Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline
water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and
minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is
an issue for agriculture.
Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human
consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt.
Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of
the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective
provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled
wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water
Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally
more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water
recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not
always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem
worldwide. Currently, approximately 1% of the world's population is
dependent on desalinated water to meet daily needs, but the UN expects
that 14% of the world's population will encounter water scarcity by
Desalination is particularly relevant in dry countries such as
Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall
behind dams for water.
Desalinated water is usually healthier than water from rivers and
ground water, and there is less salt and limescale in it.
According to the International
Desalination Association, in June 2015,
18,426 desalination plants operated worldwide, producing 86.8 million
cubic meters per day, providing water for 300 million people. This
number increased from 78.4 million cubic meters in 2013, a 10.71%
increase in 2 years. The single largest desalination project is Ras
Al-Khair in Saudi Arabia, which produced 1,025,000 cubic meters per
day in 2014.
Kuwait produces a higher proportion of its water than
any other country, totaling 100% of its water use.
Schematic of a multistage flash desalinator
A – steam in
B – seawater in
C – potable water out
D – waste out
E – steam out
F – heat exchange
G – condensation collection
H – brine heater
Plan of a typical reverse osmosis desalination plant
1.1 Vacuum distillation
1.2 Multi-stage flash distillation
1.3 Multiple-effect distillation
1.4 Vapor-compression distillation
1.5 Reverse osmosis
1.7 Solar evaporation
1.9 Membrane distillation
1.10 Wave-powered desalination
2 Considerations and criticism
2.4.3 Alternatives without pollution
2.4.4 Alternatives to desalination
2.4.5 Public health concerns
2.5 Other issues
3 Experimental techniques
3.1 Waste heat
3.2 Low-temperature thermal
3.3 Thermoionic process
3.4 Evaporation and condensation for crops
3.5 Other approaches
3.5.1 Forward osmosis
3.5.2 Small-scale solar
3.5.8 Electrokinetic shocks
5 In nature
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Reverse osmosis desalination plant in Barcelona, Spain
There are several methods. Each has advantages and disadvantages.
The traditional process used in these operations is vacuum
distillation—essentially boiling it to leave impurities behind. In
desalination, atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the
required temperature needed. Liquids boil when the vapor pressure
equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with
temperature. Effectively, liquids boil at a lower temperature, when
the ambient atmospheric pressure is less than usual atmospheric
pressure. Thus, because of the reduced pressure, low-temperature
"waste" heat from electrical power generation or industrial processes
can be employed.
Multi-stage flash distillation
Water is evaporated and separated from sea water through multi-stage
flash distillation, which is a series of flash evaporations. Each
subsequent flash process utilizes energy released from the
condensation of the water vapor from the previous step.
Multiple-effect distillation (MED) works through a series of steps
called “effects”. Incoming water is sprayed onto pipes which
are then heated to generate steam. The steam is then used to heat the
next batch of incoming sea water. To increase efficiency, the steam
used to heat the sea water can be taken from nearby power plants.
Although this method is the most thermodynamically efficient among
methods powered by heat, a few limitations exist such as a max
temperature and max number of effects.
Vapor-compression evaporation involves using either a mechanical
compressor or a jet stream to compress the vapor present above the
liquid. The compressed vapor is then used to provide the heat
needed for the evaporation of the rest of the sea water. Since this
system only requires power, it is more cost effective if kept at a
The leading process for desalination in terms of installed capacity
and yearly growth is reverse osmosis (RO). The RO membrane
processes use semipermeable membranes and applied pressure (on the
membrane feed side) to preferentially induce water permeation through
the membrane while rejecting salts.
Reverse osmosis plant membrane
systems typically use less energy than thermal desalination
Desalination processes are driven by either thermal
(e.g., distillation) or electrical (e.g., RO) as the primary energy
Energy cost in desalination processes varies considerably
depending on water salinity, plant size and process type. At present
the cost of seawater desalination, for example, is higher than
traditional water sources, but it is expected that costs will continue
to decrease with technology improvements that include, but are not
limited to, improved efficiency, reduction in plants footprint,
improvements to plant operation and optimization, more effective feed
pretreatment, and lower cost energy sources.
The Reverse Osmosis process is not maintenance free. Various factors
interfere with efficiency: ionic contamination (calcium, magnesium
etc.); DOC; bacteria; viruses; colloids & insoluble particulates;
biofouling and scaling. In extreme cases destroying the RO membranes.
To mitigate damage, various pretreatment stages are introduced.
Anti-scaling inhibitors include acids and other agents like the
organic polymers Polyacrylamide and Polymaleic Acid),
Polyphosphates. Inhibitors for fouling are biocides (as oxidants
against bacteria and viruses), like chlorine, ozone, sodium or calcium
hypochlorite. At regular intervals, depending on the membrane
contamination; fluctuating seawater conditions; or prompted by
monitoring processes the membranes need to be cleaned, known as
emergency or shock-flushing. Flushing is done with inhibitors in a
fresh water solution. Thus the system needs to go offline. This
procedure is environmental risky, since contaminated water is rejected
into the ocean without treatment. Sensitive marine habitats can be
Freeze-thaw desalination uses freezing to remove fresh water from
One method, invented by Alexander Zarchin, used freezing and vacuuming
of salt from seawater.
Solar evaporation mimics the natural water cycle, in which the sun
heats the sea water enough for evaporation to occur. After
evaporation, the water vapor is condensed onto a cool surface.
Electrodialysis utilizes electric potential to move the salts through
pairs of charged membranes, which trap salt in alternating
Membrane distillation uses a temperature difference across a membrane
to evaporate vapor from a salty brine solution and condense pure
condensate on the colder side. 
CETO is a wave power technology that desalinates seawater using
Wave-powered desalination plants began operating
on Garden Island in Western Australia in 2013 and in
Considerations and criticism
Energy consumption of seawater desalination has reached as low as 3
kWh/m3, including pre-filtering and ancillaries, similar to the
energy consumption of other fresh water supplies transported over
large distances, but much higher than local fresh water supplies
that use 0.2 kWh/m3 or less.
A minimum energy consumption for seawater desalination of around 1
kWh/m3 has been determined, excluding prefiltering and
intake/outfall pumping. Under 2 kWh/m3 has been achieved with
reverse osmosis membrane technology, leaving limited scope for further
Supplying all US domestic water by desalination would increase
domestic energy consumption by around 10%, about the amount of energy
used by domestic refrigerators. Domestic consumption is a
relatively small fraction of the total water usage.
Energy consumption of seawater desalination methods.
Desalination Method >>
Multi-stage Flash MSF
Mechanical Vapor Compression MVC
Reverse Osmosis RO
Electrical energy (kWh/m3)
Thermal energy (kWh/m3)
Electrical equivalent of thermal energy (kWh/m3)
Total equivalent electrical energy (kWh/m3)
Note: "Electrical equivalent" refers to the amount of electrical
energy that could be generated using a given quantity of thermal
energy and appropriate turbine generator. These calculations do not
include the energy required to construct or refurbish items consumed
in the process.
Cogeneration is generating excess heat and electricity generation from
a single process.
Cogeneration can provide usable heat for
desalination in an integrated, or "dual-purpose", facility where a
power plant provides the energy for desalination. Alternatively, the
facility's energy production may be dedicated to the production of
potable water (a stand-alone facility), or excess energy may be
produced and incorporated into the energy grid.
various forms, and theoretically any form of energy production could
be used. However, the majority of current and planned cogeneration
desalination plants use either fossil fuels or nuclear power as their
source of energy. Most plants are located in the
Middle East or North
Africa, which use their petroleum resources to offset limited water
resources. The advantage of dual-purpose facilities is they can be
more efficient in energy consumption, thus making desalination more
The Shevchenko BN350, a nuclear-heated desalination unit
The current trend in dual-purpose facilities is hybrid configurations,
in which the permeate from reverse osmosis desalination is mixed with
distillate from thermal desalination. Basically, two or more
desalination processes are combined along with power production. Such
facilities have been implemented in
Saudi Arabia at
Supercarrier in the US military uses nuclear power to
desalinate 400,000 US gallons (1,500,000 l;
330,000 imp gal) of water per day.
Costs of desalinating sea water (infrastructure, energy, and
maintenance) are generally higher than fresh water from rivers or
groundwater, water recycling, and water conservation, but alternatives
are not always available.
Desalination costs in 2013 ranged from
US$0.45 to $1.00/cubic metre ($US2 to 4/kgal). (1 cubic meter is about
264 gallons.) More than half of the cost comes directly from energy
cost, and since energy prices are very volatile, actual costs can vary
The cost of untreated fresh water in the developing world can reach
Average water consumption and cost of supply by sea water desalination
at US$1 per cubic metre(±50%)
Water Cost US$/person/day
UN recommended minimum
Factors that determine the costs for desalination include capacity and
type of facility, location, feed water, labor, energy, financing and
Desalination stills control pressure,
temperature and brine concentrations to optimize efficiency.
Nuclear-powered desalination might be economical on a large
While noting costs are falling, and generally positive about the
technology for affluent areas in proximity to oceans, a 2004 study
argued, "Desalinated water may be a solution for some water-stress
regions, but not for places that are poor, deep in the interior of a
continent, or at high elevation. Unfortunately, that includes some of
the places with biggest water problems.", and, "Indeed, one needs to
lift the water by 2,000 m (6,600 ft), or transport it over
more than 1,600 km (990 mi) to get transport costs equal to
the desalination costs. Thus, it may be more economical to transport
fresh water from somewhere else than to desalinate it. In places far
from the sea, like New Delhi, or in high places, like Mexico City,
transport costs could match desalination costs. Desalinated water is
also expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and
somewhat high, such as
Riyadh and Harare. By contrast in other
locations transport costs are much less, such as Beijing, Bangkok,
Zaragoza, Phoenix, and, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli."
After desalination at Jubail, Saudi Arabia, water is pumped
200 mi (320 km) inland to Riyadh. For coastal cities,
desalination is increasingly viewed as a competitive choice.
In 2014, the Israeli facilities of Hadera, Palmahim, Ashkelon, and
Sorek were desalinizing water for less than US$0.40 per cubic
meter. As of 2006, Singapore was desalinating water for US$0.49
per cubic meter. The city of
Perth began operating a reverse
osmosis seawater desalination plant in 2006. A desalination plant
now operates in Sydney, and the
Wonthaggi desalination plant
Wonthaggi desalination plant was
under construction in Wonthaggi, Victoria.
Perth desalination plant is powered partially by renewable energy
from the Emu Downs Wind Farm. A wind farm at
Bungendore in New
South Wales was purpose-built to generate enough renewable energy to
Sydney plant's energy use, mitigating concerns about
harmful greenhouse gas emissions.
In December 2007, the South Australian government announced it would
build a seawater desalination plant for the city of Adelaide,
Australia, located at Port Stanvac. The desalination plant was to be
funded by raising water rates to achieve full cost recovery.
A January 17, 2008, article in the
Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal stated, "In
November, Connecticut-based Poseidon Resources Corp. won a key
regulatory approval to build the $300 million water-desalination plant
in Carlsbad, north of San Diego. The facility would produce 50,000,000
US gallons (190,000,000 l; 42,000,000 imp gal) of
drinking water per day, enough to supply about 100,000 homes. As
of June 2012, the cost for the desalinated water had risen to $2,329
per acre-foot. Each $1,000 per acre-foot works out to $3.06 for
1,000 gallons, or $.81 per cubic meter.
Poseidon Resources made an unsuccessful attempt to construct a
desalination plant in Tampa Bay, FL, in 2001. The board of directors
Tampa Bay Water was forced to buy the plant from Poseidon in 2001
to prevent a third failure of the project.
Tampa Bay Water faced five
years of engineering problems and operation at 20% capacity to protect
marine life. The facility reached capacity only in 2007.
In 2008, a
Energy Recovery Inc. was desalinating water for $0.46 per
Factors that determine the costs for desalination include capacity and
type of facility, location, feed water, labor, energy, financing and
In the United States, cooling water intake structures are regulated by
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These structures can have
the same impacts to the environment as desalination facility
intakes[according to whom?]. According to EPA, water intake structures
cause adverse environmental impact by sucking fish and shellfish or
their eggs into an industrial system. There, the organisms may be
killed or injured by heat, physical stress, or chemicals. Larger
organisms may be killed or injured when they become trapped against
screens at the front of an intake structure. Alternative intake
types that mitigate these impacts include beach wells, but they
require more energy and higher costs.
Kwinana Desalination Plant
Kwinana Desalination Plant opened in
Perth in 2007.
and at Queensland's
Gold Coast Desalination Plant and Sydney's Kurnell
Desalination Plant is withdrawn at 0.1 m/s (0.33 ft/s),
which is slow enough to let fish escape. The plant provides nearly
140,000 m3 (4,900,000 cu ft) of clean water per
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Desalination processes produce large quantities of brine, possibly at
above ambient temperature, and contain residues of pretreatment and
cleaning chemicals, their reaction byproducts and heavy metals due to
corrosion. Chemical pretreatment and cleaning are a necessity in
most desalination plants, which typically includes prevention of
biofouling, scaling, foaming and corrosion in thermal plants, and of
biofouling, suspended solids and scale deposits in membrane
To limit the environmental impact of returning the brine to the ocean,
it can be diluted with another stream of water entering the ocean,
such as the outfall of a wastewater treatment or power plant. With
medium to large power plant and desalination plants, the power plant's
cooling water flow is likely to be several times larger than that of
the desalination plant, reducing the salinity of the combination.
Another method to dilute the brine is to mix it via a diffuser in a
mixing zone. For example, once a pipeline containing the brine reaches
the sea floor, it can split into many branches, each releasing brine
gradually through small holes along its length. Mixing can be combined
with power plant or wastewater plant dilution.
Brine is denser than seawater and therefore sinks to the ocean bottom
and can damage the ecosystem. Careful reintroduction can minimize this
problem. Typical ocean conditions allow for rapid dilution, thereby
Alternatives without pollution
Some methods of desalination, particularly in combination with
evaporation ponds, solar stills, and condensation trap (solar
desalination), do not discharge brine. They do not use chemicals or
burn fossil fuels. They do not work with membranes or other critical
parts, such as components that include heavy metals, thus do not
produce toxic waste (and high maintenance).
A new approach that works like a solar still, but on the scale of
industrial evaporation ponds is the integrated biotectural system.
It can be considered "full desalination" because it converts the
entire amount of saltwater intake into distilled water. One of the
advantages of this system is the feasibility for inland operation.
Standard advantages also include no air pollution and no temperature
increase of endangered natural water bodies from power plant
cooling-water discharge. Another important advantage is the production
of sea salt for industrial and other uses. As of 2015, 50% of the
world's sea salt production relies on fossil energy sources.
Alternatives to desalination
Increased water conservation and efficiency remain the most
cost-effective approaches in areas with a large potential to improve
the efficiency of water use practices.
provides multiple benefits over desalination. Urban runoff and
storm water capture also provide benefits in treating, restoring and
A proposed alternative to desalination in the American Southwest is
the commercial importation of bulk water from water-rich areas either
by oil tankers converted to water carriers, or pipelines. The idea is
politically unpopular in Canada, where governments imposed trade
barriers to bulk water exports as a result of a North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA) claim.
Public health concerns
Desalination removes iodine from water and could increase the risk of
iodine deficiency disorders. Israeli researchers claimed a possible
link between seawater desalination and iodine deficiency, finding
deficits among euthyroid adults exposed to iodine-poor water
concurrently with an increasing proportion of their area's drinking
water from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). They later found
probable iodine deficiency disorders in a population reliant on
desalinated seawater. A possible link of heavy desalinated water
use and national iodine deficiency was suggested by Israeli
researchers. They found a high burden of iodine deficiency in the
general population of Israel: 62% of school-age children and 85% of
pregnant women fall below the WHO’s adequacy range. They also
pointed out the national reliance on iodine-depleted desalinated
water, the absence of a universal salt iodization program and reports
of increased use of thyroid medication in Israel as a possible reasons
that the population’s iodine intake is low. In the year that the
survey was conducted, the amount of water produced from the
desalination plants constitutes about 50% of the quantity of fresh
water supplied for all needs and about 80% of the water supplied for
domestic and industrial needs in Israel.
Due to the nature of the process, there is a need to place the plants
on approximately 25 acres of land on or near the shoreline. In the
case a plant is built inland, pipes have to be laid into the ground to
allow for easy intake and outtake. However, once the pipes are
laid into the ground, they have a possibility of leaking into and
contaminating nearby aquifers. Aside from environmental risks, the
noise generated by certain types of desalination plants can be
Other desalination techniques include:
Thermally-driven desalination technologies are frequently suggested
for use with low-temperature waste heat sources, as the low
temperatures are not useful for many industrial processes, but ideal
for the lower temperatures found in desalaination. In fact, such
pairing with waste heat can even improve electrical process: Diesel
generators commonly provide electricity in remote areas. About
40%–50% of the energy output is low-grade heat that leaves the
engine via the exhaust. Connecting a thermal desalination technology
such as membrane distillation system to the diesel engine exhaust
repurposes this low-grade heat for desalination. The system actively
cools the diesel generator, improving its efficiency and increasing
its electricity output. This results in an energy-neutral desalination
solution. An example plant was commissioned by Dutch company Aquaver
in March 2014 for Gulhi, Maldives.
Originally stemming from ocean thermal energy conversion research,
low-temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) takes advantage of water
boiling at low pressure, even at ambient temperature. The system uses
pumps to create a low-pressure, low-temperature environment in which
water boils at a temperature gradient of 8–10 °C
(46–50 °F) between two volumes of water. Cool ocean water is
supplied from depths of up to 600 m (2,000 ft). This water
is pumped through coils to condense the water vapor. The resulting
condensate is purified water. LTTD may take advantage of the
temperature gradient available at power plants, where large quantities
of warm wastewater are discharged from the plant, reducing the energy
input needed to create a temperature gradient.
Experiments were conducted in the US and Japan to test the approach.
In Japan, a spray-flash evaporation system was tested by Saga
University. In Hawaii, the National
Energy Laboratory tested an
open-cycle OTEC plant with fresh water and power production using a
temperature difference of 20 C° between surface water and water at a
depth of around 500 m (1,600 ft). LTTD was studied by
India's National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) in 2004. Their
first LTTD plant opened in 2005 at Kavaratti in the Lakshadweep
islands. The plant's capacity is 100,000 L
(22,000 imp gal; 26,000 US gal)/day, at a capital
cost of INR 50 million (€922,000). The plant uses deep water at a
temperature of 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F). In 2007,
NIOT opened an experimental, floating LTTD plant off the coast of
Chennai, with a capacity of 1,000,000 L
(220,000 imp gal; 260,000 US gal)/day. A smaller
plant was established in 2009 at the North
Chennai Thermal Power
Station to prove the LTTD application where power plant cooling water
In October 2009, Saltworks Technologies announced a process that uses
solar or other thermal heat to drive an ionic current that removes all
sodium and chlorine ions from the water using ion-exchange
Evaporation and condensation for crops
Seawater greenhouse uses natural evaporation and condensation
processes inside a greenhouse powered by solar energy to grow crops in
arid coastal land.
Adsorption-based desalination (AD) relies on the moisture absorption
properties of certain materials such as Silica Gel.
One process was commercialized by Modern
Water PLC using forward
osmosis, with a number of plants reported to be in
The United States, France and the United Arab Emirates are working to
develop practical solar desalination. AquaDania's WaterStillar has
been installed at Dahab, Egypt, and in Playa del Carmen, Mexico. In
this approach, a solar thermal collector measuring two square metres
can distill from 40 to 60 litres per day from any local water source
– five times more than conventional stills. It eliminates the need
for plastic PET bottles or energy-consuming water transport. In
Central California, a startup company WaterFX is developing a
solar-powered method of desalination that can enable the use of local
water, including runoff water that can be treated and used again.
Salty groundwater in the region would be treated to become freshwater,
and in areas near the ocean, seawater could be treated.
The Passarell process uses reduced atmospheric pressure rather than
heat to drive evaporative desalination. The pure water vapor generated
by distillation is then compressed and condensed using an advanced
compressor. The compression process improves distillation efficiency
by creating the reduced pressure in the evaporation chamber. The
compressor centrifuges the pure water vapor after it is drawn through
a demister (removing residual impurities) causing it to compress
against tubes in the collection chamber. The compression of the vapor
increases its temperature. The heat is transferred to the input water
falling in the tubes, vaporizing the water in the tubes.
condenses on the outside of the tubes as product water. By combining
several physical processes, Passarell enables most of the system's
energy to be recycled through its evaporation, demisting, vapor
compression, condensation, and water movement processes.
Geothermal energy can drive desalination. In most locations,
geothermal desalination beats using scarce groundwater or surface
water, environmentally and economically.
Nanotube membranes of higher permeability than current generation of
membranes may lead to eventual reduction in the footprint of RO
desalination plants. It has also been suggested that the use of such
membranes will lead to reduction in the energy needed for
Hermetic, sulphonated nano-composite membranes have shown to be
capable of removing a various contaminants to the parts per billion
level. s, have little or no susceptibility to high salt concentration
Biomimetic membranes are another approach.
In 2008, Siemens
Water Technologies announced technology that applied
electric fields to desalinate one cubic meter of water while using
only a purported 1.5 kWh of energy. If accurate, this process would
consume one-half the energy of other processes. As of 2012 a
demonstration plant was operating in Singapore. Researchers at the
University of Texas at Austin and the University of Marburg are
developing more efficient methods of electrochemically mediated
A process employing electrokinetic shocks waves can be used to
accomplish membraneless desalination at ambient temperature and
pressure. In this process, anions and cations in salt water are
exchanged for carbonate anions and calcium cations, respectively using
electrokinetic shockwaves. Calcium and carbonate ions react to form
calcium carbonate, which precipitates, leaving fresh water. The
theoretical energy efficiency of this method is on par with
electrodialysis and reverse osmosis.
Estimates vary widely between 15,000–20,000 desalination plants
producing more than 20,000 m3/day. Micro desalination plants
operate near almost every natural gas or fracking facility found in
the United States.
Mangrove leaf with salt crystals
Evaporation of water over the oceans in the water cycle is a natural
The formation of sea ice produces ice with little salt, much lower
than in seawater.
Seabirds distill seawater using countercurrent exchange in a gland
with a rete mirabile. The gland secretes highly concentrated brine
stored near the nostrils above the beak. The bird then "sneezes" the
brine out. As freshwater is not usually available in their
environments, some seabirds, such as pelicans, petrels, albatrosses,
gulls and terns, possess this gland, which allows them to drink the
salty water from their environments while they are far from
Mangrove trees grow in seawater; they secrete salt by trapping it in
parts of the root, which are then eaten by animals (usually crabs).
Additional salt is removed by storing it in leaves that fall off. Some
types of mangroves have glands on their leaves, which work in a
similar way to the seabird desalination gland. Salt is extracted to
the leaf exterior as small crystals, which then fall off the leaf.
Willow trees and reeds absorb salt and other contaminants, effectively
desalinating the water. This is used in artificial constructed
wetlands, for treating sewage.
Desalination has been known to history for millennia as both a
concept, and later practice, though in a limited form. The ancient
Aristotle observed in his work Meteorology that
“salt water, when it turns into vapour, becomes sweet and the vapour
does not form salt water again when it condenses,” and also noticed
that a fine wax vessel would hold potable water after being submerged
long enough in seawater, having acted as a membrane to filter the
salt. There are numerous other examples of experimentation in
desalination throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages, but
desalination was never feasible on a large scale until the modern
Before the Industrial Revolution, desalination was primarily of
concern to oceangoing ships, which otherwise needed to keep on board
supplies of fresh water. When
Protector (1779 frigate) was sold to
Denmark in the 1780s (as the ship Hussaren) the desalination plant was
studied and recorded in great detail.
In the newly formed United States, Thomas Jefferson catalogued
heat-based methods going back to the 1500s, and formulated practical
advice that was publicized to all U.S. ships on the backs of sailing
Significant research into improved desalination methods occurred in
United States after World War II. The Office of Saline
created in the
United States Department of the Interior by the Saline
Water Conversion Act of 1952. It was merged into the Office of Water
Resources Research in 1974.
Research also took place at state universities in California, followed
by development at the
Dow Chemical Company
Dow Chemical Company and DuPont. Many
studies focus on ways to optimize desalination systems.
Atmospheric water generator
Soil desalination model
Soil salinity and groundwater model
Pumpable ice technology
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National Academies PressDesalination: A National Perspective
Books around desalination
Wildlife FundDesalination: option or distraction?
IAEA – Nuclear Desalination
DME e.V.– German
Working principles in desalination systems
Desalination Technologies (CDT)
Large scale desalination of sea water using solar energy
Desalination by humidification and dehumidification of air: state of
Zonnewater – optimized solar thermal desalination (distillation)
SOLAR TOWER Project – Clean Electricity Generation for Desalination.
Desalination bibliography Library of Congress
Water from the Ocean – Carbon nanotube-based
membranes will dramatically cut the cost of desalination
Solar thermal-driven desalination plants based on membrane
Water Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources
wind-powered desalinization plant in Perth, Australia, is an example
of how technology is insulating rich countries from impacts of climate
change, while poor countries remain particularly vulnerable.
The Desal Response Group
Desalination and water and
Water Reuse –
Desalination: The Cyprus Experience
Desalination: The Jersey
Water plant at La Rosière, Corbiere
Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption
Issues Congressional Research Service
Desalination Articles, Commentary and Archive - The New York Times
Desalination Technology Database
Pollution / quality
Ambient standards (USA)
Clean Air Act (USA)
Fossil fuels (peak oil)
Non-timber forest products
Types / location
storage and recovery
Earth Overshoot Day
Renewable / Non-renewable
Agriculture and agronomy
BNF: cb12043206m (d