The Info List - Washington, DC

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.[4] Founded after the American Revolution
American Revolution
as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States
United States
and Founding Father.[5] Washington is the principal city of the Washington Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 6,131,977.[6] Washington is described as the political Capital of the World, owing to its status as the seat of the United States
United States
Federal Government and numerous international institutions, such as the World Bank
World Bank
and International Monetary Fund.[7] Washington is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million annual tourists.[8][9] The signing of the Residence Act
Residence Act
on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River
Potomac River
on the country's East Coast. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia
each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. Named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District. Washington had an estimated population of 693,972 as of July 2017. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland
and Virginia
suburbs raise the city's population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is the principal city, has a population of over 6 million, the sixth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the country. All three branches of the U.S. Federal Government
U.S. Federal Government
are centered in the District: U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
(legislative), President (executive), and the U.S. Supreme Court (judicial). Washington is home to many national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, NASA, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961.


1 History

1.1 Foundation 1.2 Retrocession and the Civil War 1.3 Growth and redevelopment 1.4 Civil rights and home rule era

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Cityscape

3.1 Architecture

4 Demographics

4.1 Crime

5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Landmarks 6.2 Museums 6.3 Arts 6.4 Sports

7 Media 8 Government and politics

8.1 Politics 8.2 Budgetary issues 8.3 Voting rights debate 8.4 Sister cities

9 Education

9.1 Higher education

10 Infrastructure

10.1 Transportation 10.2 Utilities

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

History Further information: History of Washington, D.C.
History of Washington, D.C.
and Timeline of Washington, D.C. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people (also known as the Conoy) inhabited the lands around the Potomac River
Potomac River
when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank (also called the Nacostines by Catholic missionaries) maintained settlements around the Anacostia River
Anacostia River
within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland.[10] In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.[11] Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security.[12] Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States".[13] However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States.[14][a] Foundation On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland
and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (259 km2).[15][b] Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751,[16] and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, founded in 1749.[17] During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point.[18] Many of the stones are still standing.[19] A new federal city was then constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington. The federal district was named Columbia, which was a poetic name for the United States
United States
commonly in use at that time.[20][21] Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800.[22] Congress passed the Organic Act of 1801, which officially organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government. Further, the unincorporated area within the District was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west.[23] After the passage of this Act, citizens living in the District were no longer considered residents of Maryland
or Virginia, which therefore ended their representation in Congress.[24] On August 24–25, 1814, in a raid known as the Burning of Washington, British forces invaded the capital during the War of 1812. The Capitol, Treasury, and White House
White House
were burned and gutted during the attack.[25] Most government buildings were repaired quickly; however, the Capitol was largely under construction at the time and was not completed in its current form until 1868.[26] Retrocession and the Civil War

President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
insisted that construction on the United States Capitol dome continue during the American Civil War; 1861.

See also: District of Columbia retrocession
District of Columbia retrocession
and Washington, D.C., in the American Civil War In the 1830s, the District's southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress.[27] The city of Alexandria was a major market in the American slave trade, and pro-slavery residents feared that abolitionists in Congress would end slavery in the District, further depressing the economy. Alexandria's citizens petitioned Virginia
to take back the land it had donated to form the District, through a process known as retrocession.[28] The Virginia
General Assembly voted in February 1846 to accept the return of Alexandria and on July 9, 1846, Congress agreed to return all the territory that had been ceded by Virginia. Therefore, the District's current area consists only of the portion originally donated by Maryland.[27] Confirming the fears of pro-slavery Alexandrians, the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
outlawed the slave trade in the District, although not slavery itself.[29] The outbreak of the American Civil War
American Civil War
in 1861 led to expansion of the federal government and notable growth in the District's population, including a large influx of freed slaves.[30] President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act
Compensated Emancipation Act
in 1862, which ended slavery in the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons, nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation.[31] In 1868, Congress granted the District's African American
African American
male residents the right to vote in municipal elections.[30] Growth and redevelopment

Crowds surrounding the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
Reflecting Pool during the Great March on Washington; 1963.

By 1870, the District's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents.[32] Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. Some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
refused to consider such a proposal.[33] Congress passed the Organic Act of 1871, which repealed the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia.[34] President Grant appointed Alexander Robey Shepherd
Alexander Robey Shepherd
to the position of governor in 1873. Shepherd authorized large-scale projects that greatly modernized Washington, but ultimately bankrupted the District government. In 1874, Congress replaced the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners.[35] The city's first motorized streetcars began service in 1888 and generated growth in areas of the District beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. Washington's urban plan was expanded throughout the District in the following decades.[36] Georgetown was formally annexed by the City of Washington in 1895.[37] However, the city had poor housing conditions and strained public works. Washington was the first city in the nation to undergo urban renewal projects as part of the "City Beautiful movement" in the early 1900s.[38] Increased federal spending as a result of the New Deal
New Deal
in the 1930s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, and museums in Washington.[39] World War II
World War II
further increased government activity, adding to the number of federal employees in the capital;[40] by 1950, the District's population reached its peak of 802,178 residents.[32] Civil rights and home rule era The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States
United States
Constitution was ratified in 1961, granting the District three votes in the Electoral College for the election of president and vice president, but still no voting representation in Congress.[41] After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4, 1968, riots broke out in the District, primarily in the U Street, 14th Street, 7th Street, and H Street corridors, centers of black residential and commercial areas. The riots raged for three days until more than 13,600 federal troops stopped the violence. Many stores and other buildings were burned; rebuilding was not completed until the late 1990s.[42] In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and 13-member council for the District.[43] In 1975, Walter Washington
Walter Washington
became the first elected and first black mayor of the District.[44] Geography Main article: Geography of Washington, D.C.





Prince George's





Fairfax County

Falls Church




Manassas Park

Prince William







The Washington Metropolitan Area
Washington Metropolitan Area
has a population of 6,131,977, as of 2014.[45]

Washington, D.C., is located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. East Coast. Due to the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
retrocession, the city has a total area of 68.34 square miles (177.0 km2), of which 61.05 square miles (158.1 km2) is land and 7.29 square miles (18.9 km2) (10.67%) is water.[46] The District is bordered by Montgomery County, Maryland, to the northwest; Prince George's County, Maryland, to the east; and Arlington and Alexandria, Virginia, to the south and west. The south bank of the Potomac River
Potomac River
forms the District's border with Virginia
and has two major tributaries: the Anacostia River
Anacostia River
and Rock Creek.[47] Tiber Creek, a natural watercourse that once passed through the National Mall, was fully enclosed underground during the 1870s.[48] The creek also formed a portion of the now-filled Washington City Canal, which allowed passage through the city to the Anacostia River
Anacostia River
from 1815 until the 1850s.[49] The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal starts in Georgetown and was used during the 19th century to bypass the Little Falls of the Potomac River, located at the northwest edge of Washington at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line.[50] The highest natural elevation in the District is 409 feet (125 m) above sea level at Fort Reno Park
Fort Reno Park
in upper northwest Washington.[51] The lowest point is sea level at the Potomac River.[52] The geographic center of Washington is near the intersection of 4th and L Streets NW.[53][54][55] The District has 7,464 acres (30.21 km2) of parkland, about 19% of the city's total area and the second-highest percentage among high-density U.S. cities.[56] The National Park Service
National Park Service
manages most of the 9,122 acres (36.92 km2) of city land owned by the U.S. government.[57] Rock Creek Park
Rock Creek Park
is a 1,754-acre (7.10 km2) urban forest in Northwest Washington, which extends 9.3 miles (15.0 km) through a stream valley that bisects the city. Established in 1890, it is the country's fourth-oldest national park and is home to a variety of plant and animal species including raccoon, deer, owls, and coyotes.[58] Other National Park Service
National Park Service
properties include the C&O Canal National Historical Park, the National Mall
National Mall
and Memorial Parks, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, Fort Dupont
Fort Dupont
Park, Meridian Hill Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, and Anacostia Park.[59] The D.C. Department of Parks and Recreation
D.C. Department of Parks and Recreation
maintains the city's 900 acres (3.6 km2) of athletic fields and playgrounds, 40 swimming pools, and 68 recreation centers.[60] The U.S. Department of Agriculture operates the 446-acre (1.80 km2) U.S. National Arboretum in Northeast Washington.[61] Climate See also: List of Maryland
hurricanes (1950–present) and List of tornadoes of Washington, D.C.

The Washington Monument
Washington Monument
seen across the Tidal Basin
Tidal Basin
during the National Cherry Blossom Festival.

Meridian Hill Park
Meridian Hill Park
in Columbia Heights, Northwest, Washington, D.C.

Washington is in the northern part of the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa)[62] However, under the Trewartha climate classification, the city has a temperate maritime climate (Do).[63] Winters are usually chilly with light snow, and summers are hot and humid. The District is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a humid subtropical climate.[64] Spring and fall are mild to warm, while winter is chilly with annual snowfall averaging 15.5 inches (39 cm). Winter temperatures average around 38 °F (3 °C) from mid-December to mid-February.[65] Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of 79.8 °F (26.6 °C) and average daily relative humidity around 66%, which can cause moderate personal discomfort.[66] The combination of heat and humidity in the summer brings very frequent thunderstorms, some of which occasionally produce tornadoes in the area.[67] Blizzards affect Washington on average once every four to six years. The most violent storms are called "nor'easters", which often affect large sections of the East Coast.[68] From January 27 to January 28, 1922, the city officially received 28 inches (71 cm) of snowfall, the largest snowstorm since official measurements began in 1885.[69] According to notes kept at the time, the city received between 30 and 36 inches (76 and 91 cm) from a snowstorm in January 1772.[70] Hurricanes (or their remnants) occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall, but are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to the city's inland location.[71] Flooding of the Potomac River, however, caused by a combination of high tide, storm surge, and runoff, has been known to cause extensive property damage in the neighborhood of Georgetown.[72] Precipitation
occurs throughout the year.[73] The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on August 6, 1918, and on July 20, 1930.[74] while the lowest recorded temperature was −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 11, 1899, right before the Great Blizzard of 1899.[68] During a typical year, the city averages about 37 days at or above 90 °F (32 °C) and 64 nights at or below 32 °F (0 °C).[65] On average, the first day at or below 32 °F (0 °C) is November 18 and the last day is March 27.[75][76]

v t e

Climate data for Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(Reagan National Airport), 1981−2010 normals,[c] extremes 1871−present[d]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 79 (26) 84 (29) 93 (34) 95 (35) 99 (37) 104 (40) 106 (41) 106 (41) 104 (40) 96 (36) 86 (30) 79 (26) 106 (41)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 65.5 (18.6) 67.5 (19.7) 78.0 (25.6) 85.8 (29.9) 90.3 (32.4) 95.2 (35.1) 97.5 (36.4) 96.5 (35.8) 91.6 (33.1) 83.7 (28.7) 74.9 (23.8) 66.4 (19.1) 98.8 (37.1)

Average high °F (°C) 43.4 (6.3) 47.1 (8.4) 55.9 (13.3) 66.6 (19.2) 75.4 (24.1) 84.2 (29) 88.4 (31.3) 86.5 (30.3) 79.5 (26.4) 68.4 (20.2) 57.9 (14.4) 46.8 (8.2) 66.8 (19.3)

Daily mean °F (°C) 36.0 (2.2) 39.0 (3.9) 46.8 (8.2) 56.8 (13.8) 66.0 (18.9) 75.2 (24) 79.8 (26.6) 78.1 (25.6) 71.0 (21.7) 59.5 (15.3) 49.6 (9.8) 39.7 (4.3) 58.1 (14.5)

Average low °F (°C) 28.6 (−1.9) 30.9 (−0.6) 37.6 (3.1) 47.0 (8.3) 56.5 (13.6) 66.3 (19.1) 71.1 (21.7) 69.7 (20.9) 62.4 (16.9) 50.6 (10.3) 41.2 (5.1) 32.5 (0.3) 49.6 (9.8)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 12.9 (−10.6) 16.6 (−8.6) 22.9 (−5.1) 33.9 (1.1) 44.6 (7) 54.8 (12.7) 62.1 (16.7) 60.1 (15.6) 49.7 (9.8) 38.0 (3.3) 28.7 (−1.8) 18.2 (−7.7) 9.9 (−12.3)

Record low °F (°C) −14 (−26) −15 (−26) 4 (−16) 15 (−9) 33 (1) 43 (6) 52 (11) 49 (9) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 11 (−12) −13 (−25) −15 (−26)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.81 (71.4) 2.62 (66.5) 3.48 (88.4) 3.06 (77.7) 3.99 (101.3) 3.78 (96) 3.73 (94.7) 2.93 (74.4) 3.72 (94.5) 3.40 (86.4) 3.17 (80.5) 3.05 (77.5) 39.74 (1,009.4)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.6 (14.2) 5.7 (14.5) 1.3 (3.3) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.5 (1.3) 2.3 (5.8) 15.4 (39.1)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.6 9.0 10.5 10.4 11.1 10.7 10.3 8.2 8.3 7.7 8.6 9.7 114.1

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.0 2.4 0.9 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.5 8.1

Average relative humidity (%) 62.1 60.5 58.6 58.0 64.5 65.8 66.9 69.3 69.7 67.4 64.7 64.1 64.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.6 151.8 204.0 228.2 260.5 283.2 280.5 263.1 225.0 203.6 150.2 133.0 2,527.7

Percent possible sunshine 48 50 55 57 59 64 62 62 60 59 50 45 57

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[65][78][73][79]

Cityscape See also: Streets and highways of Washington, D.C.; Neighborhoods in Washington, D.C.; and List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C.

The L'Enfant Plan
L'Enfant Plan
for Washington, D.C., as revised by Andrew Ellicott in 1792.

Washington, D.C., is a planned city. In 1791, President Washington commissioned Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant, a French-born architect and city planner, to design the new capital. He enlisted Scottish surveyor Alexander Ralston
Alexander Ralston
to help layout the city plan.[80] The L'Enfant Plan
L'Enfant Plan
featured broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping.[81] He based his design on plans of cities such as Paris, Amsterdam, Karlsruhe, and Milan
that Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
had sent to him.[82] L'Enfant's design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide in the area that is now the National Mall.[83] President Washington dismissed L'Enfant in March 1792 due to conflicts with the three commissioners appointed to supervise the capital's construction. Andrew Ellicott, who had worked with L'Enfant surveying the city, was then tasked with completing the design. Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans, including changes to some street patterns, L'Enfant is still credited with the overall design of the city.[84]

Construction of the 12-story Cairo Apartment Building
Cairo Apartment Building
in 1894 spurred D.C.'s building height restrictions.

By the early 1900s, L'Enfant's vision of a grand national capital had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. Congress formed a special committee charged with beautifying Washington's ceremonial core.[38] What became known as the McMillan Plan
McMillan Plan
was finalized in 1901 and included re-landscaping the Capitol grounds and the National Mall, clearing slums, and establishing a new citywide park system. The plan is thought to have largely preserved L'Enfant's intended design.[81] By law, Washington's skyline is low and sprawling. The federal Height of Buildings Act of 1910 allows buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 feet (6.1 m).[85] Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol
United States Capitol
or the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument,[55] which remains the District's tallest structure. City leaders have criticized the height restriction as a primary reason why the District has limited affordable housing and traffic problems caused by urban sprawl.[85] The District is divided into four quadrants of unequal area: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol building.[86] All road names include the quadrant abbreviation to indicate their location and house numbers generally correspond with the number of blocks away from the Capitol. Most streets are set out in a grid pattern with east–west streets named with letters (e.g., C Street SW), north–south streets with numbers (e.g., 4th Street NW), and diagonal avenues, many of which are named after states.[86] The City of Washington was bordered by Boundary Street to the north (renamed Florida Avenue
Florida Avenue
in 1890), Rock Creek to the west, and the Anacostia River
Anacostia River
to the east.[36][81] Washington's street grid was extended, where possible, throughout the District starting in 1888.[87] Georgetown's streets were renamed in 1895.[37] Some streets are particularly noteworthy, such as Pennsylvania
Avenue, which connects the White House
White House
to the Capitol and K Street, which houses the offices of many lobbying groups.[88] Washington hosts 177 foreign embassies, constituting approximately 297 buildings beyond the more than 1,600 residential properties owned by foreign countries, many of which are on a section of Massachusetts
Avenue informally known as Embassy Row.[89] Architecture

The White House
White House
ranked second on the AIA's "List of America's Favorite Architecture".

The architecture of Washington varies greatly. Six of the top 10 buildings in the American Institute of Architects' 2007 ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture" are in the District of Columbia:[90] the White House, the Washington National Cathedral, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the United States
United States
Capitol, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Vietnam
Veterans Memorial. The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other prominent edifices in Washington. Notable exceptions include buildings constructed in the French Second Empire style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.[91] Outside downtown Washington, architectural styles are even more varied. Historic buildings are designed primarily in the Queen Anne, Châteauesque, Richardsonian Romanesque, Georgian revival, Beaux-Arts, and a variety of Victorian styles. Rowhouses are especially prominent in areas developed after the Civil War and typically follow Federalist and late Victorian designs.[92] Georgetown's Old Stone House was built in 1765, making it the oldest-standing original building in the city.[93] Founded in 1789, Georgetown University
Georgetown University
features a mix of Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture.[91] The Ronald Reagan Building is the largest building in the District with a total area of approximately 3.1 million square feet (288,000 m2).[94] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Washington, D.C.

Historical population

Census Pop.

1800 8,144

1810 15,471


1820 23,336


1830 30,261


1840 33,745


1850 51,687


1860 75,080


1870 131,700


1880 177,624


1890 230,392


1900 278,718


1910 331,069


1920 437,571


1930 486,869


1940 663,091


1950 802,178


1960 763,956


1970 756,510


1980 638,333


1990 606,900


2000 572,059


2010 601,723


Est. 2017 693,972 [3] 15.3%

Source:[32][95] Note:[e]

The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
estimates that the District's population was 693,972 on July 1, 2017, a 15.3% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[3] The increase continues a growth trend since 2000, following a half-century of population decline.[97] The city was the 24th most populous place in the United States
United States
as of 2010[update].[98] According to data from 2010, commuters from the suburbs increase the District's daytime population to over one million people.[99] If the District were a state it would rank 49th in population, ahead of Vermont
and Wyoming.[3] The Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes the District and surrounding suburbs, is the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the United States
United States
with an estimated 6 million residents in 2014.[100] When the Washington area is included with Baltimore
and its suburbs, the Baltimore– Washington Metropolitan Area
Washington Metropolitan Area
had a population exceeding 9.6 million residents in 2016, the fourth-largest combined statistical area in the country.[101] According to 2016 Census Bureau data, the population of Washington, D.C., was 47.7% Black or African American, 44.6% White (36.4% non-Hispanic White), 4.1% Asian, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.2% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Individuals from two or more races made up 2.7% of the population. Hispanics of any race made up 10.9% of the District's population.[3]

Map of racial distribution in Washington, D.C., 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

Washington has had a significant African American
African American
population since the city's foundation.[102] African American
African American
residents composed about 30% of the District's total population between 1800 and 1940.[32] The black population reached a peak of 70% by 1970, but has since steadily declined due to many African Americans
moving to the surrounding suburbs. Partly as a result of gentrification, there was a 31.4% increase in the non-Hispanic white population and an 11.5% decrease in the black population between 2000 and 2010.[103] About 17% of D.C. residents were age 18 or younger in 2010; lower than the U.S. average of 24%. However, at 34 years old, the District had the lowest median age compared to the 50 states.[104] As of 2010[update], there were an estimated 81,734 immigrants living in Washington, D.C.[105] Major sources of immigration include El Salvador, Vietnam, and Ethiopia, with a concentration of Salvadorans in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood.[106] Researchers found that there were 4,822 same-sex couples in the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
in 2010; about 2% of total households.[107] Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009 and the District began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in March 2010.[108] A 2007 report found that about one-third of District residents were functionally illiterate, compared to a national rate of about one in five. This is attributed in part to immigrants who are not proficient in English.[109] As of 2011[update], 85% of D.C. residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language.[110] Half of residents had at least a four-year college degree in 2006.[105] D.C. residents had a personal income per capita of $55,755; higher than any of the 50 states.[111] However, 19% of residents were below the poverty level in 2005, higher than any state except Mississippi.[112] Of the District's population, 17% is Baptist, 13% is Catholic, 6% is evangelical Protestant, 4% is Methodist, 3% is Episcopalian/Anglican, 3% is Jewish, 2% is Eastern Orthodox, 1% is Pentecostal, 1% is Buddhist, 1% is Adventist, 1% is Lutheran, 1% is Muslim, 1% is Presbyterian, 1% is Mormon, and 1% is Hindu.[113][f] Over 90% of D.C. residents have health insurance coverage, the second-highest rate in the nation. This is due in part to city programs that help provide insurance to low-income individuals who do not qualify for other types of coverage.[114] A 2009 report found that at least 3% of District residents have HIV or AIDS, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) characterizes as a "generalized and severe" epidemic.[115]

Pew Research Center 2014 Religious Landscape Study on religion in the Washington, D.C.[116]

Affiliation % of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
adult population

Total 100 100  

Christian 65 65  

Protestant 41 41  

Historically Black Protestant 23 23  

Catholic 20 20  

Mormon 2 2  

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1 1  

Other Mormon 1 1  

Orthodox Christian 1 1  

Greek Orthodox 1 1  

Other Christian 1 1  

Unaffiliated 25 25  

Nontheist 10 10  

Atheist 4 4  

Agnostic 6 6  

Nothing in particular 6 6  

Nothing in particular (religion not important) 9 9  

Nothing in particular (religion important) 6 6  

Don't know 1 1  

Non-Christian faiths 9 9  

Jewish 5 5  

Muslim 2 2  

Hindu 1 1  

Other non-Christian faiths 1 1  

Crime Main articles: Crime in Washington, D.C.
Crime in Washington, D.C.
and List of law enforcement agencies in the District of Columbia Crime in Washington, D.C.
Crime in Washington, D.C.
is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. A 2010 study found that 5% of city blocks accounted for over one-quarter of the District's total crime.[117] The more affluent neighborhoods of Northwest Washington are typically safe, especially in areas with concentrations of government operations, such as Downtown Washington, D.C., Foggy Bottom, Embassy Row, and Penn Quarter, but reports of violent crime increase in poorer neighborhoods generally concentrated in the eastern portion of the city.[117] Approximately 60,000 residents are ex-convicts.[118] In 2012, Washington's annual murder count had dropped to 88, the lowest total since 1961.[119] The murder rate has since risen from that historic low, though it remains close to half the rate of the early 2000s.[120] Washington was once described as the "murder capital" of the United States
United States
during the early 1990s.[121] The number of murders peaked in 1991 at 479, but the level of violence then began to decline significantly.[122] In 2016, the District's Metropolitan Police Department tallied 135 homicides, a 53% increase from 2012 but a 17% decrease from 2015.[123] Many neighborhoods such as Columbia Heights and Logan Circle are becoming safer and vibrant. However, incidents of robberies and thefts have remained higher in these areas because of increased nightlife activity and greater numbers of affluent residents.[124] Even still, citywide reports of both property and violent crimes have declined by nearly half since their most recent highs in the mid-1990s.[125] On June 26, 2008, the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
held in District of Columbia v. Heller
District of Columbia v. Heller
that the city's 1976 handgun ban violated the right to keep and bear arms as protected under the Second Amendment.[126] However, the ruling does not prohibit all forms of gun control; laws requiring firearm registration remain in place, as does the city's assault weapon ban.[127] In addition to the District's own Metropolitan Police Department, many federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in the city as well – most visibly the U.S. Park Police, founded in 1791.[128] Economy

Federal Triangle
Federal Triangle
on Pennsylvania
Avenue; the U.S. Federal Government accounts for about 29% of D.C. jobs.

See also: Category:Companies based in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Category:Non-profit organizations based in Washington, D.C. Washington has a growing, diversified economy with an increasing percentage of professional and business service jobs.[129] The gross state product of the District in 2010 was $103.3 billion, which would rank it No. 34 compared to the 50 states.[130] The gross product of the Washington Metropolitan Area
Washington Metropolitan Area
was $435 billion in 2014, making it the sixth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.[131] Between 2009 and 2016, GDP per capita in Washington, D.C has consistently ranked on the very top among U.S. states.[132] In 2016, at $160,472, its GDP per capita is almost three times as high as that of Massachusetts, which ranked second place in the country.[132] As of June 2011, the Washington Metropolitan Area
Washington Metropolitan Area
had an unemployment rate of 6.2%; the second-lowest rate among the 49 largest metro areas in the nation.[133] The District of Columbia
District of Columbia
itself had an unemployment rate of 9.8% during the same time period.[134] In 2012, the federal government accounted for about 29% of the jobs in Washington, D.C.[135] This is thought to immunize Washington to national economic downturns because the federal government continues operations even during recessions.[136] Many organizations such as law firms, independent contractors (both defense and civilian), non-profit organizations, lobbying firms, trade unions, industry trade groups, and professional associations have their headquarters in or near D.C. to be close to the federal government.[88] Tourism is Washington's second largest industry. Approximately 18.9 million visitors contributed an estimated $4.8 billion to the local economy in 2012.[137] The District also hosts nearly 200 foreign embassies and international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF), the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. In 2008, the foreign diplomatic corps in Washington employed about 10,000 people and contributed an estimated $400 million annually to the local economy.[89] The District has growing industries not directly related to government, especially in the areas of education, finance, public policy, and scientific research. Georgetown University, George Washington University, Washington Hospital Center, Children's National Medical Center and Howard University
Howard University
are the top five non-government-related employers in the city as of 2009[update].[138] According to statistics compiled in 2011, four of the largest 500 companies in the country were headquartered in the District.[139] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Washington was ranked as having the 12th most competitive financial center in the world, and fifth most competitive in the United States
United States
(after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, and Boston).[140] Culture Main article: Culture of Washington, D.C. Landmarks

The Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
receives approximately 6 million visits annually.

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.; National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington, D.C.; and List of museums in Washington, D.C. The National Mall
National Mall
is a large, open park in downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
and the United States
United States
Capitol. Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier
Jefferson Pier
are near the center of the mall, south of the White House. Also on the mall are the National World War II Memorial at the east end of the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
Reflecting Pool, the Korean War
Korean War
Veterans Memorial, and the Vietnam
Veterans Memorial.[141] Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin
Tidal Basin
features rows of Japanese cherry blossom trees that originated as gifts from the nation of Japan.[142] The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, and the District of Columbia War Memorial
District of Columbia War Memorial
are around the Tidal Basin.[141] The National Archives houses thousands of documents important to American history including the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.[143] Located in three buildings on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the largest library complex in the world with a collection of over 147 million books, manuscripts, and other materials.[144] The United States
United States
Supreme Court Building was completed in 1935; before then, the court held sessions in the Old Senate Chamber
Old Senate Chamber
of the Capitol.[145] Museums

The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
is the world’s largest research and museum complex, operating 19 museums & galleries and the National Zoo.[146]

The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in 1846 that maintains most of the nation's official museums and galleries in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The U.S. government partially funds the Smithsonian and its collections are open to the public free of charge.[147] The Smithsonian's locations had a combined total of 30 million visits in 2013. The most visited museum is the National Museum of Natural History on the National Mall.[148] Other Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries on the mall are: the National Air and Space Museum; the National Museum of African Art; the National Museum of American History; the National Museum of the American Indian; the Sackler and Freer galleries, which both focus on Asian art and culture; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Arts and Industries Building; the S. Dillon Ripley Center; and the Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle"), which serves as the institution's headquarters.[149] The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are housed in the Old Patent Office Building, near Washington's Chinatown.[150] The Renwick Gallery
Renwick Gallery
is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum
Smithsonian American Art Museum
but is in a separate building near the White House. Other Smithsonian museums and galleries include: the Anacostia
Community Museum in Southeast Washington; the National Postal Museum
National Postal Museum
near Union Station; and the National Zoo in Woodley Park.[149]

The National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
is one of the largest art museums in the world.

The National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
is on the National Mall
National Mall
near the Capitol and features works of American and European art. The gallery and its collections are owned by the U.S. government but are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution.[151] The National Building Museum, which occupies the former Pension Building near Judiciary Square, was chartered by Congress and hosts exhibits on architecture, urban planning, and design.[152] There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts; the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the largest private museum in Washington;[153] and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle, the first museum of modern art in the United States.[154] Other private museums in Washington include the Newseum, the O Street Museum Foundation, the International Spy Museum, the National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
Museum, the Marian Koshland Science Museum and the Museum of the Bible. The United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum near the National Mall
National Mall
maintains exhibits, documentation, and artifacts related to the Holocaust.[155] Arts

The Kennedy Center for Performing Arts is home to the Washington National Opera and National Symphony Orchestra.

Main articles: Theater in Washington, D.C. and Music of Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C., is a national center for the arts. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet. The Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors
are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States.[156] The historic Ford's Theatre, site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as museum.[157] The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill
Capitol Hill
houses the United States
United States
Marine Band; founded in 1798, it is the country's oldest professional musical organization.[158] American march composer and Washington-native John Philip Sousa led the Marine Band from 1880 until 1892.[159] Founded in 1925, the United States
United States
Navy Band has its headquarters at the Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard
and performs at official events and public concerts around the city.[160] Washington has a strong local theater tradition. Founded in 1950, Arena Stage
Arena Stage
achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city's independent theater movement that now includes organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company, Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company, and the Studio Theatre.[161] Arena Stage opened its newly renovated home in the city's emerging Southwest waterfront area in 2010.[162] The GALA Hispanic Theatre, now housed in the historic Tivoli Theatre in Columbia Heights, was founded in 1976 and is a National Center for the Latino Performing Arts.[163] The U Street Corridor
U Street Corridor
in Northwest D.C., known as "Washington's Black Broadway", is home to institutions like the Howard Theatre, Bohemian Caverns, and the Lincoln Theatre, which hosted music legends such as Washington-native Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis.[164] Washington has its own native music genre called go-go; a post-funk, percussion-driven flavor of rhythm and blues that was popularized in the late 1970s by D.C. band leader Chuck Brown.[165] The District is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States. The label Dischord Records, formed by Ian MacKaye, was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s.[166] Modern alternative and indie music venues like The Black Cat and the 9:30 Club bring popular acts to the U Street area.[167] Sports Main article: Sports in Washington, D.C. Washington is one of 13 cities in the United States
United States
with teams from all four major professional men's sports and is home to one major professional women's team. The Washington Wizards
Washington Wizards
(National Basketball Association), the Washington Capitals
Washington Capitals
(National Hockey League), and the Washington Mystics
Washington Mystics
(Women's National Basketball Association), play at the Capital One Arena
Capital One Arena
in Chinatown. Nationals Park, which opened in Southeast D.C. in 2008, is home to the Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
(Major League Baseball). D.C. United
D.C. United
(Major League Soccer) plays at RFK Stadium. The Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
(National Football League) play at FedExField
in nearby Landover, Maryland. Current D.C. teams have won a combined ten professional league championships: the Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
have won five;[168] D.C. United has won four;[169] and the Washington Wizards
Washington Wizards
(then the Washington Bullets) have won a single championship.[170] Other professional and semi-professional teams in Washington include: the Washington Kastles
Washington Kastles
(World TeamTennis); the Washington D.C. Slayers (USA Rugby League); the Baltimore
Washington Eagles (U.S. Australian Football League); the D.C. Divas
D.C. Divas
(Independent Women's Football League); and the Potomac Athletic Club RFC
Potomac Athletic Club RFC
(Rugby Super League). The William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center
William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center
in Rock Creek Park
Rock Creek Park
hosts the Citi Open. Washington is also home to two major annual marathon races: the Marine Corps Marathon, which is held every autumn, and the Rock 'n' Roll USA Marathon held in the spring. The Marine Corps Marathon began in 1976 and is sometimes called "The People's Marathon" because it is the largest marathon that does not offer prize money to participants.[171] The District's four NCAA Division I teams, American Eagles, George Washington Colonials, Georgetown Hoyas and Howard Bison and Lady Bison, have a broad following. The Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team is the most notable and also plays at the Capital One Arena. From 2008 to 2012, the District hosted an annual college football bowl game at RFK Stadium, called the Military Bowl.[172] The D.C. area is home to one regional sports television network, Comcast SportsNet
Comcast SportsNet
(CSN), based in Bethesda, Maryland. Media Main article: Media in Washington, D.C. See also: List of newspapers in Washington, D.C. and List of television shows set in Washington, D.C.

The Washington Post
Washington Post
Building on Franklin Square.

Washington, D.C., is a prominent center for national and international media. The Washington Post, founded in 1877, is the oldest and most-read local daily newspaper in Washington.[173] "The Post", as it is popularly called, is well known as the newspaper that exposed the Watergate scandal.[174] It had the sixth-highest readership of all news dailies in the country in 2011.[175] The Washington Post
Washington Post
Company also publishes a daily free commuter newspaper called the Express, which summarizes events, sports and entertainment, as well as the Spanish-language paper El Tiempo Latino. Another popular local daily is The Washington Times, the city's second general interest broadsheet and also an influential paper in political circles.[176] The alternative weekly Washington City Paper
Washington City Paper
also have substantial readership in the Washington area.[177][178]

The Watergate Complex
Watergate Complex
was the site of the Watergate Scandal, which led to President Nixon's resignation.

Some community and specialty papers focus on neighborhood and cultural issues, including the weekly Washington Blade
Washington Blade
and Metro Weekly, which focus on LGBT issues; the Washington Informer and The Washington Afro American, which highlight topics of interest to the black community; and neighborhood newspapers published by The Current Newspapers. Congressional Quarterly, The Hill, Politico and Roll Call
Roll Call
newspapers focus exclusively on issues related to Congress and the federal government. Other publications based in Washington include the National Geographic magazine and political publications such as The Washington Examiner, The New Republic
The New Republic
and Washington Monthly.[179] The Washington Metropolitan Area
Washington Metropolitan Area
is the ninth-largest television media market in the nation, with two million homes, approximately 2% of the country's population.[180] Several media companies and cable television channels have their headquarters in the area, including C-SPAN; Black Entertainment Television
Black Entertainment Television
(BET); Radio One; the National Geographic Channel; Smithsonian Networks; National Public Radio
National Public Radio
(NPR); Travel Channel
Travel Channel
(in Chevy Chase, Maryland); Discovery Communications (in Silver Spring, Maryland); and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) (in Arlington, Virginia). The headquarters of Voice of America, the U.S. government's international news service, is near the Capitol in Southwest Washington.[181] Government and politics Main article: Government of the District of Columbia Politics See also: District of Columbia
District of Columbia
home rule; List of mayors of Washington, D.C.; and List of District of Columbia
District of Columbia
symbols Article One, Section Eight of the United States
United States
Constitution grants the United States
United States
Congress "exclusive jurisdiction" over the city. The District did not have an elected local government until the passage of the 1973 Home Rule Act. The Act devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor, currently Muriel Bowser, and the thirteen-member Council of the District of Columbia. However, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs.[182] Each of the city's eight wards elects a single member of the council and residents elect four at-large members to represent the District as a whole. The council chair is also elected at-large.[183] There are 37 Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs) elected by small neighborhood districts. ANCs can issue recommendations on all issues that affect residents; government agencies take their advice under careful consideration.[184] The Attorney General of the District of Columbia, currently Karl Racine, is elected to a four-year term.[185] Washington, D.C., observes all federal holidays and also celebrates Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
on April 16, which commemorates the end of slavery in the District.[31] The flag of Washington, D.C., was adopted in 1938 and is a variation on George Washington's family coat of arms.[186] Budgetary issues

The Wilson Building houses the offices of the Mayor of Washington and the Council of the District of Columbia.

The mayor and council set local taxes and a budget, which must be approved by Congress. The Government Accountability Office
Government Accountability Office
and other analysts have estimated that the city's high percentage of tax-exempt property and the Congressional prohibition of commuter taxes create a structural deficit in the District's local budget of anywhere between $470 million and over $1 billion per year. Congress typically provides additional grants for federal programs such as Medicaid
and the operation of the local justice system; however, analysts claim that the payments do not fully resolve the imbalance.[187][188] The city's local government, particularly during the mayoralty of Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste.[189] During his administration in 1989, The Washington Monthly
Washington Monthly
magazine claimed that the District had "the worst city government in America."[190] In 1995, at the start of Barry's fourth term, Congress created the District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending.[191] Mayor Anthony Williams won election in 1998 and oversaw a period of urban renewal and budget surpluses. The District regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended.[192] Voting rights debate

Presidential election results[193][194]

Year Democratic Republican

1964 85.5% 169,796 14.5% 28,801

1968 81.8% 139,566 18.2% 31,012

1972 78.1% 127,627 21.6% 35,226

1976 81.6% 137,818 16.5% 27,873

1980 74.9% 130,231 13.4% 26,218

1984 85.4% 180,408 13.7% 29,009

1988 82.6% 159,407 14.3% 27,590

1992 84.6% 192,619 9.1% 20,698

1996 85.2% 158,220 9.3% 17,339

2000 85.2% 171,923 9.0% 18,073

2004 89.0% 202,970 9.3% 21,256

2008 92.5% 245,800 6.5% 17,367

2012 90.9% 267,070 7.3% 21,381

2016 90.5% 282,830 4.1% 12,723

Mayoral election results[193]

Year Democratic Republican

1974 82.5% 79,065 3.7% 3,501

1978 70.2% 68,354 28.1% 27,366

1982 81.0% 95,007 14.1% 16,502

1986 61.4% 79,142 32.8% 42,354

1990 86.2% 140,011 11.5% 18,653

1994 56.0% 102,884 41.9% 76,902

1998 66.2% 92,504 30.2% 42,280

2002 60.6% 79,841 34.5% 45,407

2006 89.7% 98,740 6.1% 6,744

2010 74.2% 97,978

2014 54.5% 96,666 [g]

See also: District of Columbia voting rights
District of Columbia voting rights
and Political party strength in Washington, D.C. The District is not a state and therefore has no voting representation in Congress. D.C. residents elect a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives, currently Eleanor Holmes Norton
Eleanor Holmes Norton
(D-D.C. At-Large), who may sit on committees, participate in debate, and introduce legislation, but cannot vote on the House floor. The District has no official representation in the United States
United States
Senate. Neither chamber seats the District's elected "shadow" representative or senators. Unlike residents of U.S. territories such as Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
or Guam, which also have non-voting delegates, D.C., residents are subject to all federal taxes.[196] In the financial year 2012, D.C., residents and businesses paid $20.7 billion in federal taxes; more than the taxes collected from 19 states and the highest federal taxes per capita.[197] A 2005 poll found that 78% of Americans
did not know that residents of the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
have less representation in Congress than residents of the 50 states.[198] Efforts to raise awareness about the issue have included campaigns by grassroots organizations and featuring the city's unofficial motto, "Taxation Without Representation", on D.C. vehicle license plates.[199] There is evidence of nationwide approval for D.C. voting rights; various polls indicate that 61 to 82% of Americans
believe that D.C. should have voting representation in Congress.[198][200] Despite public support, attempts to grant the District voting representation, including the D.C. statehood movement
D.C. statehood movement
and the proposed District of Columbia
District of Columbia
Voting Rights Amendment, have been unsuccessful.

The Eisenhower Executive Office Building, once the world's largest office building, houses the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Opponents of D.C. voting rights propose that the Founding Fathers never intended for District residents to have a vote in Congress since the Constitution makes clear that representation must come from the states. Those opposed to making D.C. a state claim that such a move would destroy the notion of a separate national capital and that statehood would unfairly grant Senate representation to a single city.[201] Sister cities Washington, D.C., has fourteen official sister city agreements. Listed in the order each agreement was first established, they are: Bangkok, Thailand (1962, renewed 2002); Dakar, Senegal (1980, renewed 2006); Beijing, China (1984, renewed 2004); Brussels, Belgium (1985, renewed 2002); Athens, Greece (2000); Paris, France (2000 as a friendship and cooperation agreement, renewed 2005);[202] Pretoria, South Africa (2002, renewed 2008); Seoul, South Korea (2006); Accra, Ghana (2006); Sunderland, United Kingdom (2006); Rome, Italy (2011); Ankara, Turkey (2011); Brasília, Brazil
(2013); and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2013).[203] Each of the listed cities is a national capital except for Sunderland, which includes the town of Washington, the ancestral home of George Washington's family.[204] Paris
and Rome
are each formally recognized as a "partner city" due to their special one sister city policy.[205] Education See also: List of colleges and universities in Washington, D.C.
List of colleges and universities in Washington, D.C.
and List of parochial and private schools in Washington, D.C.

The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the largest library in the world, with more than 164 million cataloged items.

District of Columbia Public Schools
District of Columbia Public Schools
(DCPS) operates the city's 123 public schools.[206] The number of students in DCPS steadily decreased for 39 years until 2009. In the 2010–11 school year, 46,191 students were enrolled in the public school system.[207] DCPS has one of the highest-cost yet lowest-performing school systems in the country, both in terms of infrastructure and student achievement.[208] Mayor Adrian Fenty's administration made sweeping changes to the system by closing schools, replacing teachers, firing principals, and using private education firms to aid curriculum development.[209] The District of Columbia Public Charter School Board monitors the 52 public charter schools in the city.[210] Due to the perceived problems with the traditional public school system, enrollment in public charter schools has steadily increased.[211] As of fall 2010, D.C., charter schools had a total enrollment of about 32,000, a 9% increase from the prior year.[207] The District is also home to 92 private schools, which enrolled approximately 18,000 students in 2008.[212] The District of Columbia Public Library
District of Columbia Public Library
operates 25 neighborhood locations including the landmark Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library.[213] Higher education Private universities include American University
American University
(AU), the Catholic University of America (CUA), Gallaudet University, George Washington University (GW), Georgetown University
Georgetown University
(GU), Howard University, the Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), and Trinity Washington University. The Corcoran College of Art and Design, the oldest arts school in the capital, was absorbed into the George Washington
George Washington
University in 2014, now serving as its college of arts. The University of the District of Columbia
University of the District of Columbia
(UDC) is a public land-grant university providing undergraduate and graduate education. D.C. residents may also be eligible for a grant of up to $10,000 per year to offset the cost of tuition at any public university in the country.[214] The District is known for its medical research institutions such as Washington Hospital Center
Washington Hospital Center
and the Children's National Medical Center, as well as the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
in Bethesda, Maryland. In addition, the city is home to three medical schools and associated teaching hospitals at George Washington, Georgetown, and Howard universities.[215] Infrastructure Transportation Main article: Transportation in Washington, D.C.

Washington Union Station
Washington Union Station
is one of the busiest rail stations in the United States.

There are 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of streets, parkways, and avenues in the District.[216] Due to the freeway revolts of the 1960s, much of the proposed interstate highway system through the middle of Washington was never built. Interstate 95 (I-95), the nation's major east coast highway, therefore bends around the District to form the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. A portion of the proposed highway funding was directed to the region's public transportation infrastructure instead.[217] The interstate highways that continue into Washington, including I-66 and I-395, both terminate shortly after entering the city.[218] The Washington Metropolitan Area
Washington Metropolitan Area
Transit Authority (WMATA) operates the Washington Metro, the city's rapid transit system, as well as Metrobus. Both systems serve the District and its suburbs. Metro opened on March 27, 1976 and, as of July 2014[update], consists of 91 stations and 117 miles (188 km) of track.[219] With an average of about one million trips each weekday, Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the country. Metrobus serves over 400,000 riders each weekday and is the nation's fifth-largest bus system.[220] The city also operates its own DC Circulator
DC Circulator
bus system, which connects commercial areas within central Washington.[221] Union Station is the city's main train station and services approximately 70,000 people each day. It is Amtrak's second-busiest station with 4.6 million passengers annually and is the southern terminus for the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
and Acela Express
Acela Express
routes. Maryland's MARC and Virginia's VRE commuter trains and the Metrorail Red Line also provide service into Union Station.[222] Following renovations in 2011, Union Station became Washington's primary intercity bus transit center.[223] Three major airports serve the District. Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
is across the Potomac River
Potomac River
from downtown Washington in Arlington, Virginia
and primarily handles domestic flights. Major international flights arrive and depart from Washington Dulles International Airport, 26.3 miles (42.3 km) west of the District in Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Virginia. Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is 31.7 miles (51.0 km) northeast of the District in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. According to a 2010 study, Washington-area commuters spent 70 hours a year in traffic delays, which tied with Chicago for having the nation's worst road congestion.[224] However, 37% of Washington-area commuters take public transportation to work, the second-highest rate in the country.[225] An additional 12% of D.C. commuters walked to work, 6% carpooled, and 3% traveled by bicycle in 2010.[226] A 2011 study by Walk Score
Walk Score
found that Washington was the seventh-most walkable city in the country with 80% of residents living in neighborhoods that are not car dependent.[227] In 2013, the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had the eighth lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.7 percent), with 8 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit.[228] An expected 32% increase in transit usage within the District by 2030 has spurred construction of a new DC Streetcar
DC Streetcar
system to interconnect the city's neighborhoods.[229] Construction has also started on an additional Metro line that will connect Washington to Dulles airport.[230] The District is part of the regional Capital Bikeshare program. Started in 2010, it is currently one of the largest bicycle sharing systems in the country with over 4,351 bicycles and more than 395 stations[231] all provided by PBSC Urban Solutions. By 2012, the city's network of marked bicycle lanes covered 56 miles (90 km) of streets.[232] Utilities

The Capitol Power Plant, built to supply energy for the U.S. Capitol Complex, is under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol.

The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority
District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority
(i.e. WASA or D.C. Water) is an independent authority of the D.C. government that provides drinking water and wastewater collection in Washington. WASA purchases water from the historic Washington Aqueduct, which is operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. The water, sourced from the Potomac River, is treated and stored in the city's Dalecarlia, Georgetown, and McMillan reservoirs. The aqueduct provides drinking water for a total of 1.1 million people in the District and Virginia, including Arlington, Falls Church, and a portion of Fairfax County.[233] The authority also provides sewage treatment services for an additional 1.6 million people in four surrounding Maryland
and Virginia
counties.[234] Pepco
is the city's electric utility and services 793,000 customers in the District and suburban Maryland.[235] An 1889 law prohibits overhead wires within much of the historic City of Washington. As a result, all power lines and telecommunication cables are located underground in downtown Washington, and traffic signals are placed at the edge of the street.[236] A plan announced in 2013 would bury an additional 60 miles (97 km) of primary power lines throughout the District.[237] Washington Gas
Washington Gas
is the city's natural gas utility and serves over one million customers in the District and its suburbs. Incorporated by Congress in 1848, the company installed the city's first gas lights in the Capitol, the White House, and along Pennsylvania

See also

Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

Book: Washington, D.C.

Index of Washington, D.C.-related articles Outline of Washington, D.C.


^ By 1790, the Southern states had largely repaid their overseas debts from the Revolutionary War. The Northern states had not, and wanted the federal government to take over their outstanding liabilities. Southern Congressmen agreed to the plan in return for establishing the new national capital at their preferred site on the Potomac River.[14] ^ The Residence Act
Residence Act
allowed the President to select a location within Maryland
as far east as the Anacostia
River. However, Washington shifted the federal territory's borders to the southeast in order to include the city of Alexandria at the District's southern tip. In 1791, Congress amended the Residence Act
Residence Act
to approve the new site, including territory ceded by Virginia.[15] ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
were kept at 24th and M Streets NW from January 1871 to June 1945, and at Reagan National since July 1945.[77] ^ Until 1890, the Census Bureau counted the City of Washington, Georgetown, and unincorporated portions of Washington County as three separate areas. The data provided in this article from before 1890 are calculated as if the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
were a single municipality as it is today. Population data for each city prior to 1890 are available.[96] ^ These figures count adherents, meaning all full members, their children, and others who regularly attend services. In all of the District, 55% of the population is adherent to any particular religion. ^ Independents David Catania
David Catania
and Carol Schwartz, both former Republicans,[195] garnered 61,388 and 12,327 votes or 34.6% and 7.0%, respectively.


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Public Schools. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2011.  ^ a b "DC Public School Enrollment Up for Third Straight Year". Office of the State Superintendent of Education. November 7, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.  ^ Settimi, Christina (July 5, 2007). "Best And Worst School Districts For The Buck". Forbes. Retrieved June 10, 2008.  ^ Haynes, V. Dion; Bill Turque (May 16, 2008). "Rhee Offers Plan To Improve D.C.'s Troubled Schools". The Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved June 3, 2008.  ^ "SY2010-2011 Charter School Profile". D.C. Public Charter School Board. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2011.  ^ Haynes, V. Dion; Theola Labbe (April 25, 2007). "A Boom for D.C. Charter Schools". The Washington Post. pp. A01. Retrieved July 25, 2008.  ^ "Table 15. Number of private schools, students, full-time equivalent (FTE) teachers, and 2006–07 high school graduates, by state: United States, 2007–08". National Center for Education Statistics. 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2011.  ^ "In Your Neighborhood". D.C. Public Library. Retrieved August 14, 2011.  ^ "DC Tuition Assistance Grant". Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.  ^ Bowman, Inci A. "Historic Medical Sites in the Washington, DC Area". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved August 17, 2011.  ^ "Public Road Length". Highway Statistics 2006. Federal Highway Administration. Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012.  ^ Schrag, Zachary (2006). "Chapter 5: The Bridge". The Great Society Subway. Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8906-6.  ^ I-66: Kozel, Scott M. (May 31, 2000). "Interstate 66 in Virginia". Roads to the Future. Retrieved April 22, 2017.  I-395: BMI (February 1999). I-95/i-395 Hov Restriction Study (PDF). Virginia Department of Transportation. p. 70. Retrieved April 22, 2017. 

^ "Metro launches Silver Line, largest expansion of region's rail system in more than two decades" (Press release). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. July 25, 2014. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.  ^ Dawson, Christie R. (August 21, 2009). "Estimated Unliked Transit Passenger Trips" (PDF). American Public Transport Association. Retrieved October 10, 2009.  ^ "About DC Circulator". DC Circulator. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.  ^ " District of Columbia
District of Columbia
Fact Sheet FY 2010" (PDF). Amtrak. November 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2011.  ^ "Union Station gets new bus depot". WJLA-TV. November 15, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2012.  ^ Halsey III, Ashley (January 20, 2011). "Washington area tied with Chicago for traffic congestion, study finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2011.  ^ Christie, Les (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are top transit users". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 15, 2008.  ^ " District of Columbia
District of Columbia
Commuting Characteristics by Sex". 2010 American Community Survey. United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ "D.C. among top 10 most walkable cities". WTOP. August 8, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  ^ McKenzie, Brian (August 2015). "Who Drives to Work? Commuting by Automobile in the United States: 2013" (PDF). American Survey Reports. Retrieved December 26, 2017.  ^ "History – DC Streetcar". District Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 28, 2013.  ^ "Dulles Metrorail Project Overview". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 2, 2012.  ^ "Capital Bike-Share Washington DC / Arlington PBSC". PBSC Solutions Urbanes. Retrieved June 17, 2016.  ^ "Bicycle Program". District Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2012.  ^ "The Washington Aqueduct
Washington Aqueduct
System". National Park Service. Retrieved January 5, 2014.  ^ "General Information". District of Columbia
District of Columbia
Washington and Sewer Authority. Retrieved January 5, 2014.  ^ "Welcome to Pepco". January 5, 2014. Pepco. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014.  ^ Rein, Lisa (April 6, 2010). "D.C. streetcar project may get hung up on overhead wires". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 5, 2014.  ^ DeBonis, Mike (May 15, 2013). "Plan to bury D.C.'s outage-prone power lines backed by task force". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014.  ^ "Company Profile / History". Washington Gas
Washington Gas
Light Co. Retrieved January 5, 2014. 

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 District of Columbia: Outline • Index


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 District of Columbia

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Landmarks of Washington, D.C.


Adams African American
African American
Civil War American Veterans Disabled for Life Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument Mary McLeod Bethune Boy Scout James Buchanan D.C. War Albert Einstein Emancipation John Ericsson First Division James A. Garfield Samuel Gompers Ulysses S. Grant Holocaust Museum Holodomor Genocide Japanese American Patriotism During World War II Jefferson Memorial Lyndon Baines Johnson Grove John Paul Jones Marquis de Lafayette Law Enforcement Officers Lincoln Memorial Martin Luther King, Jr. Korean War
Korean War
Veterans George Mason George Meade National Statuary Hall Collection Navy – Merchant Marine Nuns of the Battlefield Peace Monument Pentagon Second Division Signers of the Declaration of Independence The Extra Mile The Three Soldiers Jean de Rochambeau Franklin Delano Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Island Taras Shevchenko Statues of the Liberators Oscar Straus Robert A. Taft Titanic United States
United States
Air Force United States
United States
Navy Victims of Communism Vietnam
Veterans Vietnam
Women's Washington Monument Daniel Webster World War II

Rainbow Pool


Capitol Reflecting Pool Immaculate Conception Basilica Ford's Theatre

Petersen House

Healy Hall Islamic Center Jefferson Pier John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Library of Congress National Arboretum National Building Museum National Gallery of Art Lincoln's Cottage at Soldiers' Home Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
Reflecting Pool National Archives Newseum National Cathedral National Mall Old Post Office Pavilion Old Stone House Smithsonian Institution The Arts of War and The Arts of Peace Tidal Basin Treasury Building Tudor Place Union Station United States
United States
Capitol United States
United States
Supreme Court Building White House Willard Hotel

Parks and plazas

Constitution Gardens Dupont Circle East Potomac Park Freedom Plaza Lafayette Square L'Enfant Plaza Meridian Hill Park National Arboretum Pershing Park Rock Creek Park The Ellipse United States
United States
Botanic Garden West Potomac Park


River Arlington Memorial Bridge Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia Chesapeake and Ohio
Canal Constitution Avenue Francis Scott Key Bridge Pennsylvania
Avenue Potomac River Zero Milestone


Adams Memorial Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial General Francis Marion
Francis Marion
Memorial Gold Star Mothers Monument National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial National Liberty Memorial Peace Corps Monument World War I


National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission National Mall
National Mall
and Memorial Parks List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C. National Register of Historic Places in Washington, D.C.

Public art in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(Outdoor sculpture, American Revolution Statuary, Civil War Monuments, commemorating African-Americans)

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Neighborhoods in Washington, D.C.

Ward 1

Adams Morgan Columbia Heights Kalorama LeDroit Park Mount Pleasant Park View Pleasant Plains Shaw Woodley Park

Ward 2

Burleith Chinatown Downtown Dupont Circle Foggy Bottom Georgetown Kalorama Logan Circle Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Square Penn Quarter Shaw Southwest Federal Center West End

Ward 3

American University
American University
Park Berkley Cathedral Heights Chevy Chase Cleveland Park Colony Hill Forest Hills Foxhall Friendship Heights Glover Park Kent Massachusetts
Heights McLean Gardens North Cleveland Park Observatory Circle The Palisades Potomac Heights Spring Valley Tenleytown Wakefield Wesley Heights Woodland Normanstone Woodley Park

Ward 4

Barnaby Woods Brightwood Brightwood Park Chevy Chase Colonial Village Crestwood Fort Stevens Ridge Fort Totten Hawthorne Manor Park North Portal Estates Petworth Queens Chapel Riggs Park Shepherd Park Sixteenth Street Heights Takoma

Ward 5

Arboretum Bloomingdale Brentwood Brookland Carver Langston Eckington Edgewood Fort Lincoln Fort Totten Gateway Ivy City Langdon Michigan
Park North Michigan
Park Pleasant Hill Queens Chapel Stronghold-Metropolis View Trinidad Truxton Circle Woodridge

Ward 6

Barney Circle Capitol Hill Judiciary Square Kingman Park Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Triangle Navy Yard Near Northeast NoMa Southwest Waterfront Sursum Corda Swampoodle

Ward 7

Benning Benning Heights Benning Ridge Burrville Capitol View Central Northeast Civic Betterment Deanwood Dupont Park East River Heights Eastland Gardens Fairfax Village Fairlawn Fort Davis Fort Dupont Good Hope Greenway Hillbrook Hillcrest Kenilworth Kingman Park Lincoln Heights Marshall Heights Mayfair Naylor Gardens Penn Branch Randle Highlands River Terrace Twining

Ward 8

Anacostia Barry Farm Bellevue Buena Vista Congress Heights Douglass Fairlawn Garfield Heights Knox Hill Shipley Terrace Skyland Washington Highlands Woodland

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v t e

Political divisions of the United States


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Federal district

Washington, D.C.

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Outlying islands

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List of Indian reservations

v t e

United States
United States


Division State Federal District Insular area

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico United States
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Census Bureau Office of Management and Budget

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The 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America


New York, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Houston, TX Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Boston, MA San Francisco, CA Phoenix, AZ Riverside-San Bernardino, CA Detroit, MI Seattle, WA Minneapolis, MN San Diego, CA Tampa, FL Denver, CO St. Louis, MO

Baltimore, MD Charlotte, NC San Juan, PR Orlando, FL San Antonio, TX Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Sacramento, CA Cincinnati, OH Las Vegas, NV Kansas
City, MO Austin, TX Columbus, OH Cleveland, OH Indianapolis, IN San Jose, CA Nashville, TN Virginia
Beach, VA Providence, RI Milwaukee, WI

Jacksonville, FL Memphis, TN Oklahoma
City, OK Louisville, KY Richmond, VA New Orleans, LA Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Birmingham, AL Buffalo, NY Salt Lake City, UT Rochester, NY Grand Rapids, MI Tucson, AZ Honolulu, HI Tulsa, OK Fresno, CA Bridgeport, CT Worcester, MA Albuquerque, NM

Omaha, NE Albany, NY New Haven, CT Bakersfield, CA Knoxville, TN Greenville, SC Oxnard, CA El Paso, TX Allentown, PA Baton Rouge, LA McAllen, TX Dayton, OH Columbia, SC Greensboro, NC Sarasota, FL Little Rock, AR Stockton, CA Akron, OH Charleston, SC Colorado
Springs, CO

Syracuse, NY Winston-Salem, NC Cape Coral, FL Boise, ID Wichita, KS Springfield, MA Madison, WI Lakeland, FL Ogden, UT Toledo, OH Deltona, FL Des Moines, IA Jackson, MS Augusta, GA Scranton, PA Youngstown, OH Harrisburg, PA Provo, UT Palm Bay, FL Chattanooga, TN

United States
United States
Census Bureau population estimates for July 1, 2012

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Northeast megalopolis

Major metropolitan areas (over 1,000,000)

New York














Other cities (over 100,000)

Newark Jersey City Yonkers Worcester Springfield Alexandria Paterson Bridgeport Elizabeth New Haven Stamford Allentown Manchester Waterbury Cambridge Lowell

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Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV metropolitan area

Principal cities


Silver Spring Frederick Rockville Bethesda Gaithersburg


Arlington County Alexandria Reston

District of Columbia


Counties and county equivalents*


Calvert Charles Frederick Montgomery Prince George's



Alexandria city

Clarke Culpeper Fairfax

Fairfax city Falls Church city

Fauquier Loudoun Prince William

Manassas city Manassas Park city

Rappahannock Spotsylvania

Fredericksburg city

Stafford Warren


District of Columbia Jefferson County, West Virginia

The District of Columbia
District of Columbia
itself, and Virginia's incorporated cities, are county equivalents. Virginia's incorporated cities are listed under their surrounding county. The incorporated cities bordering more than one county (Alexandria, Falls Church and Fredericksburg) are listed under the county they were part of before incorporation as a city.

v t e

Capital districts and territories

Federal districts

Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria) Federal District (Brazil) Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(Argentina) Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
(Australia) Capital District (Venezuela) Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
(Pakistan) Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Malaysia) National Capital Territory of Delhi
(India) Mexico City
Mexico City
(Mexico) District of Columbia
District of Columbia
(United States)

Other related topics

v t e

George Washington

1st President of the United States, 1789–1797 Senior Officer of the Army, 1798–1799 Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 1775–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775 First Continental Congress, 1774

Military career Revolutionary War

Military career French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Forbes Expedition

Washington and the American Revolution Commander-in-chief, Continental Army Aides-de-camp Washington's headquarters Boston

Siege of Boston

New York and New Jersey
New Jersey

River crossing Battle of Trenton


Battle of Brandywine Battle of Germantown Battle of White Marsh Valley Forge Battle of Monmouth

Battles of Saratoga Sullivan Expedition Yorktown campaign

Siege of Yorktown

Culper spy ring Newburgh Conspiracy

Newburgh letter

Resignation as commander-in-chief Badge of Military Merit

Purple Heart

Washington Before Boston
Medal Horses: Nelson and Blueskin

Other U.S. founding events

1769 Virginia

Continental Association

1774 Fairfax Resolves Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture 1785 Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Conference Chairman, 1787 Constitutional Convention


United States
United States
presidential election, 1788–89 1792 First inauguration

inaugural bible

Second inauguration Title of "Mr. President" Cabinet of the United States

Secretary of State Attorney General Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of War

Judiciary Act of 1789 Nonintercourse Act Whiskey Rebellion

Militia Acts of 1792

Coinage Act of 1792

United States
United States

Proclamation of Neutrality

Neutrality Act of 1794

Jay Treaty Pinckney's Treaty Slave Trade Act of 1794 Residence Act Thanksgiving Proclamation Farewell Address State of the Union Address 1790 1791 1792 1793 1796 Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Views and public image

Presidential library The Washington Papers Religious views Washington and slavery Town Destroyer Legacy

Life and homes

Early life Birthplace Ferry Farm
Ferry Farm
boyhood home Mount Vernon

Gristmill Woodlawn Plantation

Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion President's House, Philadelphia Germantown White House Custis estate Potomac Company James River and Kanawha Canal Mountain Road Lottery Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Washington College Washington and Lee University Electoral history of George Washington

Memorials and depictions

Washington, D.C. Washington state Washington Monument Mount Rushmore Washington's Birthday Purple Heart The Apotheosis of Washington George Washington
George Washington
(Houdon) George Washington
George Washington
(Ceracchi) George Washington
George Washington
(Trumbull) Washington Crossing the Delaware General George Washington
George Washington
at Trenton Washington at Verplanck's Point General George Washington
George Washington
Resigning His Commission Unfinished portrait Lansdowne portrait The Washington Family
The Washington Family
portrait Washington at Princeton
Washington at Princeton
painting Point of View sculpture George Washington
George Washington
University Washington University Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington
George Washington
Memorial Parkway George Washington
George Washington
Bridge Washington and Jefferson National Forests Washington Monument, Baltimore Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
statue List of memorials U.S. Postage stamps

Washington-Franklin Issues 1932 bicentennial


Washington quarter Washington dollar Silver bullion coins

Cultural depictions George Washington
George Washington
(1984 miniseries 1986 sequel)


Bibliography Founding Fathers of the United States Republicanism Federalist Party

Federalist Era

dynasty Coat of arms Cherry-tree anecdote River Farm Washington's Crossing 1751 Barbados
trip Category Syng inkstand General of the Armies American Philosophical Society American Revolution


Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association

Ancestry and family

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
(wife) John Parke Custis
John Parke Custis
(stepson) George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis (step-grandson, adopted son) Eleanor Parke Custis (step-granddaughter, adopted daughter) Augustine Washington
Augustine Washington
(father) Mary Ball (mother) Lawrence Washington (half-brother) Augustine Washington
Augustine Washington
Jr. (half-brother) Betty Washington Lewis (sister) Samuel Washington
Samuel Washington
(brother) John A. Washington (brother) Charles Washington (brother) Lawrence Washington (grandfather) John Washington
John Washington
(great-grandfather) Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington

John Adams
John Adams


v t e

Capitals of North America

Dependent territories are in italics

Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe
(France) Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis Belmopan, Belize Bridgetown, Barbados Castries, St. Lucia Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands
Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands
(US) Cockburn Town, Turks and Caicos (UK) Fort-de-France, Martinique
(France) George Town, Cayman Islands
George Town, Cayman Islands
(UK) Guatemala
City, Guatemala Gustavia, St. Barthélemy (France) Hamilton, Bermuda
Hamilton, Bermuda
(UK) Havana, Cuba Kingston, Jamaica Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Kralendijk, Bonaire
(Netherlands) Managua, Nicaragua Marigot, St. Martin (France) Mexico
City, Mexico Nassau, The Bahamas Nuuk, Greenland
(Denmark) Oranjestad, Aruba
Oranjestad, Aruba
(Netherlands) Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius
Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius
(Netherlands) Ottawa, Canada Panama
City, Panama Philipsburg, Sint Maarten
Philipsburg, Sint Maarten
(Netherlands) Plymouth (de jure) • Brades
(de facto), Montserrat
(UK) Port-au-Prince, Haiti Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Road Town, British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
(UK) Roseau, Dominica Saint-Pierre, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France) San José, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(US) San Salvador, El Salvador Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic St. George's, Grenada St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda Tegucigalpa, Honduras The Bottom, Saba
(Netherlands) The Valley, Anguilla
The Valley, Anguilla
(UK) Washington, D.C., United States Willemstad, Curaçao

v t e

Location of the capital of the United States
United States
and predecessors

1774   First Continental Congress


1775–81   Second Continental Congress

Philadelphia → Baltimore → Lancaster → York → Philadelphia

1781–89   Congress of the Confederation

Philadelphia → Princeton → Annapolis → Trenton → New York City

1789–present   Federal government of the United States

New York City → Philadelphia → Washington, D.C.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312739635 LCCN: n79018774 ISNI: 0000 0001 2296 8205 GND: 4064682-8 BNF: cb11881081d (data) N