Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories:
Due to its weight, the transportation of water is very energy-intensive. Unless it has the assistance of gravity, a canal or long-distance pipeline will need pumping stations at regular intervals. In this regard, the lower friction levels of the canal make it a more economical solution than the pipeline. Water transportation is also very common in rivers and oceans.
The Grand Canal of China, finished in the 7th Century AD and measuring 1,794 kilometres (1,115 mi).
The California Aqueduct, near Sacramento, is 715 km (444 mi) long.
The Keita Integrated Development Project used specially created plows called the donaldo and Scarabeo to build water catchments. In these catchments, trees were planted which grow on the water flowing through the ditches. The Kimberley Water Source Project is currently underway in Australia to determine the best method of transporting water from the Fitzroy River to the city of Perth. Options being considered to include a 3,700-kilometre canal, a pipeline of at least 1,800 kilometres, tankers of 300,000 to 500,000 tonnes, and water bags each carrying between 0.5 and 1.5 gigalitres.