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The Wartburg
Wartburg
is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages. It is situated on a 410 meters (1,350 ft) precipice to the southwest of, and overlooking the town of Eisenach, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. In 1999, UNESCO
UNESCO
added Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle to the World Heritage List. It was the home of St. Elisabeth of Hungary, the place where Martin Luther
Martin Luther
translated the New Testament
New Testament
of the Bible into German, the site of the Wartburg festival
Wartburg festival
of 1817 and the supposed setting for the possibly legendary Sängerkrieg. It was an important inspiration for Ludwig II
Ludwig II
when he decided to build Neuschwanstein Castle. Wartburg is the most-visited tourist attraction in Thuringia
Thuringia
after Weimar. Although the castle today still contains substantial original structures from the 12th through 15th centuries, much of the interior dates back only to the 19th century.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Location 3 History 4 Architecture

4.1 Palas 4.2 Other structures

5 Today 6 Legacy 7 Notes 8 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the castle is probably derived from German: Warte, a watchtower, in spite of a tradition which holds that the castle's founder, on first laying eyes on the site, exclaimed, "Warte, Berg -- du sollst mir eine Burg tragen!" ("Wait, mountain -- you shall bear my castle!").[1] It is a German play on words for mountain (Berg) and fortress (Burg). In addition, Louis the Springer
Louis the Springer
is said to have had clay from his lands transported to the top of the hill, which was not quite within his lands, so he might swear that the castle was built on his soil. Location[edit]

View of Wartburg
Wartburg
from the east

Wartburg
Wartburg
is located on a 410 meters (1,350 ft) precipice to the southwest of, and overlooking the town of Eisenach, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. The hill is an extension of Thuringian Forest, overlooking Mariental to the south-east and the valley of the Hörsel to the north, through which passed the historical Via Regia.[2]:149 The Rennsteig
Rennsteig
passes not far to the south of the castle. History[edit]

The Luther Room

Wartburg, monk and nun, drawing by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(1807)

Students marching to the Wartburg
Wartburg
in 1817

Wartburg
Wartburg
c. 1890-1900, seen from the south-west

The South Tower

Main gate seen from the first courtyard

Panorama view from the redoubt to the east

The castle's foundation was laid about 1067 by the Thuringian count of Schauenburg, Louis the Springer
Louis the Springer
( Ludwig der Springer ), a relative of the Counts of Rieneck in Franconia. Together with its larger sister castle Neuenburg in the present-day town of Freyburg, the Wartburg secured the extreme borders of his traditional territories.[3] The castle was first mentioned in a written document in 1080 by Bruno, Bishop of Merseburg, in his De Bello Saxonico ("The Saxon War") as Wartberg.[4] During the Investiture Controversy, Louis's henchmen attacked a military contingent of King Henry IV of Germany. The count remained a fierce opponent of the Salian rulers, and upon the extinction of the line, his son Louis I was elevated to the rank of a Landgrave
Landgrave
in Thuringia
Thuringia
by the new German king Lothair of Supplinburg in 1131. From 1172 to 1211, the Wartburg
Wartburg
was one of the most important princes' courts in the German Reich. Hermann I supported poets like Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach
Wolfram von Eschenbach
who wrote part of his Parzival
Parzival
here in 1203.[2]:149 The castle thus became the setting for the legendary Sängerkrieg, or Minstrels' Contest[4] in which such Minnesänger
Minnesänger
as Walther von der Vogelweide,[5] Wolfram von Eschenbach,[6] Albrecht von Halberstadt (the translator of Ovid) and many others supposedly took part in 1206/1207. The legend of this event was later used by Richard Wagner in his opera Tannhäuser. At the age of four, St. Elisabeth of Hungary
Elisabeth of Hungary
was sent by her mother to the Wartburg
Wartburg
to be raised to become consort of Landgrave
Landgrave
Ludwig IV of Thuringia. From 1211 to 1228, she lived in the castle and was renowned for her charitable work. In 1221, Elisabeth married Ludwig. In 1227, Ludwig died on the Crusade and she followed her confessor Father Konrad to Marburg. Elisabeth died there in 1231 at the age of 24 and was canonized as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
just five years after her death.[4][7][8]:4 In 1247, Heinrich Raspe, the last landgrave of Thuringia
Thuringia
of his line and an anti-king of Germany, died at the Wartburg.[4] He was succeeded by Henry III, Margrave of Meissen. In 1320, substantial reconstruction work was done after the castle had been damaged in a fire caused by lightning in 1317 or 1318. A chapel was added to the Palas.[8]:15,18 The Wartburg
Wartburg
remained the seat of the Thuringian landgraves until 1440. From May 1521 to March 1522, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
stayed at the castle under the name of Junker Jörg
Junker Jörg
(the Knight George), after he had been taken there for his safety at the request of Frederick the Wise
Frederick the Wise
following his excommunication by Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
and his refusal to recant at the Diet of Worms. It was during this period that Luther translated the New Testament
New Testament
from ancient Greek into German in just ten weeks.[4] Luther's was not the first German translation of the Bible but it quickly became the most well known and most widely circulated. From 1540 until his death in 1548, Fritz Erbe (de), an Anabaptist farmer from Herda, was held captive in the dungeon of the south tower, because he refused to abjure anabaptism. After his death, he was buried in the Wartburg
Wartburg
near the chapel of St. Elisabeth.[9] In 1925, a handwritten signature of Fritz Erbe was found on the prison wall. Over the next centuries, the castle fell increasingly into disuse and disrepair, especially after the end of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
when it had served as a refuge for the ruling family.[8]:7 In 1777, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
stayed at the Wartburg
Wartburg
for five weeks, making various drawings of the buildings.[4] On 18 October 1817, the first Wartburg festival
Wartburg festival
took place. About 500 students, members of the newly founded German Burschenschaften ("fraternities"), came together at the castle to celebrate the German victory over Napoleon four years before and the 300th anniversary of the Reformation, condemn conservatism and call for German unity under the motto "Honour - Freedom - Fatherland".[4] Speakers at the event included Heinrich Hermann Riemann, a veteran of the Lützow Free Corps, the philosophy student Ludwig Rödiger, and Hans Ferdinand Massmann. With the permission of the absent chaplain Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the Code Napoléon
Code Napoléon
and other books were burned 'in effigy': instead of the costly volumes, scraps of parchment with the titles of conservative books (including August von Kotzebue's History of the German Empires) were placed on the bonfire. Karl Ludwig Sand, who would assassinate Kotzebue two years later, was among the participants. This event and a similar gathering at Wartburg
Wartburg
during the Revolutions of 1848 are considered seminal moments in the movement for German unification. During the rule of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Karl Alexander ordered the reconstruction of Wartburg
Wartburg
in 1838. The lead architect was Hugo von Ritgen (de), for whom it became a life's work. In fact, it was finished only a year after his death in 1889.[4] Drawing on a suggestion by Goethe that the Wartburg
Wartburg
would serve well as a museum, Maria Pavlovna and her son Karl Alexander also founded the art collection ( Kunstkammer ) that became the nucleus of today's museum.[8]:24–28 The reign of the House of Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
ended in the German Revolution in 1918. In 1922, the Wartburg
Wartburg
Stiftung (Wartburg Foundation) was established to ensure the castle's maintenance.[4] After the end of World War II, Soviet occupation forces took the renowned collection of weapons and armour. Its whereabouts still remain unknown.[8]:10 The Rüstkammer (de) (the armoury) of the Wartburg
Wartburg
used to contain a notable collection of about 800 pieces, from the splendid armour of King Henry II of France, to the items of Frederick the Wise, Pope Julius II
Julius II
and Bernhard von Weimar. All these objects were taken by the Soviet Occupation Army in 1946 and have disappeared in the Soviet Union. Two helmets, two swords, a prince's and a boy's armour, however, were found in a temporary store at the time and a few pieces were given back by the USSR
USSR
in the 1960s. The new Russian Government has been petitioned to help locate the missing treasures. Under communist rule during the time of the GDR
GDR
extensive reconstruction took place in 1952-54. In particular, much of the palas was restored to its original Romanesque style.[4] A new stairway was erected next to the palas.[8]:24 In 1967, the castle was the site of celebrations of the GDR's national jubilee, the 900th anniversary of the Wartburg's foundation, the 450th anniversary of the beginning of Luther's Reformation
Reformation
and the 150th anniversary of the Wartburg
Wartburg
Festival.[8]:29 On June 13, 1980, Devo
Devo
performed at the castle during their Freedom of Choice tour. In 1983, it was the central point of the celebrations on account of the 500th birthday of Martin Luther.[8]:29 Architecture[edit]

Map of the Wartburg: (1) access ramp, (2) redoubt, (3) drawbridge, (4) Torhaus (barbican), (5) Ritterhaus, (6) Vogtei and first courtyard, (7) Margarethengang, (8) Dirnitzlaube, (9) inner gatehouse, (10) Neue Kemenate, (11) stairs, (12) Bergfried, (13) Palas, (14) Ritterbad,(15) Gadem, (16) second courtyard with cistern (17) Südturm, (18) southern curtain wall, (19) kitchen garden, (20) Commandant’s garden, (21) Elisabethengang, (22) Hotel auf der Wartburg

Palas[edit]

Schwind's Sängerkrieg
Sängerkrieg
fresco in the Sängersaal (1854)

The largest structure of the Wartburg
Wartburg
is the Palas, originally built in late Romanesque style between 1157 and 1170.[2]:150 It is considered the best-preserved non-ecclesial Romanesque building north of the Alps.[8]:11 The Palas
Palas
features rooms like the Rittersaal and the Speisesaal which have been reconstructed as closely as possible to the original Romanesque style and which contain original structures (pillars or roof elements). However, many of the rooms mostly reflect the tastes of the 19th and 20th centuries and the image of the Middle Ages prevalent at the time: the Elisabeth-Kemenate was fitted with mosaics showing the life of St. Elisabeth (created in 1902-06) on behalf of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Sängersaal (with frescoes of the Sängerkrieg by Moritz von Schwind) and the Festssaal on the top floor. The latter also features frescoes by Schwind (on the triumph of Christianity) and served as the inspiration for the Sängerhalle at Neuschwanstein Castle.[2]:150[8]:24 The Wartburg's Sängersaal is the setting for Act II of Tannhäuser. None of the wallpaintings, including those in the Landgrafenzimmer or the Elisabethengalerie, are actually medieval in origin, but were created in the 19th century.[8]:19–24 Other structures[edit] The drawbridge and barbican offer the only access to the castle and have been largely unchanged since medieval times.[2]:150 Vorburg is the area immediately inside the first gate. It dates to the 14th/15th century and is made up of several half-timbered buildings: the Elisabethengang (covered walkway), the Vogtei (Bailiff's lodge), the Margarethengang (covered walkway) and the Ritterhaus (Knights' House).[2]:150 The Lutherstube in the Vogtei, where Martin Luther
Martin Luther
stayed when he was in the castle, also features paintings by Lucas Cranach.[2]:150 The Bergfried (donjon) was completed in 1859 and sits on the foundations of a medieval keep. It is topped by a landmark 3-metre-tall cross (de).[2]:150 The Neue Kemenate (New Bower, 1853-1860) today exhibits the art treasures of the Wartburgsammlung, like paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder and sculptures from the workshop of Tilman Riemenschneider.[2]:150 The Romanesque Südturm or South Tower was built in 1318. Together with the Palas
Palas
it is the oldest part of the castle. A dungeon is located below.[2]:150 In 1999, UNESCO
UNESCO
added Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle to the World Heritage List
World Heritage List
as an "Outstanding Monument of the Feudal Period in Central Europe", citing its "Cultural Values of Universal Significance".[10] For a while, the status of Wartburg
Wartburg
as a World Heritage site was endangered by plans to build very tall wind turbines on Milmesberg near Marksuhl. However, in November 2013, the investor agreed not to build the turbines and a regional planning update has banned such structures within sight of Wartburg
Wartburg
in the future.[11] Today[edit] Wartburg
Wartburg
is a popular tourist destination, the most-visited site in Thuringia
Thuringia
after Weimar.[2]:148 It is accessible to visitors and guided tours offer access to the interior of the buildings. In addition, there is a museum in the castle. Children can ride donkeys up the hill. The Festsaal is used regularly for staging the opera Tannhäuser, as well as concerts and other events. There is also a hotel, located right next to the castle, originally built during the castle's reconstruction in the 19th century.[12] Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States of America, visited the Wartburg
Wartburg
castle (as well as the Bach House, May 14, 1998 during his state visit to Germany. "On this beautiful Thuringian day in the spring, we are bathed in the light and the warmth of freedom." Legacy[edit] For centuries, the Wartburg
Wartburg
has been a place of pilgrimage for many people from within and outside Germany, for its significance in German history and in the development of Christianity. Several places (especially US towns founded by Lutherans) and a local brand of automobile have been named after the Wartburg. Wartburg College
Wartburg College
in Iowa, United States, is named in commemoration of Martin Luther's receiving refuge at the castle and because of the college's forest location and its Thuringian heritage.[13] Wartburg
Wartburg
Theological Seminary, also located in Iowa
Iowa
was named in commemoration of Wartburg Castle. The Wartburgkreis
Wartburgkreis
is named after the castle, although Wartburg
Wartburg
is located outside the district. Eisenach, originally part of the district, became kreisfrei ("district-free") in 1998. Notes[edit]

^ Reported by Hilmar Schwartz, in Die Ludowinger. Aufstieg und Fall des ersten thüringischen Landgrafengeschlechts ( Wartburg-Stiftung: Eisenach) 1993. Though the source reports the incident, it states that written records cannot be found to that effect. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Stahn, Dina (2009). Thüringen (German). Karl Baedeker Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8297-1175-3.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-03-08. Retrieved 2011-01-16.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of the Wartburg". Wartburg-Stiftung. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/histhw/stadtgeschichte/english/Vogelweide.html Retrieved 5 March 2008, Wartburg-battle ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/269/000103957/ Retrieved 5 March 2008, Wartburg-Krieg ^ http://www.stelizabethaiea.org/stelizabeth.htm Retrieved 5 March 2008, St Elisabeth on the Wartburg ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Schuchardt, Günther (2009). Welterbe Wartburg (German). Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg. ISBN 978-3-7954-4060-2.  ^ http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/erbe_fritz_d._1548 Retrieved 29 March 2012, Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online: Erbe, Fritz ^ http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=897 for its citation as an outstanding monument of the feudal period in central Europe ^ "Investor verzichtet auf Windkraftprojekt nahe Wartburg(German)". MDR Thüringen. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ "Official Website (uses frames)". Wartburg-Stiftung. Retrieved 9 July 2014.  ^ "Redirect". Archived from the original on 2009-04-10. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wartburg.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Wartburg, The.

v t e

Martin Luther

Works (hymns)

Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
(1517) Sermon on Indulgences and Grace
Sermon on Indulgences and Grace
(1518) To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520) On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
(1520) On the Freedom of a Christian (1520) Against Henry, King of the English (1522) Luther Bible
Luther Bible
(1522, 1534) The Adoration of the Sacrament (1523) Formula missae (1523) Hymns

First Lutheran hymnal
First Lutheran hymnal
(1524) Erfurt Enchiridion (1524) Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
(1524)

Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants (1525) On the Bondage of the Will
On the Bondage of the Will
(1525) The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics (1526) Deutsche Messe
Deutsche Messe
(1526) Confession Concerning Christ's Supper (1528) On War Against the Turk (1529) Small Catechism (1529) Large Catechism (1529) "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (1529) Smalcald Articles
Smalcald Articles
(1537) On the Councils and the Church (1539) "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (1543) On the Jews and Their Lies
On the Jews and Their Lies
(1543) Vom Schem Hamphoras
Vom Schem Hamphoras
(1543) List of hymns by Martin Luther Luther's Table Talk
Talk
(1566) Weimar
Weimar
edition of Luther's works

Topics and events

Reformation Lutheranism Heidelberg Disputation, 1518 Leipzig Debate, 1519 Exsurge Domine, 1520 Diet of Worms, 1521 Decet Romanum Pontificem, 1521 Marburg
Marburg
Colloquy, 1529 Augsburg Confession, 1530 Luther's canon Theology of Martin Luther

Theology of the Cross Universal priesthood Sola scriptura Two kingdoms Law and Gospel Marian theology

Eucharist in Lutheranism

Sacramental union Words of Institution

Antisemitism Propaganda during the Reformation Die Lügend von S. Johanne Chrysostomo (1537 edition)

People

Hans and Margarethe Luther (parents) Katharina von Bora
Katharina von Bora
(wife) Magdalena Luther
Magdalena Luther
(daughter) Paul Luther
Paul Luther
(son) Albert of Brandenburg Bartholomaeus Arnoldi Erasmus Georg Rörer Johann Cochlaeus Johann von Staupitz Justus Jonas Karl von Miltitz Andreas Karlstadt Philip Melanchthon Pope Leo X Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick the Wise

Luther sites

All Saints' Church, Wittenberg Lutherhaus Lutherstädte Martin Luther's Birth House Martin Luther's Death House Melanchthonhaus (Wittenberg) St. Augustine's Monastery Veste Coburg
Veste Coburg
(Fortress) Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle

Film and theatre

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1923 film) Luther (1928 film) Luther (1964 film) Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1953 film) Luther (1973 film) Martin Luther, Heretic (1983 film) Luther (2003 film) Luther (1961 play)

Related

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
bibliography Book:Martin Luther Luther rose Theologia Germanica

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Germany

For official site names, see each article or the List of World Heritage Sites in Germany.

Northern

Fagus Factory
Fagus Factory
in Alfeld Berlin Modernism Housing Estates Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar
Goslar
and Upper Harz Water Management System Speicherstadt
Speicherstadt
and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus
Chilehaus
in Hamburg St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim Hanseatic City of Lübeck Historic Centres of Stralsund
Stralsund
and Wismar

Central

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and its Sites in Weimar
Weimar
and Dessau Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz Dresden Elbe Valley
Dresden Elbe Valley
(delisted in 2009) Luther Memorials in Eisleben
Eisleben
and Wittenberg Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski1 Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle Classical Weimar

Western

Aachen Cathedral Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey Cologne Cathedral Upper Middle Rhine Valley Speyer Cathedral Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier Völklingen Ironworks Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
in Essen

Southern

Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
(Weissenhof Estate) Town of Bamberg Frontiers of the Roman Empire:2 Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Maulbronn Monastery
Maulbronn Monastery
Complex Margravial Opera House Old Town of Regensburg
Regensburg
with Stadtamhof Monastic Island of Reichenau Pilgrimage Church of Wies Würzburg Residence
Würzburg Residence
with the Court Gardens and Residence Square Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura

Natural

Ancient Beech Forests4 Messel Pit Fossil Site Wadden Sea5

1 Shared with Poland 2 Shared with the United Kingdom 3 Shared with Austria, France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland 4 Shared with Slovakia and Ukraine 5 Shared with the Netherlands and Denmark

Coordinates: 50°57′58″N 10°18′23″E / 50.9662°N 10.3065°E / 50.9662; 10.3065

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 243482353 LCCN: sh89004664 GND: 4122665-3 BNF:

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