English Parliamentary Army victory over all other protagonists
* Execution of King Charles I * Exile of Charles II * Defeat of the Irish Confederates * Defeat of the Scottish Covenanters * English Parliament reduced to a Rump * Establishment of the republican Commonwealth
English, Scottish and Irish Royalists Scottish Covenanters Irish Confederates Irish Protestants English Parliamentarians
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
* Charles I * Prince Rupert * Charles II * Marquis of Montrose (in Scotland)
* Marquis of Argyll * David Leslie
* Confederate Supreme Council * Owen Roe O\'Neill (in Ulster) * Thomas Preston (in Leinster) * Garret Barry (in Munster) * John Burke (in Connacht) * Edmund O'Dwyer (in Munster)
* Earl of Inchiquin * Duke of Ormonde
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
50,000 English and Welsh 34,000
127,000 noncombat English and Welsh deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)
* v * t * e
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
* Bishops\' Wars • Irish Confederate Wars • English Civil Wars (First • Second • Third ) • Scottish Civil War • Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
The WARS OF THE THREE KINGDOMS, sometimes known as the BRITISH CIVIL WARS, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England , Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651. The English Civil War proper has become the best-known of these conflicts and included the execution of the kingdoms' monarch, Charles I , by the English parliament in 1649.
The history of these wars is often extended to include the uprisings
and conflicts that continued through the 1650s until the English
Restoration of the monarchy with Charles II , in 1660, and sometimes
until Venner\'s uprising the following year. The wars were the outcome
of tensions over religious and civil issues. Religious disputes
centred on whether religion was to be dictated by the monarch or the
choice of the individual, with many people feeling that they ought to
have freedom of religion. The related civil questions were to what
extent the king's rule was constrained by parliaments—in particular
his right to raise taxes and armed forces without consent.
Furthermore, the wars also had an element of national conflict, as
Ireland and Scotland rebelled against England's primacy within the
Three Kingdoms. The victory of the English Parliament —ultimately
The wars included the Bishops\' Wars of 1639 and 1640, the Scottish Civil War of 1644–45; the Irish Rebellion of 1641 , Confederate Ireland , 1642–49 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 (collectively the Eleven Years War or Irish Confederate Wars ); and the First , Second and Third English Civil Wars of 1642–46, 1648–49 and 1650–51.
* 1 Background
* 1.1 General * 1.2 Scotland * 1.3 England * 1.4 Ireland
* 2 Wars * 3 Aftermath * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Since 1541, monarchs of England had also styled their Irish territory
as a Kingdom (ruled with the assistance of a separate Irish Parliament
English Reformation , King Henry VIII made himself head of
Church of England
Kingdom of Scotland
The personal union of the three kingdoms under one monarch came about when King James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth to the English throne in 1603. When Charles I succeeded his father, he had three main concerns regarding England and Wales: how to fund his government, how to limit parliament's interference in his rule and how to reform the church. He showed little interest in his other two kingdoms, Scotland and Ireland.
See also: Bishops\' Wars The spark - the riot in St Giles\' Cathedral , Edinburgh, reputedly started by Jenny Geddes
James VI remained Protestant, taking care to maintain his hopes of
succession to the English throne. He duly became
James I of England in
1603 and moved to London. His diplomatic and political skills now
concentrated fully in dealing with the English Court and Parliament at
the same time as running Scotland by writing to the Privy Council of
Scotland and controlling the
Parliament of Scotland through the Lords
of the Articles . He stopped the Scottish General Assembly from
meeting, then increased the number of Scottish bishops. In 1618 he
held a General Assembly and pushed through Five Articles of
Episcopalian practices that were widely boycotted. In 1625, he was
succeeded by his son Charles I, who was less skillful or restrained.
He was crowned in
St Giles Cathedral
See also the English Civil War (Background ).
Charles shared his father's belief in the
Divine Right of Kings , and
his assertion of this led to a serious breach between the Crown and
the English Parliament. While the
Church of England
The English Parliament also had repeated disputes with the king over such subjects as taxation, military expenditure and the role of parliament in government. While James I had held the same opinions as his son with regard to royal prerogatives , he had enough charisma to persuade the Parliament to accept his policies. Charles did not have this skill in human management and so, when faced with a crisis in 1639–42, he failed to prevent his Kingdoms from sliding into civil war. When Charles approached the Parliament to pay for a campaign against the Scots, they refused, declared themselves to be permanently in session and put forward a long list of civil and religious grievances that Charles would have to remedy before they approved any new legislation.
Meanwhile, in the Kingdom of Ireland (proclaimed such in 1541 but only fully conquered for the Crown in 1603), tensions had also begun to mount. Charles I's Lord Deputy there, Thomas Wentworth , had antagonised the native Irish Catholics by repeated initiatives to confiscate their lands and grant them to English colonists. He had also angered Roman Catholics by enforcing new taxes but denying them full rights as subjects. This situation became explosive in 1639 when Wentworth offered the Irish Catholics the reforms they had desired in return for them raising and paying for an Irish army to put down the Scottish rebellion. Although plans called for an army with Protestant officers, the idea of an Irish Catholic army enforcing what many saw as tyrannical government horrified both the Scottish and the English Parliaments, who in response threatened to invade Ireland.
Modern historians have emphasised the lack of the inevitability of the civil wars, pointing out that all sides resorted to violence in a situation marked by mutual distrust and paranoia. Charles' initial failure to bring the Bishops\' Wars to a quick end also made other discontented groups feel that force could serve to get what they wanted.
Alienated by English Protestant domination and frightened by the rhetoric of the English and Scottish Parliaments, a small group of Irish conspirators launched the Irish Rebellion of 1641 , ostensibly in support of the "King's Rights". The rising featured widespread assaults on the Protestant communities in Ireland, sometimes culminating in massacres. Rumours spread in England and Scotland that the killings had the king's sanction and that this foreshadowed their own fate if the king's Irish troops landed in Britain. As a result, the English Parliament refused to pay for a royal army to put down the rebellion in Ireland and instead raised their own armed forces. The king did likewise, rallying those Royalists (some of them members of Parliament) who believed that loyalty to the legitimate king outweighed other important political principles. The English and Scots armies lovingly embrace each other
English Civil War broke out in 1642. The
Scottish Covenanters (as
the Presbyterians called themselves) sided with the English
Parliament, joined the war in 1643 and played a major role in the
English Parliamentary victory. The king's forces found themselves
ground down by the efficiency of Parliament's
New Model Army —backed
by the financial muscle of the
City of London
In Ireland, the rebel Irish Catholics formed their own government— Confederate Ireland —with the intention of helping the Royalists in return for religious toleration and political autonomy. Troops from England and Scotland fought in Ireland, and Irish Confederate troops mounted an expedition to Scotland in 1644, sparking the Scottish Civil War . In Scotland, the Royalists had a series of victories in 1644–45, but were crushed with the end of the first English Civil War and the return of the main Covenanter armies to Scotland.
Charles I was handed over to the English by the Scots when they
returned to Scotland as part of the conditions for the English
Parliament paying the Scots a large sum of money to help pay for the
cost of their English campaign. From his surrender until the outbreak
of the Second Civil War the Scots, the Presbyterians in the English
Parliament and the Grandees of the
New Model Army all negotiated with
Charles and with each other to try to reach an accommodation. The
breach between the
New Model Army and Parliament widened day by day
until finally the
New Model Army vanquished the English Royalists as well as their
Engager allies. Subsequently the Grandees and their civilian
supporters were unable to reconcile themselves with king or the
After the execution of King Charles I the
Rump Parliament passed a
series of acts making England a republic with the House of Commons
(sitting without the House of Lords) as the legislature and a Council
of State as the executive power. In the other two kingdoms the
execution of King Charles I caused the warring parties in those two
kingdoms to unite and recognise Charles II as king of Great Britain,
To deal with the threat that the two kingdoms posed to the English
Rump Parliament sent a parliamentary army under
Cromwell to invade and subdue Ireland. Cromwell and his army proceeded
to do this. At the end of May 1650 Cromwell left Ireland (leaving the
English army in Ireland to continue the conquest ) and returned to
England to take command of an English army which shortly afterwards
invaded Scotland and defeated a
Covenanter army at the Battle of
Dunbar on 3 September 1650. His army then proceeded to occupy
The Royalist army failed to gather much support from English
Royalists; so, instead of heading straight for London and certain
defeat, Charles went to
Following the defeat of all the opponents of the English
Parliamentary New Model Army, the Grandees of the army and their
civilian supporters dominated the politics of all three nations for
the next nine years (see
Interregnum (1649–1660) ). The Rump
Parliament had decreed that England was a Commonwealth , and although
Ireland and Scotland were ruled by military governors, representatives
of constituencies in Ireland and Scotland sat in the English
parliaments of the Protectorate . With the death of the Lord Protector
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
* after the execution of King Charles I for high treason , no future British monarch could expect that his subjects would tolerate perceived despotism ; * the excesses of the New Model Army, particularly that of the Rule of the Major-Generals , left an abiding mistrust of military rule in England.
English Protestants experienced religious freedom during the
Interregnum , but not English Roman Catholics. The new authorities
Church of England
The New Model Army occupied Ireland and Scotland during the Interregnum. In Ireland, the new government confiscated almost all lands belonging to Irish Catholics as punishment for the rebellion of 1641; harsh Penal Laws also restricted this community. Thousands of Parliamentarian soldiers settled in Ireland on confiscated lands. The Commonwealth abolished the Parliaments of Ireland and Scotland. In theory, these countries had representation in the English Parliament, but since this body never received real powers, such representation remained ineffective. When Cromwell died in 1658 the Commonwealth fell apart without major violence, and Charles II returned as King of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1660.
Under the English Restoration , the political system returned to the constitutional position of before the wars. The new régime executed or imprisoned for life those responsible for the regicide of Charles I. Royalists dug up Cromwell's corpse and gave it a posthumous execution . The religious and political radicals who were held responsible for the wars suffered harsh repression. Scotland and Ireland regained their Parliaments, some Irish retrieved confiscated lands, and the New Model Army disbanded. However, the issues that had caused the wars—religion, the power of Parliament and the relationship between the three kingdoms—remained unresolved, only postponed to re-emerge as matters fought over again in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Only after this point did the features of modern Britain seen in the civil wars emerge permanently: a Protestant constitutional monarchy with England dominant, and a strong standing army .
* ^ Ian Gentles, citing John Morrill, states, "there is no stable,
agreed title for the events.... They have been variously labeled the
Great Rebellion, the
* ^ A B "ENGLISH CIVIL WARS".
History.com . Retrieved 4 October
* ^ Second and third English Civil Wars, "While it is notoriously
difficult to determine the number of casualties in any war, it has
been estimated that the conflict in England and
* Atkinson, Charles Francis (1911), "Great Rebellion", in Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica , 12 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 403–421 * Carlton, Charles (1994) , Going to the wars: the experience of the British civil wars, 1638–1651, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-10391-6 . * Gentles, Ian (2007), "The English Revolution and the Wars in the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1652", in Scott, H. M.; Collins, B. W., Modern Wars in Perspective, Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman * Gaunt, Peter (1997), The British Wars 1637–1651, UK: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12966-4 . An 88-page pamphlet. * Jane, Lionel Cecil (1905), The coming of Parliament; England from 1350 to 1660, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons etc, pp. 376–377 * Raymond, Joad (2005), The invention of the newspaper: English newsbooks, 1641–1649, Oxford University Press, p. 281, ISBN 9780199282340 * Royle, Trevor (2004), Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, UK: Little Brown, ISBN 0-316-86125-1 alternatively The British Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1660, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, ISBN 0-312-29293-7 * Worden, Blair (1986), Stuart England (illustrated ed.), Phaidon
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND
* Bennett, Martyn (1997). The Civil Wars in Britain and Ireland, 1638–1651. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19154-2 . * Bennett, Martyn (2000). The Civil Wars Experienced: Britain and Ireland, 1638–1661. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15901-6 . * Kenyon, John; Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (1998). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1638–1660. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866222-X . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Russell, Conrad (1991). The Fall of the British Monarchies, 1637–1642. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822754-X . * Stevenson, David (1981). Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates: Scottish-Irish Relations in the Mid-Seventeenth Century. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation. ISBN 0-901905-24-0 . * Young, John R. (ed.) (1997). Celtic Dimensions of the British Civil Wars. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-452-4 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Aylmer, G. E. (1986). Rebellion or Revolution?: England, 1640–1660. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-219179-9 . * Hill, Christopher (1972). The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution. London: Temple Smith. ISBN 0-85117-025-0 . * Morrill, John (ed.) (1991). The Impact of the English Civil War. London: Collins & Brown. ISBN 1-85585-042-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Woolrych, Austin (2000) . Battles of the English Civil War. London: Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-175-8 . * Worden, Blair (2009). The English Civil Wars: 1640–1660. London: W&N. ISBN 978-0297848882 .
* Lenihan, Pádraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War, 1641–1649. Cork: Cork University Press. ISBN 1-85918-244-5 . * Ó hAnnracháin, Tadhg (2002). Catholic Reformation in Ireland: The Mission of Rinuccini, 1645–1649. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820891-X . * Ó Siochrú, Micheál (1999). Confederate Ireland, 1642–1649: A Constitutional and Political Analysis. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-400-6 . * Ó Siochrú, Micheál (ed.) (2001). Kingdoms in Crisis: Ireland in the 1640s. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-535-5 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Perceval-Maxwell, M. (1994). The Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 0-7171-2173-9 . * Wheeler, James Scott (1999). Cromwell in Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 0-7171-2884-9 .
* Stevenson, David (1973). The Scottish Revolution, 1637–1644: The Triumph of the Covenanters. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-6302-6 . * Stevenson, David (1980). Alasdair MacColla and the Highland Problem in the Seventeenth Century. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-055-3 .
* www.british-civil-wars.co.uk Extensive site on the Wars of the Three Kingdoms *