 and 429,841 respectively. The two parts have quite distinct characteristics, though both are inhabited by the Wazir tribe. They have a reputation as formidable warriors.

The Wazir tribes are divided into clans governed by male village elders who meet in a tribal jirga . Socially and religiously, Waziristan
Waziristan
is an extremely conservative area. Women are carefully guarded, and every household must be headed by a male figure. Tribal cohesiveness is also kept strong by means of the so-called Collective Responsibility Acts in the Frontier Crimes Regulations .

Taliban
Taliban
presence in the area has been an issue of international concern in the War on Terrorism particularly since the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, but has a history back to the later 19th Century.

CONTENTS

* 1 North Waziristan * 2 South Waziristan

* 3 History

* 3.1 Waziristan
Waziristan
Revolt (1919–1920) * 3.2 Waziristan
Waziristan
Revolt (1936–1939) * 3.3 War on Terror

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

NORTH WAZIRISTAN

Main article: North Waziristan

North Waziristan's capital town is Miramshah . The area is mostly inhabited by the Dawar Tribe and the Darwesh Khel, better known as Utmanzai Waziris, who are related to Ahmedzai Waziris of South Waziristan, a sub clan of the Wazir tribe (from which the region derives its name), who live in fortified mountain villages, including Razmak, Datta Khel, Spin wam, Dosali, Shawa and Shawal. The Dawars (also known as Daurr or Daur), who live in the main Tochi Valley, farm in the valleys below in villages including Miranshah, Darpa Khel, Amzoni, Ali Khel, Mirali, Edak, Hurmaz, Mussaki, Hassu Khel, Ziraki, Tapi, Issori, Haider Khel, Khaddi and Arabkot irrigated by the river Tochi.

SOUTH WAZIRISTAN

Main article: South Waziristan

The South Waziristan's Agency has its district headquarters at Wanna .

South Waziristan, comprising about 6,500 square kilometres (2,500 sq mi), is the most volatile agency of Pakistan. Not under the direct administration of the government of Pakistan, South Waziristan is indirectly governed by a political agent, who has been either an outsider or a Waziri—a system inherited from the British Raj
British Raj
.

In south Waziristan
Waziristan
Agency, there are three tribes, Wazir, Maseed and Burki .

HISTORY

WAZIRISTAN REVOLT (1919–1920)

Main article: Waziristan campaign 1919–1920 A flag used by a resistance movement in Waziristan
Waziristan
against the British during the 1930s, with the Takbir
Takbir
written on it

In the rugged and remote region of Waziristan
Waziristan
on British India's northwest border with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, mountain tribes of Muslim fighters gave the British Indian Army a difficult time in numerous operations from 1860 onwards.

The Waziristan
Waziristan
Revolt of 1919–1920 was sparked by the Afghan invasion of British India in 1919. Though the British made peace with the Afghans , the Waziri and Mahsud tribesmen gave the imperial (almost entirely Indian) forces a very difficult fight. Some of the tribesmen were veterans of the British-organised local militias that were irregular elements of the Indian Army, and used some modern Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles against the Indian forces sent into Waziristan. One aspect of this conflict was the effective use of air power against the Waziris and Mahsuds. This is similar to Royal Air Force tactics in suppressing the Arab Revolt in Iraq
Iraq
in 1920 and 1921.

WAZIRISTAN REVOLT (1936–1939)

Main article: Waziristan campaign (1936–1939)

In 1936, trouble again flared up in Waziristan
Waziristan
in the form of a political and religious agitator known as the Fakir of Ipi . Trouble flared up again in 1938–39, although to a much lesser extent. After 1939, the North West Frontier quietened down until the end of British rule and the creation of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947.

WAR ON TERROR

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In the early stage of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, when the Taliban
Taliban
started fleeing into Pakistan, the local leaders, or Maliks , began a campaign among their locals to host the foreigners. Since then, around 200 Maliks have been assassinated by local Taliban through targeted killings .

To end the Waziristan war , Pakistan
Pakistan
signed the Waziristan
Waziristan
Accord with chieftains from the self-styled Islamic Emirate of Waziristan on 5 September 2006. The Islamic militants in Waziristan
Waziristan
are said to have close affiliations with the Taliban
Taliban
. Waziristan
Waziristan
is often mentioned as a haven for al-Qaeda fighters. There is speculation that some al-Qaeda leaders have found refuge in the area controlled by the Emirate, which is a staging ground for militant operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

On 4 June 2007, the National Security Council of Pakistan
Pakistan
met to decide the fate of Waziristan
Waziristan
and take up a number of political and administrative issues in order to control the "Talibanization" of the area. The meeting was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and attended by the Chief Ministers and Governors of all four provinces. They discussed the deteriorating law and order situation and the threat posed to state security.

The government decided to take a number of actions to stop the "Talibanization" and to crush the armed militancy in the Tribal regions and the NWFP.

Due to the ongoing military operations against the taliban Nearly 100,000 people have already fled to Afghanistan's Khost province to seek shelter. The UN and other aid agencies are helping more than 470,000 people who have been displaced from Pakistan's North Waziristan
Waziristan
region due to the ongoing military operations.

The ministry of interior has played a large part in the information gathering for the operations against the militants and their institutions. The Ministry of the Interior has prepared a list of militant commanders operating in the region and they have also prepared a list of seminaries for monitoring. ( Waziristan
Waziristan
is a tribal area, and in any tribal area of Pakistan, no body can deploy police. There are other options like frontier corps (militia) and khasadar (local tribesmen force).) The government is also trying to strengthen law enforcement in the area by providing the NWFP Police with weapons, bullet-proof jackets, and night-vision devices. The paramilitary Frontier Corps is to be provided with artillery and APCs . The state agencies are also studying ways to jam illegal FM radio channels.

The US drone programme has been responsible for numerous bombings in Waziristan, carried out with the approval of the Pakistani government

SEE ALSO

* War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
* Islamic Emirate of Waziristan

REFERENCES

* ^ "Tribe: Ahmadzai Wazir" (PDF). Naval Postgraduate School. * ^ Lawson, Alastair (2008-04-21). "Why Britons walked warily in Waziristan". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 2008-04-21. * ^ "A powerful tribal chief has warned militants linked with al-Qaeda to leave a Pakistani border district after the death of eight members of his clan supporting peace efforts in the troubled region. Maulavi Nazir , who drove out hundreds of Uzbek fighters in a bloody battle last year, said his armed followers would attack those loyal to an al-Qaeda linchpin in South Waziristan. Mr Nazir, who represents the influential Wazir tribe, blamed Baitullah Mehsud..." (Australian News Network), 8 January 2008 (on-line) * ^ Beattie, Hugh (2014-02-04). "The Taliban: past and present". RadicalisationResearch.org. Retrieved 2014-02-05. * ^ The Fakir of Ipi was a Tori Khel Wazir, whose full name was Mirza Ali Khan Haji Shabraam mahsud machil . * ^ South Asia Defence and Strategic Year Book. Panchsheel. 2009. p. 260. * ^ Rohde, David (10 September 2006). "Al Qaeda Finds Its Center of Gravity". New York Times. Retrieved 12 September 2006. * ^ "UN\'s AID TO WAZIRISTAN". ABP Live. 3 July 2014. * ^ Khan, Ismail (2007). "Plan ready to curb militancy in Fata, settled areas". Newsweek international edition. www.Dawn.com. Retrieved 2007-06-27. * ^ Drone Warfare, Killing by Remote Control. Medea Benjamin, Harper Collins, 2012 p.140

Attribution

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Waziristan". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

FURTHER READING

* Fürstenberg, Kai (2012) Waziristan: Solutions for a Troubled Region in Spotlight South Asia, No. 1, ISSN 2195-2787 (http://www.apsa.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/SSA-1.pdf) * Roe, Andrew M. Waging War in Waziristan: The British Struggle in the Land of Bin Laden, 1849–1947 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2010) 313 pages * Operations in Waziristan
Waziristan
1919–1920, Compiled by the General Staff, Army Headquarters, India, 1923 (Reprinted by Naval ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

War on Terror

* War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Iraq
Iraq
War * War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
* Symbolism of terrorism

PARTICIPANTS

OPERATIONAL

* ISAF * Operation Enduring Freedom participants * Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
* Iraq
Iraq
( Iraqi Armed Forces
Iraqi Armed Forces
) * NATO
NATO
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* United States
United States
* European Union
European Union
* Philippines
Philippines
* Ethiopia
Ethiopia

TARGETS

* al-Qaeda * Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
* al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula * Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
* Anwar al-Awlaki
Anwar al-Awlaki
* Al-Shabaab * Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami * Hizbul Mujahideen
Hizbul Mujahideen
* Islamic Courts Union * Jaish-e-Mohammed * Jemaah Islamiyah * Lashkar-e-Taiba * Taliban
Taliban
* Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

CONFLICTS

Operation Enduring Freedom

* War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* OEF – Philippines
Philippines
* Georgia Train and Equip Program * Georgia Sustainment and Stability * OEF – Horn of Africa * OEF – Trans Sahara * Drone strikes in Pakistan
Pakistan

OTHER

* Operation Active Endeavour * Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)
Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)
* Insurgency in the North Caucasus * Moro conflict in the Philippines
Philippines
* Iraq
Iraq
War * Iraqi insurgency * Operation Linda Nchi * Terrorism in Saudi Arabia
Terrorism in Saudi Arabia
* War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
* War in Somalia (2006–09) * 2007 Lebanon conflict * al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen

SEE ALSO

* Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse * Axis of evil
Axis of evil
* Black sites * Bush Doctrine
Bush Doctrine
* Clash of Civilizations
Clash of Civilizations
* Cold War
Cold War
* Combatant Status Review Tribunal * Criticism of the War on Terror * Death of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
* Enhanced interrogation techniques * Torture Memos * Extrajudicial prisoners * Extraordinary rendition
Extraordinary rendition
* Guantanamo Bay detention camp
Guantanamo Bay detention camp
* Iranian Revolution * Islamism
Islamism
* Military Commissions Act of 2006 * Terrorist Surveillance Program * Operation Noble Eagle * Operation Eagle Assist * Pakistan\'s role * President\'s Surveillance Program * Protect America Act of 2007 * September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
* Targeted killing
Targeted killing
* Targeted Killing in International Law * Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World * Unitary executive theory * Unlawful combatant
Unlawful combatant
* USA PATRIOT Act
USA PATRIOT Act
* Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* CAGE

* TERRORISM PORTAL * WAR PORTAL

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Waziristan
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