WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN SENEGAL is characterized by a
relatively high level of access compared to the average of Sub-Saharan
Africa. One of the interesting features is a public-private
partnership (PPP) that has been operating in
* 1 Access * 2 Service quality * 3 Water resources * 4 Infrastructure
* 5 Responsibility for water supply and sanitation
* 5.1 Policy * 5.2 Service provision
* 6 Innovative approaches
* 6.1 Affermage for urban water supply
* 6.2 Community partnership for standpipes in
* 7 History and recent developments
* 7.1 First public-private partnership (1960-71) * 7.2 Public management (1971–mid-1990s) * 7.3 Second public-private partnership (since mid-1990s)
* 8 Financial aspects and efficiency
* 8.1 Tariffs and cost recovery * 8.2 Investments and financing * 8.3 Efficiency
* 9 External cooperation * 10 See also * 11 Further reading * 12 References * 13 External links
In 2015 75% of the population of
ACCESS TO WATER AND SANITATION IN SENEGAL (2015)
Urban (50% of the population) Rural (50% of the population) TOTAL
Water \'At least basic\' definition 91% 63% 75%
House connections 75% 17% 46%
Sanitation \'At least basic\' definition 66% 35% 48%
Sewerage 19% 2% 11%
A key data sources for these access figures is the Senegalese survey as part of the WHO's World Health Survey of 2003. The figure for access to an improved source of water in urban areas reported in the survey (92%) is somewhat lower than the figure reported by the utility SDE and subsequently quoted, among others, by the World Bank (98%).
Water supply in most cities in
Concerning drinking water quality, in 2004 97.7% of water samples were in conformity with microbiological water norms, up from 96% in 1996.
Gambia River in the
Niokolo-Koba National Park
Senegal's climate is tropical with well-defined dry and humid seasons. Dakar's annual rainfall of about 600 mm occurs between June and October. The mean annual precipitation ranges from 270 mm/yr in the North to 1793 mm/yr in the South. Interior temperatures are much higher than along the coast.
The largest water resource in the country is the
Groundwater overexploitation is a serious problem in parts of Senegal. For example, Mont Rolland , 70 kilometers from Dakar, used to be famous for its mineral springs. Today, villagers need to drill as deep as 80 meters to pump water. The village's groundwater was seriously depleted by over-extraction by the mineral water company, which closed its doors recently. Almost 80 percent of Senegalese horticulturalists are located around Mont Rolland.
Most of the wastewater of
Major cities in
SANITATION In 2005 ONAS operated a sewer network of 773 km, 57 sewage
pumping stations, 7 wastewater treatment plants, and had 70,931
RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
The Ministère de l'Urbanisme, de l'Habitat, de l'Hydraulique urbaine, de l'Hygiène publique et de l'Assainissement is in charge of policy setting for urban water supply and sanitation.
The Ministère de l'Hydraulique rurale et du Réseau hydrographique national is in charge of rural water supply. These responsibilities were previously under the Ministry of Agriculture.
The Ministère de l'Environnement, de la Protection de la Nature, des Bassins de rétention et des Lacs artificiels is in charge of certain aspects of water resources management.
The government has launched a Water and Sanitation Program for the Millennium (PEPAM) to reach the Millennium Development Goals for water supply and sanitation. The program is not a project, but provides a framework for all stakeholders in the sector. The objectives until 2015 are as follows:
In rural areas:
* Provide sustainable water supply to an additional 2.3 million people, increasing access from 64% in 2004 to 82% in 2015. * Allow 355,000 rural households to install an individual solution to manage their excreta and domestic greywater , increasing access from 17% in 2004 to 59% in 2015. * Ensure the sanitation of the most important public buildings through the construction of 3,360 sanitary facilities in schools, health posts, markets and bus stations.
In urban areas:
* Provide house connections to water supply to an additional 1.64
million people, to reach an access rate of 88% in
Responsibility for urban water supply is shared between the
Senegalese national water company (Société Nationale des Eaux du
The Office National de l’Assainissement du Sénégal (ONAS) is in charge of sanitation.
In rural areas, user associations called Associations d’usagers de forages ruraux (ASUFOR) manage water systems supplied by tubewells. The state obliges them to sign maintenance contracts with private companies, in order to ensure the sustainability of the systems. In addition, they can also delegate operation of their systems to private operators.
Among various innovative approaches introduced in the Senegalese water sector over the past decade, the country-wide lease (affermage) contract, the Public-Private-NGO-Community Partnership for standpipes in Dakar, and the use of small enterprises to maintain rural and small town water systems with the support of micro-credits stand out particularly.
AFFERMAGE FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY
One of the best-known and successful innovative approaches in water
According to the World Bank, the government was successful at reaching the poor through the establishment of a national fund to allow the private operator to subsidize Social Connections. It aimed at providing improved services to the poor for a lower price. Social connections were free, while a connection fee was charged for ordinary connections aimed at wealthier households. SDE and SONES worked through a large NGO to identify the need for social connections. In addition, the private operator set up a decentralized and computerized network of payment booths. This made payments by domestic clients easier, and improved customer services. The operator’s remuneration was based on the amount of water produced and sold, creating an incentive to serve as many customers as possible while reducing water losses.
A 2006 study by the Boston Institute for Developing Economies (BIDE) estimated the total net benefits of the lease contract at a staggering US$457 million, of which the bulk accrued to customers who received better access to higher volumes of water, and to the government, with only small benefits accruing to the public and private owners of the water company (US$6 million). Losers included foreign lenders (US$14 million) and employees (US$10 million) through lower increases in wages and benefits compared to the period prior to the reform and through a small reduction in employment.
SELECTION OF THE PRIVATE OPERATOR The private operator was selected
competitively in a two-stage bidding process. Four bidders, all of
them French, participated in the first stage: Générale des Eaux (now
CRITICISM According to critics, such as the Dakar-based regional NGO Aide Transparence, the number of connections has increased from a much lower base of 203,902 in 1996 to only 264,161 in 2002. This contrasts with SDE figures which state that the number of connections was 338,398 in 2002. According to the report by Aide Transparence, "consumers often complain about a reduction in water quality" and that "the use of mineral water has never before been so widespread in Senegal", without providing any specific figures. It also says that "in certain areas or at certain points in the year" there is no tap water for a whole day or even for several days.
COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP FOR STANDPIPES IN DAKAR
Another innovative approach is the community partnership with SONES, SdE and an international NGO with local roots, Enda Tiers-Monde, to select the location for standpipes, build and to operate them. The program installs metered standposts to serve poor households who previously used polluted well water. The program is demand-responsive rather than relying on supply-side targeting of the poor. Community involvement is strong—they are heavily involved in planning, construction and maintenance, leading to strong ownership and near 100 per cent cost recovery. All standposts are metered—the households pay the standpost operator whilst the operator pays the utility for bulk water. The community itself chooses the operator (or a group of rotating operators) who may work for the community for a salary or occasionally for themselves for a share. There are two types of standpipe schemes—in one SONES fully finances the cost of the infrastructure, in the other ENDA finances the infrastructure. This latter scheme, known as the ‘Eau Populaire’ program, began in 1995. The SONES scheme has installed roughly 250 standposts, the ENDA scheme roughly 130. In 2001, an estimated 200,000 people had received access to potable water thanks to the ‘Eau Populaire’ project. The project has led to a significant drop in waterborne illnesses in children. It has also led to the creation of several hundred jobs (standpost operators who receive between 30,000 and 80,000 CFA per month), as well as funding other local projects via standpost receipts.
RURAL WATER SUPPLY
In rural areas, the government supported the introduction of more sustainable management models for piped water systems using boreholes since 1999 through the pilot project REGEFOR in Central Senegal. Among the innovative features of the project are the use of metering and volumetric pricing, mandatory maintenance contracts with private sector companies and support through micro-credit. The first pilot project covered 80 boreholes. In 2009 a private maintenance company is to be contracted for 621 boreholes in the central area of Senegal, and until January 2010 all the country's 1,400 boreholes are to be under private maintenance contracts.
HISTORY AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
FIRST PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (1960-71)
Compagnie Générale des Eaux
PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (1971–MID-1990S)
1971: Under President
1983: Under President
1994: The government embarks on a year-long process to design sector reforms, including a series of workshops and advice from the World Bank and an assessment of reforms in other countries.
SECOND PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (SINCE MID-1990S)
1995: The government decides to delegate urban water service provision to the private sector under a lease contract in its first letter of development policy.
1996: SONEES is dissolved and three new companies are created: Société Nationale des Eaux du Sénégal (SONES), the state asset holding company, Sénégalaise des Eaux (SDE), the private operating company, and the Office National de l’Assainissement du Sénégal (ONAS), the public sanitation company. SONES owns the assets, is in charge of investments in infrastructure, and regulation of SDE. SDE is responsible for operation, regular maintenance, some investment for system expansion, as well as billing and collection. According to the World Bank, good relationships were helped by the fact that no major layoffs were necessary during the reforms, as the utility was not very overstaffed to begin with.
1998: SONES and SDE successfully renegotiate several unattainable targets in the contract without resorting to arbitration or litigation.
1998: A Conseil Supérieur de l’Eau, presided by the Prime Minister, is created to set policies for water resources management and water supply.
1999: The pilot project REGEFOR is initiated in Central
2000: Change of government after Presidential elections that are won
by the opposition leader
2001: Second letter of development policy and effectiveness of the World Bank-supported Long-Term Water Sector Project. Water and sanitation policies are pursued without major changes.
2002: Sénégalaise Des Eaux is certified according to the ISO 9001 norm, version 2000, by the French association for quality assurance AFAQ. SdE is the first Senegalese company that has received an ISO certification and the first African company certified according to the ISO 9001 norm based on customer satisfaction management.
2005: Third letter of development policy. The Water and Sanitation Program for the Millennium (PEPAM) is created. In rural areas, the pilot project REGEFOR is completed successfully and its approach is now being introduced at a national level.
2006: The lease contract with SDE is extended by five more years. A performance contract is signed with SONES.
2008: The government signs a performance contract with ONAS.
2009: The government commissions a study to assess, among other issues, whether the lease contract should evolve into a concession contract under which the private company finances some or all of the investments.
2010/11: SAUR sells its share in SDE to the West African infrastructure holding company Finagestion, which in turn is majority-owned by the US-based, Africa-focused private equity fund Emerging Capital Partners .
2011: The lease contract with SDE is extended by two more years.
September 2013: Dakar's water supply is interrupted for three weeks after a break in a key transmission pipeline at Keur Momar Sarr.
2014: The lease contract with SDE is extended by five more years.
FINANCIAL ASPECTS AND EFFICIENCY
The financial policy of the sector, as defined in 1994, is based on the following key principles:
* The only support from the State is in the form of on-lending of donor’s financing; there are no ongoing operating subsidies. * There will be no excessive increases in water tariffs; tariff increases are gradual on the basis of a financial model. * There is a social tariff (the subsidized first block of the tariff for consumption under 10 m³ per month) in order to ensure affordability.
TARIFFS AND COST RECOVERY
URBAN WATER TARIFFS SDE applies an increasing-block tariff, which includes three blocks:
* a social tariff for low-consumption users with house connections, defined as those using less than 20 cubic meters every 60 days, which was 191 FCFA/m³ in 2008; * a regular tariff for consumption between 20 and 40 cubic meters (formerly 20-100 cubic meters), which was 630 FCFA/m³ in 2008; and * a "dissuasive" rate for any consumption over 40 cubic meters (formerly 100 cubic meters), which was 789 FCFA/m³ in 2008.
The NGO Public Citizen has criticized the tariff structure in Senegal, because the poorest who tend to rely on standpipes pay the highest tariffs, "which amounts to 350 percent of the social tariff". In addition, families in low-income areas may share one connection and consequently consume at the "dissuasive" rate. According to Public Citizen, this leads to a situation in which the poorest families subsidize the water of rich families who use normal amounts of water and qualify for the "social" tariff.
A World Bank study acknowledges that standpipe users pay more for water, noting that the government sees them as a temporary solution and intends to reach all the poor with private connections. However, still according to the same World Bank study, this policy suffers from a "major flaw": the very criteria that make a household eligible for the subsidy more or less guarantee that it is not poor. Social connection programs are intended for stable neighborhoods where the residents have established themselves. In order to obtain a social connection, an applicant must have title to the land, and an existing house must be located on it. A household that can afford this, and can afford to build a permanent house, is not among the poorest of the poor.
Price increases have been limited to no more than 3 percent per annum in nominal terms under the performance targets, the same as the rate of inflation, thus keeping tariffs constant in real terms. The average water tariff increased from 350 FCFA/m³ in 1995 (US$0.72/m³ at the exchange rate of 489 CFA/US$) to 496 FCFA/m³ (US$1.09/m³ at the exchange rate of 456 CFA/m³) in 2007.
COST RECOVERY FOR URBAN WATER All the financial costs for water supply are entirely recovered, which is highly unusual for a water utility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Interest-free long-term loans provided by international financial institutions to the Senegalese government are on-lent to the asset holding company and are recovered from users through the bills issued and collected by SDE.
TARIFFS AND COST RECOVERY FOR SEWERAGE A sanitation surcharge of US$0.05/m³ is levied by SDE on behalf of ONAS on water customers in all cities with a sewer network. The surcharge represents six percent of the water bill for households using 50 m³ per month of water. Revenues generated by this surcharge are insufficient to finance ONAS operations and maintain sewerage and drainage networks. Achieving financial sustainability of ONAS and finding means to devote resources for on-site sanitation promotion and development remains a major challenge for the sub-sector.
While municipalities are not responsible for sanitary or stormwater drainage, they are nevertheless supposed to transfer a portion of the property tax (amounting to US$0.5 million) to ONAS, through the equipment fund for municipalities, to finance operation and maintenance of drainage facilities. However, at least until 2001, these resources were not made available to ONAS.
COLLECTION EFFICIENCY IN URBAN AREAS Tariff collection by SDE reached a rate of 98 percent, up from less than 80 percent before the project according to one World Bank source. According to SDE and another World Bank source the tariff collection rate indeed averaged 98% in 2001-2006, but it was only slightly lower at 96% in 1996. According to again another source the collection ratio in 1996 was 91%. The lease contract was signed in April 1996.
TARIFFS AND FINANCING POLICY IN RURAL AREAS In rural areas beneficiary communities contribute 20% to initial investments and 80% is financed by the government. Operation, maintenance and replacement costs are to be recovered through tariff revenues.
INVESTMENTS AND FINANCING
INVESTMENT According to the Senegalese government, financing
equivalent to 260 billion
FCFA (about US$500 million using the 2008
exchange rate) has been mobilized between 1996 and 2006 through the
Projet Sectoriel Eau (PSE) and the Projet Eau à Long Terme (PELT).
According to other reports, US $300 million were invested in Senegal's
water partnership. According to the World Bank, total project cost
FINANCING Most of the investments in the sector are being financed by
donors through zero-interest loans from the World Bank's International
Development Association and the
African Development Bank or grants
from other donors, complemented by government counterpart funds.
Investments of US$20 million were financed by the private operator
over the first ten years of the lease. In 1996,
Water losses, mostly from leakages, dropped to less than 20 percent in 2006, from 32 percent in 1996. The decline translates to a savings equal to the water needs of 930,000 people. Labor productivity stood at 2.3. employees per 1,000 connections in 2014, up from 6.1 in 1996.
The World Bank , The United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the African Development Bank , the European Investment Bank , the French Development Agency (AFD), Germany and the West African Development Bank (BOAD) are among the largest donors in the Senegalese water sector.
In 1995, the WORLD BANK provided a US$100 million IDA credit to the
The EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK (EIB) has granted two loans (EUR 15 million in 1995 and EUR 16 million in 2001) to the Senegalese Government under the Long-Term Water Project to finance water supply services in Dakar. In November 2007 the EIB signed two additional financing agreements with SONES, in support of Senegal’s National Drinking Water and Sewerage Programme for the Millennium (PEPAM). A European Development Fund (EDF) subsidy of CFAF 5.7 billion (EUR 8.6 million) and an EIB loan of CFAF 9.8 billion (EUR 15 million) complete the financing of SONES’s total investment programme of CFAF 38 billion (EUR 58 million). Under the project, more than 60 urban centres, including Dakar, will benefit from schemes to rehabilitate, upgrade and extend the drinking water supply network, reaching more than 500,000 people over four years. The planned works comprise the creation of 25 new boreholes, construction of a water treatment plant, extension of the supply network by more than 500 km and installation of 50,000 subsidized connections and 360 standpipes. The four finance providers involved have undertaken to harmonise their procedures, implementing the commitments made under the Paris Declaration on the harmonisation of development aid.
* Aymeric Blanc and Cédric Ghesquières: Secteur de l\'eau au Sénégal - Un partenariat équilibré entre acteurs publics et privés pour servir les plus démunis ?, Agence Française de Développement, Direction de la Stratégie, Département de la Recherche, Document de Travail n°24, 2006
* ^ WASHwatch
* ^ WASHwatch
* ^ World Bank: The
* Société Nationale des Eaux du Senegal * Sénégalaise des Eaux * Programme d’eau potable et assainissement pour le millénaire (PEPAM) * The World Bank on private