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The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[1] was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland
Poland
among the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
during the Cold War. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany
West Germany
into NATO[2][3][4][5] in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954,[6][7][8][9][10] but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.[11] The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was established as a balance of power[12] or counterweight[13] to NATO; there was no direct confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO
NATO
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[13] Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania
Romania
and East Germany),[12] which, in part, resulted in Albania
Albania
withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland[14] and its electoral success in June 1989. East Germany
East Germany
withdrew from the Pact in 1990. On 25 February 1991, the Pact was declared at an end at a meeting of defence and foreign ministers from the six remaining member states in Hungary. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO
NATO
(East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech and Slovak republics as separate countries).

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Structure 3 Strategy 4 History

4.1 Beginnings 4.2 Members 4.3 During Cold War 4.4 End of the Cold War

5 Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Works cited

9 Further reading

9.1 Other languages 9.2 Memoirs

10 External links

Nomenclature[edit]

Soviet philatelic commemoration: At its 20th anniversary in 1975, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact remains On Guard for Peace and Socialism.

In the Western Bloc, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, Warpac and WP. Elsewhere, in the former member states, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty is known as:

Albanian: Pakti i miqësisë, bashkëpunimit dhe i ndihmës së përbashkët Belarusian: Дагавор аб дружбе, супрацоўніцтве і ўзаемнай дапамозе

Romanized Belarusian: Dagavor ab druzhe, supratsoŭnitstve i ŭzaemnaŭ dapamoze

Bulgarian: Договор за дружба, сътрудничество и взаимопомощ

Romanized Bulgarian: Dogovor za druzhba, satrudnichestvo i vzaimopomosht

Czech: Smlouva o přátelství, spolupráci a vzájemné pomoci Slovak: Zmluva o priateľstve, spolupráci a vzájomnej pomoci German: Vertrag über Freundschaft, Zusammenarbeit und gegenseitigen Beistand Hungarian: Barátsági, együttműködési és kölcsönös segítségnyújtási szerződés Polish: Układ o przyjaźni, współpracy i pomocy wzajemnej Romanian: Tratatul de prietenie, cooperare și asistență mutuală Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи

Romanized Russian: Dogovor o druzhbe, sotrudnichestve i vzaimnoy pomoshchi

Ukrainian: Договір про дружбу, співробітництво і взаємну допомогу

Romanized Ukrainian: Dogovir pro druzhbu, spivrobitnitstvo i vzaêmnu dopomogu

Structure[edit] The Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty's organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland. Furthermore, the Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization which commanded and controlled all the military forces of the member countries was also a First Deputy Minister of Defence of the USSR, and the Chief of Combined Staff of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization was also a First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty armed forces.[15] Strategy[edit] The strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets wanted to keep their part of Europe theirs and not let the Americans take it from them. This policy was driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
arrogated the right to define socialism and communism and act as the leader of the global socialist movement. A corollary to this idea was the necessity of intervention if a country appeared to be violating core socialist ideas and Communist Party functions, which was explicitly stated in the Brezhnev Doctrine.[16] Geostrategic principles also drove the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with the desire to create a buffer zone to prevent invasion of its territory by Western European powers. History[edit] Beginnings[edit]

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The Cold War
Cold War
(1945–90): NATO
NATO
(blue) vs. the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (red), the status of forces in 1973

Before the creation of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany
East Germany
and Poland.[9] These states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany.[17] The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany
Germany
inside NATO. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared Germany
Germany
being once again a military power and a direct threat. The terrible consequences of German militarism remained a fresh memory among the Soviets and Eastern Europeans.[3][4][18][19][20] As the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
already had bilateral treaties with all of its eastern satellites, the Pact has been long considered 'superfluous',[21] and because of the rushed way in which it was conceived, NATO
NATO
officials labeled it as a 'cardboard castle'.[22] Previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German militarism in West Germany, requested admission to NATO.[23][24][25] The Soviet request to join NATO
NATO
arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. Soviet foreign minister Molotov made proposals to have Germany
Germany
reunified[26] and elections for a pan-German government,[27] under conditions of withdrawal of the four powers' armies and German neutrality,[28] but all were refused by the other foreign ministers, Dulles (USA), Eden (UK) and Bidault (France).[29] Proposals for the reunification of Germany
Germany
were nothing new: earlier on 20 March 1952, talks about a German reunification, initiated by the so-called 'Stalin Note', ended after the United Kingdom, France
France
and the United States
United States
insisted that a unified Germany should not be neutral and should be free to join the European Defence Community and rearm. James Dunn (USA), who met in Paris
Paris
with Eden, Adenauer and Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
(France), affirmed that "the object should be to avoid discussion with the Russians and to press on the European Defense Community".[30] According to John Gaddis "there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer" from USSR.[31] While historian Rolf Steininger asserts that Adenauer's conviction that "neutralization means sovietization" was the main factor in the rejection of the Soviet proposals,[32] Adenauer also feared that German unification might have resulted in the end of the CDU's dominance in the West German Bundestag.[33] Consequently, Molotov, fearing that the EDC would be directed in the future against the USSR and "seeking to prevent the formation of groups of European States directed against other European States",[34] made a proposal for a General European Treaty on Collective Security in Europe "open to all European States without regard as to their social systems"[34] which would have included the unified Germany (thus making the EDC – perceived by the USSR as a threat – unusable). But Eden, Dulles and Bidault opposed the proposal.[35] One month later, the proposed European Treaty was rejected not only by supporters of the EDC but also by Western opponents of the European Defence Community (like French Gaullist
Gaullist
leader Palewski) who perceived it as "unacceptable in its present form because it excludes the USA from participation in the collective security system in Europe".[36] The Soviets then decided to make a new proposal to the governments of the USA, UK and France
France
to accept the participation of the USA in the proposed General European Agreement.[36] And considering that another argument deployed against the Soviet proposal was that it was perceived by Western powers as "directed against the North Atlantic Pact and its liquidation",[36][37] the Soviets decided to declare their "readiness to examine jointly with other interested parties the question of the participation of the USSR in the North Atlantic bloc", specifying that "the admittance of the USA into the General European Agreement should not be conditional on the three Western powers agreeing to the USSR joining the North Atlantic Pact".[36] Again all proposals, including the request to join NATO, were rejected by the UK, US and French governments shortly after.[25][38] Emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, supporter of NATO expansion, who said that NATO
NATO
"must grow until the whole free world gets under one umbrella."[39][incomplete short citation] He opposed the request to join NATO
NATO
made by the USSR in 1954[40] saying that "the Soviet request to join NATO
NATO
is like an unrepentant burglar requesting to join the police force".[41] In April 1954 Adenauer made his first visit to the USA meeting Nixon, Eisenhower and Dulles. Ratification of EDC was delaying but the US representatives made it clear to Adenauer that EDC would have to become a part of NATO.[42] Memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and the rearmament of Germany
Germany
was feared by France
France
too.[4][43] On 30 August 1954 French Parliament rejected the EDC, thus ensuring its failure[44] and blocking a major objective of US policy towards Europe: to associate Germany
Germany
militarily with the West.[45] The US Department of State started to elaborate alternatives: Germany
Germany
would be invited to join NATO
NATO
or, in the case of French obstructionism, strategies to circumvent a French veto would be implemented in order to obtain a German rearmament outside NATO.[46] On 23 October 1954 – only nine years after Allies (UK, USA and USSR) defeated Nazi Germany
Germany
ending World War II
World War II
in Europe – the admission of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
to the North Atlantic Pact was finally decided. The incorporation of West Germany
West Germany
into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Affairs Minister of Norway at the time.[47] In November 1954, the USSR requested a new European Security Treaty,[48] in order to make a final attempt to not have a remilitarized West Germany
West Germany
potentially opposed to the Soviet Union, with no success.

Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact "Big Seven" threats

On 14 May 1955, the USSR and other seven European countries "reaffirming their desire for the establishment of a system of European collective security based on the participation of all European states irrespective of their social and political systems"[49] established the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact in response to the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
into NATO,[3][5] declaring that: "a remilitarized Western Germany
Germany
and the integration of the latter in the North-Atlantic bloc [...] increase the danger of another war and constitutes a threat to the national security of the peaceable states; [...] in these circumstances the peaceable European states must take the necessary measures to safeguard their security".[49] One of the founding members, East Germany
East Germany
was allowed to re-arm by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the National People's Army
National People's Army
was established as the armed forces of the country to counter the rearmament of West Germany. Members[edit]

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The eight member countries of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact pledged the mutual defence of any member who would be attacked. Relations among the treaty signatories were based upon mutual non-intervention in the internal affairs of the member countries, respect for national sovereignty, and political independence. However, almost all governments of those member states were indirectly controlled by the Soviet Union. The founding signatories to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance consisted of the following communist governments:

People's Republic of Albania
Albania
(withheld support in 1961 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, formally withdrew in 1968) People's Republic of Bulgaria Czechoslovak Republic ( Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
from 1960) German Democratic Republic (withdrew on 2 October 1990 after dissolution of state) Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Romanian People's Republic (from 1965 the Socialist Republic of Romania) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

In July 1963 the Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic
asked to join the Warsaw Pact under Article 9 of the treaty. Due to the emerging Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia remained on observer status. The Soviet Government agreed to station troops in Mongolia in 1966.[citation needed] During Cold War[edit] Main article: Cold War

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For 36 years, NATO
NATO
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact never directly waged war against each other in Europe; the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union and their respective allies implemented strategic policies aimed at the containment of each other in Europe, while working and fighting for influence within the wider Cold War
Cold War
on the international stage. These included the Korean War, Vietnam
Vietnam
War, Bay of Pigs invasion, Dirty War, Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
and the others. In 1956, following the declaration of the Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
government of withdrawal of Hungary
Hungary
from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, Soviet troops entered the country and removed the government. Soviet forces crushed the nationwide revolt, leading to the death of an estimated 2,500 Hungarian citizens. The multi-national Communist armed forces' sole joint action was the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the Socialist Republic of Romania
Romania
and the People's Republic of Albania, participated in the invasion. End of the Cold War[edit] Beginning at the Cold War's conclusion, in late 1989, popular civil and political public discontent forced the Communist governments of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty countries from power, while independent national politics made feasible with the perestroika and glasnost induced institutional collapse of Communist government in the USSR.[50] Between 1989 and 1991, Communist governments were overthrown in Albania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Soviet Union. On 25 February 1991, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was declared disbanded at a meeting of defence and foreign ministers from remaining Pact countries meeting in Hungary.[51] On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel
Václav Havel
formally ended the 1955 Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance and so disestablished the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty after 36 years of military alliance with the USSR.[52] In fact, the treaty was de facto disbanded in December 1989 during the violent revolution in Romania, which toppled the communist government, without military intervention from other member states.[citation needed] The USSR disestablished itself in December 1991. Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty[edit]

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On 12 March 1999, the Czech Republic, Hungary
Hungary
and Poland
Poland
joined NATO; Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania
Romania
and Slovakia
Slovakia
joined in March 2004; Albania
Albania
joined on 1 April 2009. Russia and some other post-USSR states joined in the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in 1992, or the Shanghai Five
Shanghai Five
in 1996 (renamed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
(SCO) after Uzbekistan's addition in 2001). In November 2005, the Polish government opened its Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty archives to the Institute of National Remembrance, who published some 1,300 declassified documents in January 2006. Yet the Polish government reserved publication of 100 documents, pending their military declassification. Eventually, 30 of the reserved 100 documents were published; 70 remained secret and unpublished. Among the documents published is the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty's nuclear war plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine – a short, swift counter-attack capturing Austria, Denmark, Germany
Germany
and Netherlands east of River Rhine, using nuclear weapons, in self-defence, after a NATO
NATO
first strike. The plan originated as a 1979 field training exercise war game and metamorphosed into official Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty battle doctrine, until the late 1980s – which is why the People's Republic of Poland
Poland
was a nuclear weapons base, first, to 178, then, to 250 tactical-range rockets. Doctrinally, as a Soviet-style (offensive) battle plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine gave commanders few defensive-war strategies for fighting NATO
NATO
in Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty territory.[citation needed] Gallery[edit]

Badge Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. Union of peace and socialism

Badge Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. Brothers in arms (1970)

Badge A participant in joint exercises of Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact "STIT" (1972)

Badge 25 years Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (1980)

Badge Air Forces Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact

Badge Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. The participants of the joint exercises in Bulgaria (1982)

Jubilee badge 30 years of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (1985)

See also[edit]

Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) - Modern military alliance between former Soviet states. Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
(SCO) - Modern Eurasian political, economic and military organization.

References[edit]

^ "Text of Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 22 August 2013.  ^ Yost, David S. (1998). NATO
NATO
Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press. p. 31. ISBN 1-878379-81-X.  ^ a b c "Formation of Nato and Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact". History Channel. Retrieved 22 December 2015.  ^ a b c "The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact is formed". History Channel. Retrieved 22 December 2015.  ^ a b "In reaction to West Germany's NATO
NATO
accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO
NATO
website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Retrieved 24 December 2015.  ^ Broadhurst, Arlene Idol (1982). The Future of European Alliance Systems. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86531-413-6.  ^ Christopher Cook, Dictionary of Historical Terms (1983) ^ The Columbia Enclopedia, fifth edition (1993) p. 2926 ^ a b The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11.02.2015 ^ The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany
Germany
in the Cold War
Cold War
Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO
NATO
were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO" ^ " Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact: Wartime Status-Instruments of Soviet Control". Wilson Center. Retrieved 5 October 2013.  ^ a b Amos Yoder (1993). Communism
Communism
in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5.  ^ a b Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6.  ^ [1] Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001 ^ Fes'kov, V. I.; Kalashnikov, K. A.; Golikov, V. I. (2004). Sovetskai͡a Armii͡a v gody "kholodnoĭ voĭny," 1945–1991 [The Soviet Army in the Cold War
Cold War
Years (1945–1991)]. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publisher. p. 6. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7.  ^ ' 'The Review of Politics Volume' ', 34, No. 2 (April 1972), pp. 190–209 ^ Europa Antoni Czubiński Wydawn. Poznańskie, 1998, page 298 ^ World Politics: The Menu for Choice page 87 Bruce Russett, Harvey Starr, David Kinsella - 2009 The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was established in 1955 as a response to West Germany's entry into NATO; German militarism was still a recent memory among the Soviets and East Europeans. ^ "When the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
entered NATO
NATO
in early May 1955, the Soviets feared the consequences of a strengthened NATO
NATO
and a rearmed West Germany". Citation from: United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. "The Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization, 1955". Office of the Historian. history.state.gov. Retrieved 24 December 2015.  ^ "1955: After objecting to Germany's admission into NATO, the Soviet Union joins Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland
Poland
and Romania
Romania
in forming the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact.". See chronology in:"Fast facts about NATO". CBC News. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 17, 11.02.2015 ^ The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, pag. 1, 11.02.2015 ^ " Soviet Union
Soviet Union
request to join NATO" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ "1954: Soviet Union
Soviet Union
suggests it should join NATO
NATO
to preserve peace in Europe. U.S. and U.K. reject this". See chronology in:"Fast facts about NATO". CBC News. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ a b "Proposal of Soviet adherence to NATO
NATO
as reported in the Foreign Relations of the United States
United States
Collection". UWDC FRUS Library. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Molotov 1954a, p. 197,201. ^ Molotov 1954a, p. 202. ^ Molotov 1954a, p. 197–198, 203, 212. ^ Molotov 1954a, p. 211–212, 216. ^ Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note
Stalin Note
of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 56.  ^ Gaddis, John (1997). We Know Now: Rethinking Cold War
Cold War
History. Clarendon Press. p. 126.  ^ Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note
Stalin Note
of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 80.  ^ Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note
Stalin Note
of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 103.  ^ a b "Draft general European Treaty on collective security in Europe — Molotov proposal (Berlin, 10 February 1954)" (PDF). CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ Molotov 1954a, p. 214. ^ a b c d "MOLOTOV'S PROPOSAL THAT THE USSR JOIN NATO, MARCH 1954". Wilson Center. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ Molotov 1954a, p. 216,. ^ "Final text of tripartite reply to Soviet note" (PDF). Nato website. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Jordan, p. 65. ^ Ian Traynor. "Soviets tried to join Nato in 1954". the Guardian.  ^ "Memo by Lord Ismay, Secretary General of NATO" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Adenauer 1966a, p. 662. ^ "The refusal to ratify the EDC Treaty". CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ "Debates in the French National Assembly on 30 August 1954". CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ "US positions on alternatives to EDC". United States
United States
Department of State / FRUS collection. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ "US positions on german rearmament outside NATO". United States Department of State / FRUS collection. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ " West Germany
West Germany
accepted into Nato". BBC News. 9 May 1955. Retrieved 17 January 2012.  ^ "Indivisible Germany: Illusion or Reality?" James H. Wolfe Springer Science & Business Media, 06.12.2012 page 73 ^ a b "Text of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Security Pact (see preamble)". Avalon Project. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, third edition, 1999, pp. 637–8 ^ " Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact and Comecon
Comecon
To Dissolve This Week". Csmonitor.com. 26 February 1991. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ Havel, Václav (2007). To the Castle and Back. Trans. Paul Wilson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26641-5. 

Works cited[edit]

Adenauer, Konrad (1966a). Memorie 1945–1953 (in Italian). Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. [dead link] Molotov, Vyacheslav (1954a). La conferenza di Berlino (in Italian). Ed. di cultura sociale.   This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

Further reading[edit]

Faringdon, Hugh. Confrontation: the strategic geography of NATO
NATO
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.) Heuser, Beatrice (1998). "Victory in a Nuclear War? A Comparison of NATO
NATO
and WTO War Aims and Strategies". Contemporary European History. 7 (3): 311–327. doi:10.1017/S0960777300004264.  Mackintosh, Malcolm. The evolution of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1969) Kramer, Mark N. "Civil-military relations in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, The East European component," International Affairs, Vol. 61, No. 1, Winter 1984–85. Lewis, William Julian (1982). The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact: Arms, Doctrine, and Strategy. Cambridge, Mass.: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis. ISBN 978-0-07-031746-8.  Mastny, Vojtech; Byrne, Malcolm (2005). A Cardboard Castle ?: An Inside History of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, 1955–1991. Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-7326-07-3. 

A. James McAdams, " East Germany
East Germany
and Detente." Cambridge University Press, 1985. McAdams, A. James. " Germany
Germany
Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993.

Other languages[edit]

Umbach, Frank (2005). Das rote Bündnis: Entwicklung und Zerfall des Warschauer Paktes 1955 bis 1991 (in German). Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86153-362-7.  Wahl, Alfred (2007). La seconda vita del nazismo nella Germania del dopoguerra (in Italian). Torino: Lindau. ISBN 978-88-7180-662-4.  – Original Ed.: Wahl, Alfred (2006). La seconde histoire du nazisme dans l'Allemagne fédérale depuis 1945 (in French). Paris: Armand Colin. ISBN 2-200-26844-0. 

Memoirs[edit]

Adenauer, Konrad (1966b). Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Memoirs 1945–53. Henry Regnery Company.  Molotov, Vyacheslav (1954b). Statements at Berlin Conference of Foreign Ministers of U.S.S.R., France, Great Britain and U.S.A., January 25-February 18, 1954. Foreign Languages Publishing House. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact.

"What was the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact?". North Atlantic Treaty Organization.  The Woodrow Wilson Center Cold War
Cold War
International History Project's Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Document Collection Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series / Soviet Union
Soviet Union
/ Appendix C: The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (1989) Map of Russia and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (omniatlas.com) Map of Europe and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (omniatlas.com) The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, 1955-1968. by Hugh Collins Embry. Contain extensive documentation of the Pacts first 13 years.

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Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague
Prague
Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen- South Yemen
South Yemen
Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen
South Yemen
Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Countries of Eastern and Central Europe during their Communist period

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Yugoslavia

Soviet Russia / Soviet Union: 1917–27 1927–53 1953–64 1964–82 1982–91

Byelorussia Ukraine

Eastern Bloc Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Comecon

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic of Albania
Albania
(to 1961) People's Republic of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague Spring
Prague Spring
/ Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
1972 unrest in Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

v t e

Treaties of Hungary

9–10th century (age of Magyars)

Legend of the white horse (894)

1000–1301 (Árpád dynasty)

Personal union of Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia (1102) Hungarian–Byzantine Treaties (1153–1167) Treaty of Pressburg (1271)

1302–1526 (Middle ages to Tripartition)

Treaty of Enns (1336) Hungarian–Lithuanian Treaty (1351) Hungarian–Neapolitan Treaty (1352) Treaty of Zara
Treaty of Zara
(1358) Treaty of Lubowla
Treaty of Lubowla
(1412) Peace of Szeged
Peace of Szeged
(1444) Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt
Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt
(1463) Treaty of Ófalu
Treaty of Ófalu
(1474) Treaty of Brno (1478) Treaty of Piotrków (1479) Peace of Olomouc
Peace of Olomouc
(1479) Treaty of Pressburg (1491) First Congress of Vienna
First Congress of Vienna
(1515)

Dual reign, Ottoman vassalship, reconquest and Napoleonic Wars (1526–1848)

Franco-Hungarian alliance
Franco-Hungarian alliance
(1526) Treaty of Nagyvárad
Treaty of Nagyvárad
(1538) Treaty of Gyalu
Treaty of Gyalu
(1541) Confessio Pentapolitana
Pentapolitana
(1549) Treaty of Speyer (1570) Treaty of Szatmár
Treaty of Szatmár
(1711)

1526-1848 (Royal Hungary
Hungary
to Independence)

Truce of Adrianople (1547) Treaty of Adrianople (1568) Treaty of Vienna (1606) Peace of Zsitvatorok
Peace of Zsitvatorok
(1606) Peace of Vasvár
Peace of Vasvár
(1664) Holy League (1684) Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
(1699) Treaty of Passarowitz
Treaty of Passarowitz
(1718) Pragmatic Sanction (1723) Treaty of Belgrade
Treaty of Belgrade
(1739) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) First Partition of Poland
Poland
(1772) Treaty of Sistova
Treaty of Sistova
(1791) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(1797) Treaty of Schönbrunn
Treaty of Schönbrunn
(1809) Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1815)

(1570–1711) (Principality of Transylvania)

Peace of Nikolsburg
Peace of Nikolsburg
(1621) Treaty of Pressburg (1626) Treaty of Nymwegen (1679)

Austria- Hungary
Hungary
to the end of World War I
World War I
(1848–1922)

Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
(1868) League of the Three Emperors
League of the Three Emperors
(1873) Treaty of Bern (1874) Reichstadt Agreement
Reichstadt Agreement
(1876) Budapest Convention of 1877 (1877) Treaty of Berlin (1878) Dual Alliance (1879) Triple Alliance (1882) Boxer Protocol
Boxer Protocol
(1901) Treaty of London (1913) Armistice of Focșani (1917) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Ukraine (1918) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Treaty of Bucharest (1918) Armistice of Villa Giusti
Armistice of Villa Giusti
(1918) Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
(1920) Armistice with Romania
Romania
(1920) Bill of dethronement (1921) U.S.–Hungarian Peace Treaty (1921) Covenant of the League of Nations
Covenant of the League of Nations
(1922)

Modern age (1922–)

Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1922–46) Paris
Paris
Peace Treaties, 1947 Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic
Hungarian People's Republic
(1949–89) Treaties of the Third Republic of Hungary
Hungary
(1989–)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130896299 LCCN: n50002351 ISNI: 0000 0001 2158 1586 GND: 14767-9 SUDOC: 026397188 BNF: cb11865226c (data) NDL: 00574154

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