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The water buffalo ( Bubalus
Bubalus
bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Today, it is also found in Europe, Australia, North America, South America and some African countries.[1] The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) native to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is considered a different species, but most likely represents the ancestor of the domestic water buffalo.[2] Two extant types of domestic water buffalo are recognized based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of South Asia and further west to the Balkans, Egypt, and Italy, and the swamp buffalo, found from Assam
Assam
in the west through Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
to the Yangtze valley of China
China
in the east.[1][3] The origins of the domestic water buffalo types are debated, although results of a phylogenetic study indicate that the swamp type may have originated in China
China
and was domesticated about 4,000 years ago, while the river type may have originated from India
India
and was domesticated about 5,000 years ago.[4] Water buffalo
Water buffalo
were traded from the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
to Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, 2500 BC by the Meluhhas.[5] The seal of a scribe employed by an Akkadian
Akkadian
king shows the sacrifice of water buffalo.[6] At least 130 million domestic water buffalo exist, and more people depend on them than on any other domestic animal.[7] They are especially suitable for tilling rice fields, and their milk is richer in fat and protein than that of dairy cattle. The large feral population of northern Australia
Australia
became established in the late 19th century, and smaller feral herds are in New Guinea, Tunisia, and northeastern Argentina.[1] Feral
Feral
herds are also present in New Britain, New Ireland, Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, and Uruguay.[8]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Ecology and behavior

2.1 Diet 2.2 Reproduction

3 Taxonomic history 4 Domestication
Domestication
and breeding 5 Distribution of populations

5.1 In Asia 5.2 In Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean 5.3 In Australia 5.4 In South America 5.5 In North America

6 Husbandry

6.1 Dairy products 6.2 Meat
Meat
and skin products 6.3 Bone and horn products

7 Environmental effects 8 Research 9 In culture

9.1 Fighting festivals 9.2 Racing festivals 9.3 Religious festival

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Characteristics[edit]

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
skull.

A water buffalo in Thailand

An albino swamp buffalo in Chiang Mai province, Thailand

The skin of river buffalo is black, but some specimens may have dark, slate-coloured skin. Swamp buffalo have a grey skin at birth, but become slate blue later. Albinoids are present in some populations. River buffalo have comparatively longer faces, smaller girths, and bigger limbs than swamp buffalo. Their dorsal ridges extend further back and taper off more gradually. Their horns grow downward and backward, then curve upward in a spiral. Swamp buffalo are heavy-bodied and stockily built; the body is short and the belly large. The forehead is flat, the eyes prominent, the face short, and the muzzle wide. The neck is comparatively long, and the withers and croup are prominent. A dorsal ridge extends backward and ends abruptly just before the end of the chest. Their horns grow outward, and curve in a semicircle, but always remain more or less on the plane of the forehead. The tail is short, reaching only to the hocks. Height at withers is 129–133 cm (51–52 in) for males, and 120–127 cm (47–50 in) for females. They range in weight from 300–550 kg (660–1,210 lb), but weights of over 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) have also been observed.[1] Tedong bonga is a black pied buffalo featuring a unique black and white colouration that is favoured by the Toraja
Toraja
of Sulawesi.[9] The swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes; the river buffalo has 50 chromosomes. The two types do not readily interbreed, but fertile offspring can occur. Buffalo-cattle hybrids have not been observed to occur, but the embryos of such hybrids reach maturity in laboratory experiments, albeit at lower rates than non-hybrids.[10] The rumen of the water buffalo has important differences from that of other ruminants.[11] It contains a larger population of bacteria, particularly the cellulolytic bacteria, lower protozoa, and higher fungi zoospores. In addition, higher rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and higher pH have been found as compared to those in cattle.[12] Ecology and behavior[edit]

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
enjoy being in water.

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
wallowing in mud

River buffalo prefer deep water. Swamp buffalo prefer to wallow in mudholes which they make with their horns. During wallowing, they acquire a thick coating of mud.[1] Both are well adapted to a hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging from 0 °C (32 °F) in the winter to 30 °C (86 °F) and greater in the summer. Water availability is important in hot climates, since they need wallows, rivers, or splashing water to assist in thermoregulation. Some breeds are adapted to saline seaside shores and saline sandy terrain.[13] Diet[edit] Water buffalo
Water buffalo
thrive on many aquatic plants and during floods, will graze submerged, raising their heads above the water and carrying quantities of edible plants. They eat reeds, Arundo donax, a kind of Cyperaceae, Eichhornia crassipes, and Juncaceae. Some of these plants are of great value to local peoples. Others, such as E. crassipes, are a major problem in some tropical valleys and water buffalo may help to keep waterways clear. Green fodders are used widely for intensive milk production and for fattening. Many fodder crops are conserved as hay, chaffed, or pulped. Fodders include alfalfa, the leaves, stems or trimmings of banana, cassava, Mangelwurzel, esparto, Leucaena leucocephala
Leucaena leucocephala
and kenaf, maize, oats, Pandanus, peanut, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, bagasse, and turnips. Citrus
Citrus
pulp and pineapple wastes have been fed safely to buffalo. In Egypt, whole sun-dried dates are fed to milk buffalo up to 25% of the standard feed mixture.[1] Reproduction[edit]

A water buffalo calf in India

Swamp buffalo generally become reproductive at an older age than river breeds. Young males in Egypt, India, and Pakistan
Pakistan
are first mated at about 3.0–3.5 years of age, but in Italy
Italy
they may be used as early as 2 years of age. Successful mating behaviour may continue until the animal is 12 years or even older. A good river male can impregnate 100 females in a year. A strong seasonal influence on mating occurs. Heat stress reduces libido.[1] Although buffalo are polyoestrous, their reproductive efficiency shows wide variation throughout the year. Buffalo cows exhibit a distinct seasonal change in displaying oestrus, conception rate, and calving rate.[14] The age at first oestrus of heifers varies between breeds from 13–33 months, but mating at the first oestrus is often infertile and usually deferred until they are 3 years old. Gestation lasts from 281–334 days, but most reports give a range between 300 and 320 days. Swamp buffalo carry their calves for one or two weeks longer than river buffalo. It is not rare to find buffalo that continue to work well at the age of 30, and instances of a working life of 40 years are recorded.[1] Taxonomic history[edit]

Water buffalo

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
first described the genus Bos
Bos
and the water buffalo under the binomial Bos
Bos
bubalis in 1758; the species was known to occur in Asia and was held as a domestic form in Italy.[15] Ellerman and Morrison-Scott treated the wild and domestic forms of the water buffalo as conspecifics,[16] whereas others treated them as different species.[17] The nomenclatorial treatment of wild and domestic forms has been inconsistent and varies between authors and even within the works of single authors.[18] In March 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature achieved consistency in the naming of wild and domestic water buffalo by ruling that the scientific name Bubalus
Bubalus
arnee is valid for the wild form.[19] B. bubalis continues to be valid for the domestic form and applies also to feral populations.[20] Domestication
Domestication
and breeding[edit]

Murrah buffalo
Murrah buffalo
at the Philippine Carabao
Carabao
Center

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
were domesticated in Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
about 5000 years ago, and in China
China
about 4000 years ago. Two types are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and further west to the Balkans
Balkans
and Italy, and the swamp buffalo, found from Assam
Assam
in the west through Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
to the Yangtze valley of China
China
in the east.[3] The present-day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from wild populations after the initial domestication events.[21] Twenty-two breeds of the river type water buffalo are known, including Murrah, NiliRavi, Surti, Jafarabadi, Anatolian, Mediterranean, and Egyptian buffalo.[22] China
China
has a huge variety of buffalo genetic resources, comprising 16 local swamp buffalo breeds in various regions.[13] Results of mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that the two types were domesticated independently.[23] Sequencing
Sequencing
of cytochrome b genes of Bubalus
Bubalus
species implies that the domestic buffalo originated from at least two populations, and that the river and the swamp types have differentiated at the full species level. The genetic distance between the two types is so large that a divergence time of about 1.7 million years has been suggested. The swamp type was noticed to have the closest relationship with the tamaraw.[24] Distribution of populations[edit]

Carabao
Carabao
buffalo in the Philippines

The water buffalo population in the world is about 172 million.[25] In Asia[edit]

Carabao
Carabao
cart in the Philippines
Philippines
in 1899

More than 95.8% of the world population of water buffalo are found in Asia, including both river and swamp types.[13] The water buffalo population in India
India
numbered over 97.9 million head in 2003, representing 56.5% of the world population. They are primarily of the river type, with 10 well-defined breeds comprising Badhawari, Murrah, Nili-Ravi, Jafarabadi, Marathwada, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri, Toda, and Surti. Swamp buffalo occur only in small areas in the north-eastern part of the country and are not distinguished into breeds.[26] In 2003, the second-largest population lived in China, with 22.76 million head, all of the swamp type with breeds kept only in the lowlands, and other breeds kept only in the mountains; as of 2003, 3.2 million swamp-type carabao buffalo were in the Philippines, nearly three million swamp buffalo were in Vietnam, and 772,764 buffalo were in Bangladesh. About 750,000 head were estimated in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1997.[13] In Japan, water buffalo is domestic animal throughout the Ryukyuan islands or Okinawa prefecture. It was also recorded that 889,246 buffalo were in Nepal. The water buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan, with 23.47 million head in 2010.[27] Of these, 76% are kept in the Punjab. The rest of them are mostly in the province of Sindh. Breeds used are NiliRavi, Kundi, and Azi Kheli.[28] Karachi
Karachi
has the largest population of water buffalos for an area where fodder is not grown, consisting of 350,000 head kept mainly for milking.[citation needed] In Thailand, the number of water buffalo dropped from more than 3 million head in 1996 to less than 1.24 million head in 2011.[29] Slightly over 75% of them are kept in the country's northeastern region. The statistics also indicate that by the beginning of 2012, less than one million were in the country, partly as a result of illegal shipments to neighboring countries where sales prices are higher than in Thailand.[citation needed] Water buffalo
Water buffalo
are also present in the southern region of Iraq
Iraq
in the Mesopotamian Marshes. The draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes
Mesopotamian Marshes
by Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
was an attempt to punish the south for the 1991 uprisings in Iraq. After 2003 and the Firdos Square statue destruction, these lands were reflooded and a 2007 report on Maysan and Dhi Qar shows a steady increase in the number of water buffalo. The report puts the number at 40,008 head in those two provinces.[30] In Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean[edit] Water buffalo
Water buffalo
were probably introduced to Europe
Europe
from India
India
or other Oriental countries. In Italy, the Longobard
Longobard
King Agilulf
Agilulf
is said to have received water buffalo in about the year 600. These were probably a present from the Khan of the Avars, a Turkic nomadic tribe that dwelt near the Danube River
Danube River
at the time. Sir H. Johnston knew of a herd of water buffalo presented by a King of Naples
King of Naples
to the Bey of Tunis
Tunis
in the mid-19th century that had resumed the feral state in northern Tunis.[31] European buffalo are all of the river type and considered to be of the same breed named Mediterranean buffalo. In Italy, the Mediterranean type was particularly selected and is called Mediterranean Italian breed to distinguish it from other European breeds, which differ genetically. Mediterranean buffalo are also found in Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Kosovo, and the Republic of Macedonia, with a few hundred in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Hungary. Little exchange of breeding buffalo has occurred among countries, so each population has its own phenotypic features and performances. In Bulgaria, they were crossbred with the Indian Murrah breed, and in Romania, some were crossbred with Bulgarian Murrah.[13] Populations in Turkey
Turkey
are of the Anatolian buffalo breed.[22] In Australia[edit]

A feral water buffalo in Australia

Between 1824 and 1849, water buffalo were introduced into the Northern Territory from Timor, Kisar, and probably other islands in the Indonesian archipelago. In 1886, a few milking types were brought from India
India
to Darwin. They have been the main grazing animals on the subcoastal plains and river basins between Darwin and Arnhem Land since the 1880s. In the early 1960s, an estimated population of 150,000 to 200,000 buffalo were living in the plains and nearby areas.[32] They became feral and are causing significant environmental damage. Buffalo are also found in the Top End. As a result, they were hunted in the Top End
Top End
from 1885 until 1980. The commencement of the brucellosis and tuberculosis campaign (BTEC) resulted in a huge culling program to reduce buffalo herds to a fraction of the numbers that were reached in the 1980s. The BTEC was finished when the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
was declared free of the disease in 1997. Numbers dropped dramatically as a result of the campaign, but have since recovered to an estimated 150,000 animals across northern Australia
Australia
in 2008.[33] During the 1950s, buffalo were hunted for their skins and meat, which was exported and used in the local trade. In the late 1970s, live exports were made to Cuba
Cuba
and continued later into other countries. Buffalo are now crossed with riverine buffalo in artificial insemination programs, and may be found in many areas of Australia. Some of these crossbreds are used for milk production. Melville Island is a popular hunting location, where a steady population up to 4,000 individuals exists. Safari outfits are run from Darwin to Melville Island and other locations in the Top End, often with the use of bush pilots. The horns, which can measure up to a record of 3.1 m (10 ft) tip-to-tip, are prized hunting trophies.[34] The buffalo have developed a different appearance from the Indonesian buffalo from which they descend.[citation needed] They live mainly in freshwater marshes and billabongs, and their territory range can be quite expansive during the wet season. Their only natural predators in Australia
Australia
are adult saltwater crocodiles, with whom they share the billabongs, and dingoes, which have been known to prey on buffalo calves and occasionally adult buffalo when the dingoes are in large packs.[citation needed] Buffalo were exported live to Indonesia
Indonesia
until 2011, at a rate of about 3000 per year. After the live export ban that year, the exports dropped to zero, and had not resumed as of June 2013.[35] In South America[edit]

Murrah buffalo
Murrah buffalo
in a Brazilian Farm

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
were introduced into the Amazon River
Amazon River
basin in 1895. They are now extensively used there for meat and dairy production. In 2005, the buffalo herd in the Brazilian Amazon stood at roughly 1.6 million head, of which 460,000 were located in the lower Amazon floodplain.[36] Breeds used include Mediterranean from Italy, Murrah and Jafarabadi from India, and Carabao
Carabao
from the Philippines. During the 1970s, small herds were imported to Costa Rica, Ecuador, Cayenne, Panama, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela.[37] In Argentina, many game ranches raise water buffalo for commercial hunting.[citation needed] In North America[edit] In 1974, four water buffalo were imported to the United States from Guam
Guam
to be studied at the University of Florida. In February 1978, the first herd arrived for commercial farming. Until 2002, only one commercial breeder was in the United States. Water buffalo
Water buffalo
meat is imported from Australia.[37] Until 2011, water buffalo were raised in Gainesville, Florida, from young obtained from zoo overflow. They were used primarily for meat production, frequently sold as hamburger.[38] Other US ranchers use them for production of high-quality mozzarella cheese.[39][40][41][42] Husbandry[edit]

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
ploughing rice fields in Java, Indonesia

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
are used for ploughing in Si Phan Don, Laos.

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
dung is dried against the façade of a house in Yuanyang County, Yunnan, China

The husbandry system of water buffalo depends on the purpose for which they are bred and maintained. Most of them are kept by people who work on small farms in family units. Their buffalo live in very close association with them, and are often their greatest capital asset. The women and girls in India
India
generally look after the milking buffalo while the men and boys are concerned with the working animals. Throughout Asia, they are commonly tended by children who are often seen leading or riding their charges to wallowing places. Water buffalo are the ideal animals for work in the deep mud of paddy fields because of their large hooves and flexible foot joints. They are often referred to as "the living tractor of the East". It probably is possible to plough deeper with buffalo than with either oxen or horses. They are the most efficient and economical means of cultivation of small fields. In most rice-producing countries, they are used for threshing and for transporting the sheaves during the rice harvest. They provide power for oilseed mills, sugarcane presses, and devices for raising water. They are widely used as pack animals, and in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
also for heavy haulage. In their invasions of Europe, the Turks used buffalo for hauling heavy battering rams. Their dung is used as a fertilizer, and as a fuel when dried.[1] Buffalo contribute 72 million tones of milk and three million tones of meat annually to world food, much of it in areas that are prone to nutritional imbalances. In India, river-type buffalo are kept mainly for milk production and for transport, whereas swamp-type buffalo are kept mainly for work and a small amount of milk.[26] Dairy products[edit] Further information: List of water buffalo cheeses

Dairy products of water buffalo milk

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins.[43] The physical and chemical parameters of swamp and river type water buffalo milk differ.[44] Water buffalo
Water buffalo
milk contains higher levels of total solids, crude protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus, and slightly higher content of lactose compared with those of cow milk. The high level of total solids makes water buffalo milk ideal for processing into value-added dairy products such as cheese. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk ranged from 4.4 mg/g fat in September to 7.6 mg/g fat in June. Seasons and genetics may play a role in variation of CLA level and changes in gross composition of the water buffalo milk.[45] Water buffalo
Water buffalo
milk is processed into a large variety of dairy products:[46]

Cream
Cream
churns much faster at higher fat levels and gives higher overrun than cow cream. Butter
Butter
from water buffalo cream displays more stability than that from cow cream. Ghee
Ghee
from water buffalo milk has a different texture with a bigger grain size than ghee from cow milk. Heat-concentrated milk products in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
include paneer, khoa, rabri, kheer and basundi. Fermented milk
Fermented milk
products include dahi, yogurt, and chakka. Whey
Whey
is used for making ricotta and mascarpone in Italy, and alkarish in Syria
Syria
and Egypt. Soft cheeses made include mozzarella in Italy, karish, mish, and domiati in Egypt, madhfor in Iraq, alghab in Syria, kesong puti in the Philippines, and vladeasa in Romania. The semihard cheese beyaz peynir is made in Turkey. Hard cheeses include braila in Romania, rahss in Egypt,[47] white brine in Bulgaria, and akkawi in Syria. Watered-down buffalo milk is used as a cheaper alternative to regular milk.[48]

Top ten buffalo milk producers — 11 June 2008[49]

Country Production (tonnes) Footnote

India 56,960,000 Unofficial, Semi-official, mirror data

Pakistan 21,500,000 official figure

China 2,900,000 FAO estimate

Egypt 2,300,000 FAO estimate

Nepal 930,000 FAO estimate

Iran 241,500 FAO estimate

Myanmar 205,000 FAO estimate

Italy 200,000 FAO estimate

Turkey 35,100 FAO estimate

Vietnam 31,000 FAO estimate

 World 85 396 902

Meat
Meat
and skin products[edit] Main article: Buffalo meat Water buffalo
Water buffalo
meat, sometimes called "carabeef", is often passed off as beef in certain regions, and is also a major source of export revenue for India. In many Asian regions, buffalo meat is less preferred due to its toughness; however, recipes have evolved (rendang, for example) where the slow cooking process and spices not only make the meat palatable, but also preserve it, an important factor in hot climates where refrigeration is not always available.[citation needed] Their hides provide tough and useful leather, often used for shoes.[citation needed] Bone and horn products[edit]

A bihu dancer is blowing a hornpipe.

The bones and horns are often made into jewellery, especially earrings. Horns are used for the embouchure of musical instruments, such as ney and kaval.[50] Environmental effects[edit] Wildlife conservation
Wildlife conservation
scientists have started to recommend and use introduced populations of feral domestic water buffalo in far-away lands to manage uncontrolled vegetation growth in and around natural wetlands. Introduced water buffalo at home in such environs provide cheap service by regularly grazing the uncontrolled vegetation and opening up clogged water bodies for waterfowl, wetland birds, and other wildlife.[51][52] Grazing water buffalo are sometimes used in Great Britain
Great Britain
for conservation grazing, such as in Chippenham Fen National Nature Reserve. The buffalo can better adapt to wet conditions and poor-quality vegetation than cattle.[53] Currently, research is being conducted at the Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies to determine the levels of nutrients removed and returned to wetlands when water buffalo are used for wetland vegetation management.[citation needed] However, in uncontrolled circumstances, water buffalo can cause environmental damage, such as trampling vegetation, disturbing bird and reptile nesting sites, and spreading exotic weeds.[54] Research[edit]

The super carabaos at the milking and breeding station

In 2007, the development of Southeast Asia's first cloned buffalo was announced in the Philippines. The Department of Agriculture's Philippine Carabao Center
Philippine Carabao Center
implemented cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer as a tool for genetic improvement in water buffalo to produce "super buffalo calves" by multiplying existing germplasms but without modifying or altering genetic material.[55] In January 2008, the Philippine Carabao Center
Philippine Carabao Center
in Nueva Ecija, per Filipino scientists, initiated a study to breed a super water buffalo that could produce 4 to 18 litres of milk per day using gene-based technology. Also, the first in vitro river buffalo was born there in 2004 from an in vitro-produced, vitrified embryo, named "Glory" after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Joseph Estrada's most successful project as an opposition senator, the PCC was created through Republic Act 3707, the Carabao
Carabao
Act of 1992.[56] Indian scientists from the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal developed a cloned buffalo in 2010. The buffalo calf was named Samrupa. The calf did not survive more than a week, due to genetic defects. A few months later, a second cloned calf was successfully born, named Garima.[57] The Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, India's premier research institute on buffalo, also became the second institute in the world to successfully clone the buffalo in 2016.[58][59] In culture[edit]

Ceramic water buffalo from 2300 BC found in Lopburi, Thailand

Hindu
Hindu
god Yama (god of death) on a buffalo

Water Buffalo (Suigyū) by Katsushika Hokusai, circa 1875

Horns of water buffalo sacrificed in West Sumba, Indonesia, circa 1936 (collection Tropenmuseum)

Some ethnic groups, such as Batak and Toraja
Toraja
in Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Derung
Derung
in China, sacrifice water buffalo or kerbau (called horbo in Batak or tedong in Toraja) at several festivals. In Chinese tradition the domestic buffalo is associated with contemplative life.[60] Legend has it that the Chinese philosophical sage Laozi
Laozi
left China
China
through the Han Gu Pass riding a water buffalo. According to Hindu
Hindu
lore, the god Dharmaraja, of Dharma
Dharma
and death, Yama, rides on a male water buffalo. The Hindu
Hindu
goddesses Varahi and Vihot Mata also ride on buffalo as their vahana. A buffalo head was a symbol of death in Tibet.[61] According to another folk lore, Mahishasura, a half-buffalo and half-human demon, was killed by goddess Durga. The Yoruban Orisha Oya (goddess of change) takes the form of a water buffalo. The carabao breed is considered a national symbol of the Philippines. In Vietnam, water buffalo are often the most valuable possession of poor farmers: 'Con trâu là đầu cơ nghiệp'. They are treated as a member of the family: 'Chồng cày, vợ cấy, con trâu đi bừa', meaning 'the husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffalo draws the rake'. Children talk to their water buffalo: 'Bao giờ cây lúa còn bông. Thì còn ngọn cỏ ngoài đồng trâu ăn'. Hà Nội used to be named Kim Ngưu - Golden Water Buffalo. Many ethnic groups use the horn of water buffalo as a game trophy, musical instruments and ornaments. In the Thai and Sinhalese animal and planetary zodiac, the buffalo is the third animal zodiac of the Thai and the fourth animal zodiac of the Sinhalese people
Sinhalese people
of Sri Lanka.[62] Similarly, the water buffalo is the second animal zodiac in the Vietnamese zodiac.

Fighting festivals[edit]

An unstaged water buffalo fight

Pasungay Festival is held annually in the town of San Joaquin, Iloilo in the Philippines. Moh juj Water Buffalo fighting is held every year in Bhogali Bihu
Bihu
in Assam.[63] Ahotguri in Nagaon
Nagaon
is famous for it. Do Son
Do Son
Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Vietnam
Vietnam
is held each year on the ninth day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar at Do Son Township, Haiphong
Haiphong
City in Vietnam. It is one of the most popular Vietnam
Vietnam
festivals and events in Haiphong
Haiphong
City. The preparations for this buffalo fighting festival begin from the two to three months earlier. The competing buffalo are selected and methodically trained months in advance. It is a traditional festival of Vietnam
Vietnam
attached to a Water God worshipping ceremony and the Hien Sinh custom to show martial spirit of the local people of Do Son, Haiphong.[64][65] "Hai Luu" Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Vietnam
Vietnam
has existed since the 2nd century B.C. General Lu Gia at that time, had the buffalo slaughtered to give a feast to the local people and the warriors, and organized buffalo fighting for amusement. Eventually, all the fighting buffalo will be slaughtered as tributes to the deities.[66][67] "Ko Samui" Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Thailand
Thailand
is a very popular event held on special occasions such as New Year's Day in January, and Songkran in mid-April, this festival features head-wrestling bouts in which two male Asian water buffalo are pitted against one another. Unlike in Spanish Bullfighting, wherein bulls get killed while fighting sword-wielding men, Buffalo Fighting Festival held at Ko Samui, Thailand
Thailand
is fairly harmless contest. The fighting season varies according to ancient customs & ceremonies. The first Buffalo to turn and run away is considered the loser, the winning buffalo becomes worth several million baht.[68] "Ma'Pasilaga Tedong" Water Buffalo Fighting Festival, in Tana Toraja Regency of Sulawesi
Sulawesi
Island, Indonesia, is a popular event where the Rambu Solo or a Burial Festival took place in Tana Toraja.

Racing festivals[edit]

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
racing at Babulang
Babulang
2006

Buffalo race at Vandar village, Udupi district, India.

Carabao
Carabao
Carroza Festival is being held annually every May in the town of Pavia, Iloilo, Philippines. Kambala
Kambala
races of Karnataka, India, take place between December and March. The races are conducted by having the water buffalo (he buffalo) run in long parallel slushy ditches, where they are driven by men standing on wooden planks drawn by the buffalo. The objectives of the race are to finish first and to raise the water to the greatest height and also a rural sport. Kambala
Kambala
races are arranged with competition, as well as without competition and as a part of thanks giving (to god) in about 50 villages of coastal Karnataka. In the Chonburi Province
Chonburi Province
of Thailand, and in Pakistan, there are annual water buffalo races. Chon Buri Water buffalo
Water buffalo
racing festival, Thailand[69] In downtown Chonburi, 70 km (43 mi) south of Bangkok, at the annual water buffalo festival held in mid-October. About 300 buffalo race in groups of five or six, spurred on by bareback jockeys wielding wooden sticks, as hundreds of spectators cheer. The water buffalo has always played an important role in agriculture in Thailand. For farmers of Chon Buri Province, near Bangkok, it is an important annual festival, beginning in mid-October. It is also a celebration among rice farmers before the rice harvest. At dawn, farmers walk their buffalo through surrounding rice fields, splashing them with water to keep them cool before leading them to the race field. This amazing festival started over a hundred years ago when two men arguing about whose buffalo was the fastest ended up having a race between them. That’s how it became a tradition and gradually a social event for farmers who gathered from around the country in Chonburi to trade their goods. The festival also helps a great deal in preserving the number of buffalo, which have been dwindling at quite an alarming rate in other regions. Modern machinery is rapidly replacing buffalo in Thai agriculture. With most of the farm work mechanized, the buffalo-racing tradition has continued. Racing buffalo are now raised just to race; they do not work at all. The few farm buffalo which still do work are much bigger than the racers because of the strenuous work they perform. Farm buffalo are in the "Buffalo Beauty Pageant", a Miss Farmer beauty contest and a comic buffalo costume contest etc.. This festival perfectly exemplifies a favored Thai attitude to life — "sanuk," meaning fun. Babulang
Babulang
Water buffalo
Water buffalo
racing festival in Sarawak, Malaysia, is the largest or grandest of the many rituals, ceremonies and festivals of the traditional Bisaya community of Limbang, Sarawak. Highlights are the Ratu Babulang
Babulang
competition and the Water buffalo
Water buffalo
races which can only be found in this town in Sarawak, Malaysia. Vihear Suor village Water buffalo
Water buffalo
racing festival, Cambodia,[70] each year, people visit Buddhist temples across the country to honor their deceased loved ones during a 15-day period commonly known as the Festival of the Dead
Festival of the Dead
but in Vihear Suor village, about 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Cambodia, citizens each year wrap up the festival with a water buffalo race to entertain visitors and honour a pledge made hundreds of years ago. There was a time when many village cattle which provide rural Cambodians with muscle power to plough their fields and transport agricultural products died from an unknown disease. The villagers prayed to a spirit to help save their animals from the disease and promised to show their gratitude by holding a buffalo race each year on the last day of "P'chum Ben" festival as it is known in Cambodian. The race draws hundreds of spectators who come to see riders and their animals charge down the racing field, the racers bouncing up and down on the backs of their buffalo, whose horns were draped with colorful cloth. Buffalo racing in Kerala is similar to Kambala
Kambala
races.[71][72]

Religious festival[edit]

The Pulilan
Pulilan
Carabao
Carabao
Festival is held annually every 14 and 15 May in the Philippine town of Pulilan
Pulilan
in honor of St. Isidore the Laborer, the patron saint of farmers. As thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest every year, farmers parade their carabaos in the main town street, adorning them with garlands and other decorations. One of the highlights of the festival is the kneeling of the carabaos in front of the parish church.[73]

See also[edit]

Wild African buffalo
African buffalo
(Syncerus caffer) List of water buffalo breeds Cattle
Cattle
in religion Zebu, the common breed of domestic cattle from India

References[edit]

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Mesopotamia
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Mitochondrial DNA
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Phylogenetic
relationship among all living species of the genus Bubalus
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and Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Animal
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Agricultural Census 2010. Government of Pakistan, Statistics Division, Agricultural Census Organization, Lahore. ^ FAO (2013). Breeds reported by Pakistan: Buffalo. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. ^ Uriyapongson, S. (2013). Buffalo and Buffalo Meat
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Animals in the Northern Territory". Australian Veterinary Journal. 40 (3): 84–88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1964.tb01703.x.  ^ The feral water buffalo ( Bubalus
Bubalus
bubalis). Fact Sheet. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved on 17 July 2012. ^ Sharp, K. (2009). Frontier to the Crossroads. Outback Magazine 67: ^ ABC website Buffalo exports still suffering June 10, 2013 ^ Sheikh, P. A., Merry, F. D., McGrath, D. G. (2006). "Water buffalo and cattle ranching in the Lower Amazon Basin: Comparisons and conflicts". Agricultural Systems 87: 313–330. Abstract ^ a b National Research Council (U.S.). (2002). The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal : Report. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. ^ "Buffalos find home on the kitchen range // Sought-after meat lower than beef in cholesterol, fat" (1989). Austin American Statesman: D3 ^ Mehren, E. (2003). " Water buffalo
Water buffalo
enlisted for Vermont venture" Chicago Tribune. ^ Mehren, E. (2003). "A Taste of Italy, Via Vermont" (2003). Los Angeles Times ^ Associated Press (2006). "Buffalo make the mozzarella" Los Angeles Times. ^ Fletcher, J. (2006). "Buffalo milk's curds and whey" San Francisco Chronicle. ^ D'Ambrosio, C., Arena, S., Salzano, A. M., Renzone, G., Ledda, L. and Scaloni, A. (2008). A proteomic characterization of water buffalo milk fractions describing PTM of major species and the identification of minor components involved in nutrient delivery and defense against pathogens. Proteomics 8(17): 3657–3666. ^ Khan, M. A. S., Islam, M. N., Siddiki, M. S. R. (2007). Physical and chemical composition of swamp and water buffalo milk: a comparative study. Italian Journal of Animal
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Science 6, (Suppl. 2): 1067–1070. ^ Han, X., Lee, F. L., Zhang, L. and M. R. Guo (2012). Chemical composition of water buffalo milk and its low-fat symbiotic yogurt development. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2 (4): 86–106. ^ Borghese, A. (2005). Buffalo Cheese
Cheese
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Industry. Pages 185–195 in Borghese, A. (ed.) Buffalo Production and Research. REU Technical Series 67. Inter-regional Cooperative Research Network on Buffalo, FAO Regional Office for Europe, Rome. ^ https://agritrop.cirad.fr/574408/2/document_574408.pdf ^ "Buffalo Milk". Dairy For All. Retrieved 2013-06-11.  ^ Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division ^ "Why Wear Horn Earrings?" (PDF). Bandaru Organics. Retrieved 14 August 2014.  ^ BBC News February 2004 Buffalo improve wildlife habitat ^ "Buffaloes and wetlands" -- grazing in wetland management: A discussion from the Ramsar Forum over late March 1998 ^ Natural England (2008). "Buffalo improve wildlife habitat in Cambridgeshire". Natural England East of England press office.  ^ Roth, J. & P. Myers (2004). "Bubalis Bubalis". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal
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Diversity Web.  ^ Hicap, J. M. (2007). "RP to produce Southeast Asia`s first cloned buffalo". The Manila Times.  ^ Uy, Jocelyn (2007). "'Super carabao' making the scene in year of the rats".  ^ Samrupa, World's first cloned buffalo calf from India. Retrieved from Topinews.com ^ 2010. India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha, pp.151.] ^ DNA India
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- CIRB becomes India's second centre to produce a cloned buffalo, 2016 ^ Tressider, Jack (1997). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols. London: Helicon Publisher. p. 31. ISBN 1-85986-059-1.  ^ Tressider, Jack (1997). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols. London: Helicon Publishers. p. 31. ISBN 1-85986-059-1.  ^ Upham, E. (1829). The History and Doctrine of Budhism: Popularly Illustrated: with Notices of the Kappooism, Or Demon Worship, and of the Bali, Or Planetary Incantations, of Ceylon. London: R. Ackermann. ^ Dutta, Pullock (12 January 2008). "Bonfire, feast & lots more". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Retrieved 2008-01-19.  ^ Do Son: buffalo fighting festival (Vietnam), 14 September 2005, VietNamNet Bridge ^ Do Son
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News Agency ^ VIDEO on YouTube:Water Buffalo-fighting festival ^ Koh Samui Point (2017). Buffalo Fighting ^ Buffalo Racing, Thailand, thailand-guide.org (p) some content provided by Tourism Authority of Thailand, Last Updated : 1 July 2007; Watching the Buffalo Racing, by Panrit "Gor" Daoruang, 14 October 2003, Thailand
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Post ^ Buffalo Racing in Cambodia, 27 September 2006 ^ "Bull race held at Kaakkoor peacefully". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 February 2004.  ^ "'Maramadi' winners". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 February 2004.  ^ " Pulilan
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Further reading[edit]

Clutton-Brock, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge UK : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63495-4. Guinness Book of Records, 2005 Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2525-3 Voelker, W. 1986. The Natural History of Living Mammals. Medford, New Jersey, USA: Plexus Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-937548-08-1. Roth, J. and P. Myers. "Bubalis Bubalis", University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Retrieved on 15 January 2009 Fahimuddin, M. 1989. Domestic Water Buffalo. Janpath, New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-204-0402-5. The Water Buffalo: New Prospects For An Underutilized Animal. Washington, D.C. 1981. National Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-309-04159-1. Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 1993. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World, Second Edition, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution. Ruangprim, T. et al. 2007. Rumen
Rumen
microbes and ecology of male dairy, beef cattle and buffaloes. In: Proceedings Animal
Animal
Science Annual Meeting, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Thu, Nguyen Van and T. R. Preston. 1999. Rumen
Rumen
environment and feed degradability in swamp buffaloes fed different supplements. Livestock Research for Rural Development 11 (3) Wanapat, M. 2000. Rumen
Rumen
manipulation to increase the efficient use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in the tropics. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13(Suppl.): 59-67. Wanapat, M. and P. Rowlinson. 2007. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: Feed resources and rumen approach. Paper to be presented at the VIII World Buffalo Congress, 19–22 October 2007, Caserta, Italy, organized by The International Buffalo Federation.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Water buffalo.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Water buffalo

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article about Water buffalo.

Feral
Feral
buffalo in Australia Animal
Animal
Info: Wild Asian (Water) Buffalo Creature features: Buffaloes Breeds of Livestock: Murrah National Agricultural Innovation Project: Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Milk
Milk
yield, Fat
Fat
and Protein
Protein
Percent in Buffaloes

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Medium of exchange

Commodity money

Precious metals Salt
Salt
(Roman world) Koku
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(rice) Shells Shekel
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(barley) Cocoa bean
Cocoa bean
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Rai stones
(Micronesia) Manilla (W. Africa) Trade bead

Domestic animals

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
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(Arabia) Yak (Tibet)

Money

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Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam
Vietnam
mouse-deer (T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi
Sulawesi
babirusa (B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor
Timor
warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q42710 ADW: Bubalus_bubalis ARKive: bubalus-bubalis EoL: 311907 EPPO: BUBABU Fossilworks: 149716 iNaturalist: 81925 ITIS: 552476 MSW: 14

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