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Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1986. Born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Burger graduated from the St. Paul College of Law in 1931. He helped secure the Minnesota
Minnesota
delegation's support for Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
at the 1952 Republican National Convention. After Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election, he appointed Burger to the position of Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Civil Division. In 1956, Eisenhower appointed Burger to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Burger served on this court until 1969 and became known as a critic of the Warren Court. In 1969, President
President
Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
nominated Burger to succeed Chief Justice Earl Warren, and Burger won Senate confirmation. He did not emerge as a strong intellectual force on the court, but sought to improve the administration of the federal judiciary. He also helped establish the National Center for State Courts
National Center for State Courts
and the Supreme Court Historical Society. Burger remained on the court until his retirement in 1986, when he became Chairman of the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. He was succeeded as Chief Justice by William H. Rehnquist, who had served as an Associate Justice since 1971. In 1974, Burger wrote for a unanimous court in United States v. Nixon, which rejected Nixon's invocation of executive privilege in the wake of the Watergate scandal. The ruling played a major role in Nixon's resignation. Burger joined the majority in Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
in holding that the right to privacy prohibited states from banning abortions. He later abandoned Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
in Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. His majority opinion in INS v. Chadha struck down the legislative veto. Although Burger was a conservative,[1] and the Burger Court
Burger Court
delivered numerous conservative decisions, it also delivered some liberal decisions regarding abortion, capital punishment, religious establishment, and school desegregation[2] during his tenure.[3]

Contents

1 Early years 2 Education and early career 3 Politics 4 National prominence 5 Chief Justice

5.1 Jurisprudence 5.2 Leadership

6 Later life 7 Legacy 8 Family and personal life 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early years[edit] Warren Earl Burger was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, in 1907, and one of seven children. His parents, Katharine (née Schnittger) and Charles Joseph Burger, a traveling salesman and railroad cargo inspector,[4] were of Austrian German
Austrian German
descent. His grandfather, Joseph Burger, had emigrated from Tyrol, Austria
Austria
and joined the Union Army when he was 12. Joseph Burger fought and was wounded in the Civil War, resulting in the loss of his right arm and was awarded the Medal of Honor at the age of 14. Joseph Burger by age 16 became the youngest Captain in the Union Army. Burger grew up on the family farm near the edge of Saint Paul. He attended John A. Johnson High School, where he was president of the student council. He competed in hockey, football, track, and swimming. While in high school, he wrote articles on high school sports for local newspapers. He graduated in 1925. That same year, Burger also worked with the crew building the Robert Street Bridge, a crossing of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in Saint Paul that still exists. Concerned about the number of deaths on the project, he asked that a net be installed to catch anyone who fell, but was rebuffed by managers. In later years, Burger made a point of visiting the bridge whenever he came back to town. Education and early career[edit] Burger attended night school at the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
while selling insurance for Mutual Life Insurance. Afterward, he enrolled at St. Paul College of Law, (later became William Mitchell College of Law), receiving his degree magna cum laude in 1931. He took a job at the firm of Boyensen, Otis and Faricy, now known as Moore, Costello & Hart. In 1937, Burger served as the eighth president of the Saint Paul Jaycees. He also taught for twelve years at William Mitchell. Politics[edit] His political career began uneventfully, but he soon rose to national prominence. He supported Minnesota
Minnesota
Governor Harold E. Stassen's unsuccessful pursuit of the Republican nomination for President
President
in 1948.[5] In 1952, at the Republican convention, he played a key role in Dwight D. Eisenhower's nomination by delivering the Minnesota delegation. After he was elected, President
President
Eisenhower appointed Burger as the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Civil Division of the Justice Department. In this role, he first argued in front of the Supreme Court. The case involved John P. Peters, a Yale University
Yale University
professor who worked as a consultant to the government. He had been discharged from his position on loyalty grounds. Supreme Court cases are usually argued by the Solicitor General, but he disagreed with the government's position and refused to argue the case. Burger lost the case. Shortly after, Burger appeared in a case defending the United States against claims from the Texas City ship explosion disaster, successfully arguing that the Federal Tort Claims Act of 1947 did not allow a suit for negligence in policy making; the United States won the case (Dalehite, et al., vs. United States 346 U.S. 15 (1953)). In 1956, Eisenhower appointed him to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. He remained on the Court of Appeals for thirteen years. National prominence[edit]

Painting of Burger

In 1968, Chief Justice Earl Warren
Earl Warren
announced his retirement after 15 years on the Court, effective on the confirmation of his successor. President
President
Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
nominated sitting Associate Justice Abe Fortas to the position, but a Senate filibuster blocked his confirmation. With Johnson's term as President
President
about to expire before another nominee could be considered, Warren remained in office. In 1969, President
President
Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
nominated Burger to the Chief Justice position. Burger had first caught Nixon's eye through a letter of support the former sent to Nixon during the 1952 Fund crisis,[6] and then again 15 years later when the magazine U.S. News and World Report had reprinted a 1967 speech that Burger had given at Ripon College. In it, Burger compared the United States judicial system to those of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark:

I assume that no one will take issue with me when I say that these North European countries are as enlightened as the United States in the value they place on the individual and on human dignity. [Those countries] do not consider it necessary to use a device like our Fifth Amendment, under which an accused person may not be required to testify. They go swiftly, efficiently and directly to the question of whether the accused is guilty. No nation on earth goes to such lengths or takes such pains to provide safeguards as we do, once an accused person is called before the bar of justice and until his case is completed.

Through speeches like this, Burger became known as a critic of Chief Justice Warren and an advocate of a literal, strict-constructionist reading of the U.S. Constitution. Nixon's agreement with these views, being expressed by a readily confirmable, sitting federal appellate judge, led to the appointment. The Senate confirmed Burger to succeed Warren, who in turn swore in the new chief on June 23, 1969.[7] In his presidential campaign, Nixon had pledged to appoint a strict constructionist as Chief Justice. According to President
President
Nixon's memoirs, he had asked Justice Burger in the spring of 1970 to be prepared to run for President
President
in 1972 if the political repercussions of the Cambodia invasion were too negative for him to endure. A few years later, in 1971 and 1973, Burger was on Nixon's short list of vice-presidential replacements for Vice President
President
Spiro Agnew, along with John Connally, Ronald Reagan, and Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
before Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
was appointed following Agnew's resignation in October 1973. Chief Justice[edit]

Jurisprudence[edit] When Burger was nominated for the Chief Justiceship, conservatives in the Nixon Administration expected that the Burger Court
Burger Court
would rule markedly differently from the Warren Court
Warren Court
and might, in fact, overturn controversial Warren Court
Warren Court
era precedents. By the early 1970s, however, it became apparent that the Burger Court
Burger Court
was not going to reverse the rulings of the Warren Court
Warren Court
and in fact might extend some Warren Court
Warren Court
doctrines.[citation needed] The Court issued a unanimous ruling, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) supporting busing to reduce de facto racial segregation in schools. In United States v. U.S. District Court
United States v. U.S. District Court
(1972) the Burger Court
Burger Court
issued another unanimous ruling against the Nixon Administration's desire to invalidate the need for a search warrant and the requirements of the Fourth Amendment in cases of domestic surveillance. Then, only two weeks later in Furman v. Georgia
Furman v. Georgia
(1972) the court, in a 5–4 decision, invalidated all death penalty laws then in force, although Burger dissented from the decision. In the most controversial ruling of his term, Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
(1973), Burger voted with the majority to recognize a broad right to privacy that prohibited states from banning abortions. However, Burger abandoned Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
by the time of Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. On July 24, 1974, Burger led the court in a unanimous decision in United States v. Nixon. This was President
President
Nixon's attempt to keep several memos and tapes relating to the Watergate Affair
Watergate Affair
private. As documented in Woodward and Armstrong's The Brethren and elsewhere, Burger's original feelings on the case were that Watergate was merely a political battle; he "didn't see what they did wrong."[8] The actual final opinion was largely Justice Brennan's work, though each justice wrote at least a rough draft of a particular section.[9] Burger was originally to vote in favor of Nixon, but tactically changed his vote in order to assign the opinion to himself, and to restrain the opinion's rhetoric.[10] Burger's first draft of the opinion wrote that Executive Privilege could be invoked when it dealt with a "core function" of the Presidency, that in some cases the Executive could be supreme.[11] However, the other justices in the Supreme Court were able to convince Burger to excise that language from the opinion —the judicial branch alone would have the power to determine whether something qualifies to be shielded under executive privilege.[12] Burger was opposed to gay rights as he wrote a famous concurring opinion in the Court's 1986 decision upholding a Georgia law criminalizing sodomy (Bowers v. Hardwick), in which Burger relied on historical evidence that laws criminalizing homosexuality were of ancient vintage. Chief Justice Burger pointed out that the famous legal author William Blackstone
William Blackstone
wrote that sodomy was a "'crime against nature'... of 'deeper malignity than rape', a heinous act 'the very mention of which is a disgrace to human nature' and 'a crime not fit to be named'".[13]

With Betty Ford
Betty Ford
between them, Chief Justice Burger swears in President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
following the resignation of President
President
Richard Nixon.

Burger also emphasized the maintenance of Checks and Balances
Checks and Balances
between the branches of government. In the 1983 case of Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, he held, for the majority, that Congress could not reserve a legislative veto over executive branch actions. On issues involving criminal law and procedure, Burger remained reliably conservative. He joined the Court majority in voting to reinstate the death penalty in Gregg v. Georgia
Gregg v. Georgia
(1976), and, in 1983, he vigorously dissented from the Court's holding in the case of Solem v. Helm that a sentence of life imprisonment for issuing a fraudulent check in the amount of $100 constituted cruel and unusual punishment. Leadership[edit] Rather than dominating the court, Burger sought to improve administration both within the court and within the nation's legal system. Criticizing some advocates as unprepared, Burger created training venues for state and local government advocates.[14] He also helped found the National Center for State Courts, which is now located in Williamsburg, Virginia, as well as the Institute for Court Management, and National Institute of Corrections to provide professional training for judges, clerks, and prison guards.[15] Burger also began a tradition of annually delivering a State of the Judiciary speech to the American Bar Association, many members of which had been alienated by the Warren Court. However, some detractors thought his emphasis on the mechanics of the judicial system trivialized the office of Chief Justice.[citation needed] Burger drew internal controversy within the Supreme Court throughout his tenure, as was revealed in the controversial, though best-selling book, Woodward and Armstrong's The Brethren. Although Senator Everett Dirksen noted Burger "looked, sounded, and acted like a Chief Justice", the reporters depicted Burger as a weak chief justice who was not seriously respected by his colleagues due to alleged personal eccentricity and lack of legal acumen.[citation needed] Woodward and Armstrong's sources indicated that some of the other justices were annoyed by Burger's practice of switching his vote in conference, or simply not announcing his vote, in order that he be able to control opinion assignments. "Burger repeatedly irked his colleagues by changing his vote to remain in the majority, and by rewarding his friends with choice assignments and punishing his foes with dreary ones."[16] Burger would also try to influence the course of events in a case by circulating a preemptive opinion.[17] Consequently, the Burger Court
Burger Court
was described as his "in name only".[18] Time magazine called him "plodding" and "standoffish",[18] as well as "pompous", "aloof", and unpopular.[16] Burger was a constant irritant on the Court's group dynamic, according to The New York Times' Linda Greenhouse.[19] Jeffrey Toobin
Jeffrey Toobin
wrote in his book The Nine that by the time of his departure in 1986, Burger had alienated all of his colleagues to one degree or another.[20] In particular, Potter Stewart, who had been considered a candidate to follow Warren as Chief Justice, was so discontented with Burger that he became the primary source for Woodward and Armstrong when writing The Brethren. Greenhouse points to the case of Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha as evidence of Burger's "foundering leadership". Burger would cause the case to be delayed for over twenty months, despite there having been five votes to affirm the appeals court's finding of unconstitutionality after the case was first argued: Brennan, Marshall, Blackmun, Powell, and Stevens. Burger did not allow an opinion to be assigned, first by asking for a special conference on the case, and then by delaying the case for reargument when that conference fell through even though he never held a formal vote on holding the case over for reargument.[21] Later life[edit]

Interred Next To His Wife At Arlington National Cemetery

Burger retired on September 26, 1986, in part to lead the campaign to mark the 1987 bicentennial of the United States Constitution, at which time he commissioned the construction of the Constitution Bicentennial Monument (The National Monument to the U.S. Constitution). He had served longer than any other Chief Justice appointed in the 20th century.[22] Despite his reputation for being imperious, he was beloved by the law clerks and judicial fellows who worked with him.[23] In 1987, Princeton University's American Whig-Cliosophic Society awarded Burger the James Madison Award for Distinguished Public Service.[24] In 1988, he was awarded the prestigious United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award
Sylvanus Thayer Award
as well as the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 1991 appearance on the MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, Burger stated that the Second Amendment "has been the subject of one of the greatest pieces of fraud, I repeat the word 'fraud,' on the American public by special interest groups."[25] Burger died in his sleep on June 25, 1995, from congestive heart failure at the age of 87, at Sibley Memorial hospital in Washington, D.C. He drafted his own one-page will. All of his papers were donated to the College of William and Mary, where he formerly served as Chancellor; however, they will not be open to the public until 2026. Burger’s casket was displayed in the Great Hall of the U.S. Supreme Court Building. His remains are interred at Arlington National Cemetery.[26] Legacy[edit] As Chief Justice, Burger was instrumental in founding the Supreme Court Historical Society and was its first president. Burger is often cited as one of the foundational proponents of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), particularly in its ability to ameliorate an overloaded justice system. In a speech given in front of the American Bar Association, Justice Burger lamented the state of the justice system in 1984, "Our system is too costly, too painful, too destructive, too inefficient for a truly civilized people. To rely on the adversary process as the principal means of resolving conflicting claims is a mistake that must be corrected."[27] The Warren E. Burger Federal Courthouse[28] in Saint Paul, Minnesota, and the Warren E. Burger Library[29] at his alma mater Mitchell Hamline School of Law (formerly the William Mitchell College of Law, and the St. Paul College of Law at the time of Burger's attendance) are named in his honor. Family and personal life[edit]

Warren and Elvera Burger, 1981

He married Elvera Stromberg in 1933. They had two children, Wade Allen Burger and Margaret Elizabeth Burger. Elvera Burger died at their home in Washington, D.C., on May 30, 1994, at the age of 86.[26] See also[edit]

Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
by court composition List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
by education List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of United States Chief Justices by time in office List of U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
Justices by time in office United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court

Notes[edit]

^ "Perceived Qualifications and Ideology of Supreme Court Nominees, 1937–2012" (PDF). SUNY at Stony Brook. Retrieved April 4, 2012.  ^ Barker, Lucius J (Autumn 1973). "Black Americans and the Burger Court: Implications for the Political System". Washington University Law Review. 1973 (4): 747–777 – via https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/law_lawreview/.  ^ Earl M. Maltz, The Coming of the Nixon Court: The 1972 Term and the Transformation of Constitutional Law (University Press of Kansas; 2016) ^ "Warren Burger Biography - life, family, children, death, school, young, information, born, college, contract".  ^ Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas: Memoirs of Historical Significance, Carol Griffee, ed. (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company, 1989), p. 99 ^ "The Checkers Speech After 60 Years". The Atlantic. September 22, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2012.  ^ "Warren Officially Retires As Burger Takes Oath". Evening Independent. Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Associated Press. June 23, 1969. p. 12-A. Retrieved August 11, 2012.  ^ Eisler 1993, p. 251. ^ Eisler 1993, pp. 251–253. ^ Eisler 1993, p. 252. ^ Eisler 1993, p. 254. ^ Eisler 1993, pp. 254–255. ^ Bowers, 478 U.S. at 196–197 (Burger, C.J., concurring). ^ Warren E. Burger, Conference on Supreme Court Advocacy, 33 Catholic U. L.Rev. 525–526 (1984) ^ Christensen, George A., Journal of Supreme Court History Volume 33 Issue 1, Pages 17–41 (February 19, 2008), Here Lies the Supreme Court: Revisited, University of Alabama. ^ a b "Reagan's Mr. Right". Time. June 30, 1986. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ Greenhouse 2005, p. 157. ^ a b "Reagan's Mr. Right". Time. June 30, 1986. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ Greenhouse 2005, p. 234. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey (2005), The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court, Doubleday . ^ Greenhouse 2005, pp. 154–157. ^ Supreme Court History, the Burger Court
Burger Court
at Supreme Court Historical Society. ^ Bonventre, Vincent (1995), Professional Responsibility: Conclusion, 46 Syracuse L. Rev. 765, 793 (1995), Syracuse_Law_Review . ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2012.  ^ Stevens, John Paul (April 11, 2014). "Opinion: The five extra words that can fix the Second Amendment". Washington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ a b "Elvera S. Burger, Supreme Court Spouse".  ^ "FSM 3 Intrm. 015-017".  ^ " Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
Federal Building — U.S. Courthouse - St. Paul, Minnesota
Minnesota
- Ryan Companies US, Inc."  ^ " Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
Library – Mitchell Hamline School of Law". MitchellHamline.edu. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 

References[edit]

Barker, Lucius J. Black Americans and the Burger Court: Implications for the Political System, 1973 Wash. U. L. Q. 747 (1973). Eisler, Kim Isaac (1993), A Justice for All: William J. Brennan, Jr., and the Decisions That Transformed America, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-76787-9  Greenhouse, Linda. Nixon Appointee Eased Supreme Court Away from Liberal Era, The New York Times, June 26, 1995. Greenhouse, Linda (2005), Becoming Justice Blackmun, Times Books, ISBN 0805080570  Schwartz, Bernard. A History of the Supreme Court Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-509387-2. Schwartz, Bernard, ed. The Burger Court: Counter-Revolution or Confirmation? Oxford University Press, 1998 ISBN 0-19-512259-3. Woodward, Robert; Armstrong, Scott (1979). The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York. ISBN 978-0-380-52183-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.  Blasi, Vincent (1983). The Burger Court : the counter-revolution that wasn't (3rd ed.). New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press. ISBN 9780300029413.  Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7.  Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4.  Graetz, Michael J., and Linda Greenhouse, eds. The Burger Court
Burger Court
and the Rise of the Judicial Right (Simon & Schuster, 2016). xii, 468 pp. Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6.  Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3.  Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutWarren E. Burgerat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

Warren Earl Burger at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Ariens, Michael, Warren E. Burger. Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
at Find a Grave Oyez, Supreme Court Media, Warren E. Burger. Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
at Supreme Court Historical Society Supreme Court History, the Burger Court
Burger Court
at Supreme Court Historical Society. Appearances on C-SPAN

Legal offices

Preceded by Harold Stephens Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit 1956–1969 Succeeded by Malcolm Wilkey

Preceded by Earl Warren Chief Justice of the United States 1969–1986 Succeeded by William Rehnquist

v t e

Chief Justices of the United States

John Jay
John Jay
(1789–1795; cases) John Rutledge
John Rutledge
(1795; cases) Oliver Ellsworth
Oliver Ellsworth
(1796–1800; cases) John Marshall
John Marshall
(1801–1835; cases) Roger B. Taney
Roger B. Taney
(1836–1864; cases) Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
(1864–1873; cases) Morrison Waite
Morrison Waite
(1874–1888; cases) Melville Fuller
Melville Fuller
(1888–1910; cases) Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
(1910–1921; cases) William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
(1921–1930; cases) Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes
(1930–1941; cases) Harlan F. Stone
Harlan F. Stone
(1941–1946; cases) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1946–1953; cases) Earl Warren
Earl Warren
(1953–1969; cases) Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
(1969–1986; cases) William Rehnquist
William Rehnquist
(1986–2005; cases) John Roberts
John Roberts
(2005–present; cases)

v t e

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts

Seat 1

J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy

Seat 2

Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer

Seat 3

Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor

Seat 4

Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan

Seat 5

Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne

Seat 6

Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg

Seat 7

Catron

Seat 8

McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito

Seat 9

Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch

Seat 10

Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas

Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct

  Supreme Court of the United States

The Burger Court

Chief Justice: Warren Earl Burger (1969–1986)

1969:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas T. Marshall

1970–1971:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun

1971:

Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr.

1972–1975:

Wm. O. Douglas Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist

1975–1981:

Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist J. P. Stevens

1981–1986:

Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor

v t e

Chancellors of the College of William & Mary

Henry Compton (1693–1700) Thomas Tenison
Thomas Tenison
(1700–1707) Henry Compton (1707–1713) John Robinson (1714–1721) William Wake
William Wake
(1721–1729) Edmund Gibson
Edmund Gibson
(1729–1736) William Wake
William Wake
(1736–1737) Edmund Gibson
Edmund Gibson
(1737–1748) Thomas Sherlock
Thomas Sherlock
(1749–1761) Thomas Hayter (1762) Charles Wyndham (1762–1763) Philip Yorke (1764) Richard Terrick
Richard Terrick
(1764–1776) George Washington
George Washington
(1788–1799) Vacant (1800–1858) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1859–1862) Vacant (1863–1870) Hugh Blair Grigsby
Hugh Blair Grigsby
(1871–1881) Vacant (1882–1941) John Stewart Bryan
John Stewart Bryan
(1942–1944) Vacant (1945) Colgate Darden
Colgate Darden
(1946–1947) Vacant (1948–1961) Alvin Duke Chandler
Alvin Duke Chandler
(1962–1974) Vacant (1975–1985) Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
(1986–1993) Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(1993–2000) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
(2000–2005) Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor
(2005–2012) Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2012–)

v t e

James Smithson Medal
James Smithson Medal
recipients

1965: Howard Florey 1968: Edgar P. Richardson 1976: Elizabeth II 1979: Pope John Paul II 1986: Warren E. Burger 1991: Julie Johnson Kidd 1994: Robert McCormick Adams Jr. 1999: Ira Michael Heyman 2015: G. Wayne Clough

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 109768759 LCCN: n82012360 ISNI: 0000 0001 1479 9253 GND: 120606313 SUDOC: 029075106 BNF: cb12077637k (data) NKC: jn20010602

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