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NATO-led international involvement in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014)

Fall of the Taliban
Taliban
government in Afghanistan Destruction of al-Qaeda camps Taliban
Taliban
insurgency War in North-West Pakistan Killing of Osama bin Laden War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present)

Initiation of Operation Resolute Support by NATO Transfer of combat roles to Afghan Armed Forces U.S.– Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Strategic Partnership Agreement

Insurgency
Insurgency
in Yemen
Yemen
(1992–2015):[note 2]

Drone strikes being conducted by U.S. and Pakistani forces. Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
Emirate in Yemen
Yemen
is declared on 31 March 2011 Insurgency
Insurgency
escalates into a full-scale civil war in 2015

Iraq War
Iraq War
(2003–2011):

Overthrow of the Ba'ath
Ba'ath
Party government in Iraq Execution of Saddam Hussein Free elections Iraqi insurgency (2011–2014) Ongoing civil war (2014–present) Death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
in June 2006

War in North-West Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
(2004–present):

Ongoing insurgency Large part of FATA under Taliban
Taliban
control Shifting public support for the Pakistani government Killing of Osama bin Laden Drone strikes being conducted by the CIA

International campaign against ISIL (2014–present):

Ongoing insurgency Operation Inherent Resolve: U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq, Syria, Egyptian airstrikes in Libya, and West African airstrikes in Nigeria Multinational humanitarian effort Arming and support for local ground forces ISIL beheadings[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]

Other:

OEF Horn of Africa OEF Philippines OEF Trans Sahara OEF Caribbean and Central America

Belligerents

Main participants:  United States  United Kingdom  France  Russia  China[1][2]

NATO
NATO
participants:

 Albania  Belgium  Bulgaria  Canada  Croatia  Czech Republic  Denmark  Estonia  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Iceland  Italy  Latvia  Lithuania  Luxembourg  Montenegro  Netherlands  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Slovenia  Spain  Turkey

Other countries:

 Afghanistan  Cameroon  Egypt  India  Iraq  Iraqi Kurdistan  Lebanon  Libya  Mali  Nigeria  Pakistan  Philippines  Somalia  Syria SDF  Yemen

Other participants

 Algeria  Andorra[3]  Armenia  Australia  Austria  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Bangladesh[4]  Belarus  Benin  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Brunei  Burkina Faso  Burundi  Cambodia  Chad  Colombia  Congo  Cyprus[5]  Djibouti  Dominican Republic  El Salvador  Ethiopia  Finland  Georgia  Ghana  Honduras  Indonesia  Iran  Ireland  Israel[6][7][8][9]  Japan  Jordan  Kazakhstan  Kenya  South Korea  Kosovo  Kuwait[10]  Kyrgyzstan  Laos  Liechtenstein[11]  Macedonia  Malaysia  Malta  Mauritania  Mexico  Mongolia  Morocco  Moldova  Myanmar    Nepal  New Zealand  Nicaragua  Niger  Northern Cyprus  Oman  Palestine  Panama[12]  Qatar  Rwanda  Saudi Arabia[13]  Senegal  Serbia  Seychelles  Sierra Leone  Singapore  South Africa  Sri Lanka  Sweden   Switzerland  Taiwan  Tajikistan  Thailand  Togo  Tonga  Tunisia  Turkmenistan  Uganda  Ukraine  United Arab
Arab
Emirates  Uzbekistan  Vietnam

International missions *:

NATO—ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
Allies Northern Alliance Multi-National Force – Iraq Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve

(* note: most contributing nations are included in the international operations)

Main targets:

al-Qaeda

Lashkar al-Zil AQAP Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Yemen) AQIM AQIS al-Shabaab Tahrir al-Sham Khorasan[14] Nusrat al-Islam AQKB Abdullah Azzam Brigades Tawhid al-Jihad (Gaza Strip) Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades Imam Shamil Battalion Lone wolves

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Sinai Province Libya
Libya
Province Jund al-Khilafah Khorasan Province Yemen
Yemen
Province[15] Boko Haram Caucasus Province ISS Abu Sayyaf Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade IMU

Taliban East Turkestan Islamic Movement

Others

Islamic Emirate of Waziristan Tehrik-i Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan Osbat al-Ansar Haqqani network TNSM Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters Hamas
Hamas
[16][17][18] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
[19][20][21][22] Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine Lashkar al-Zil Lashkar-e-Taiba Lashkar-e-Omar Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Hizbul Mujahideen Ansaru Mullah Dadullah Front Fidai Mahaz Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Derna, Libya) Shura Council of Benghazi
Benghazi
Revolutionaries Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Tunisia) Islamic Jihad Union Masked Brigade Jaish-e-Mohammed Ahrar ash-Sham Fatah al-Islam Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid Jaish al-Islam Indian Mujahideen Harkat-ul-Mujahideen Great Eastern Islamic Raiders' Front Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group Soldiers of Egypt Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Rajah Sulaiman movement Salafia Jihadia Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Mali) Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Mauritania) Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Morocco) Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Libya) Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Egypt) Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Yarmouk Area) Turaifie group Abu Sayyaf[23] Jemaah Islamiyah[24]

Former

JTJ (until 2004) al-Qaeda in Iraq
Iraq
(until 2006) Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat
Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat
(until 2007) Tunisian Combatant Group (until 2011) Islamic State of Iraq (until 2013) MOJWA (until 2013) Ansar al-Islam
Ansar al-Islam
(until 2014) Jundallah[25] Tehreek-e-Khilafat[26] (until November 2014) Hizbul Islam
Hizbul Islam
(until 2014) Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (until March 2015)[27] Iraqi Baath Party loyalists Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
(dis) Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (until 2015) Ansar al-Sharia (Syria)
Ansar al-Sharia (Syria)
(until 2016) Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin
Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin
(until 2016) Caucasus Emirate
Caucasus Emirate
(until 2016) Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
(until 2017) Harakat Sham al-Islam
Harakat Sham al-Islam
(until 2017) Jund al-Aqsa
Jund al-Aqsa
(until 2017) Ansar Dine
Ansar Dine
(until March 2017) [28] Al-Mourabitoun (until March 2017) [28] Ansar al-Sharia (Libya)
Ansar al-Sharia (Libya)
(until May 2017) [29][30][31] Maute Group (until 2017) Rajah Sulaiman Movement (until ?) Islamic Jihad of Yemen
Yemen
(until ?) Black Banner Organization (until ?)

Commanders and leaders

George W. Bush (President 2001–2009) Barack Obama (President 2009–2017) Donald Trump (President 2017–present) Tony Blair (Prime Minister 1997–2007) Gordon Brown (Prime Minister 2007–2010) David Cameron (Prime Minister 2010–2016) Theresa May (Prime Minister 2016–present) Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(President 1995–2007) Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
(President 2007–2012) François Hollande
François Hollande
(President 2012–2017) Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
(President 2017–present) Vladimir Putin (President 2000–2008, 2012–present) Dmitry Medvedev (President 2008–2012) Jiang Zemin (President 2001–2003) Hu Jintao (President 2003–2013) Xi Jinping (President 2013–present)

Other leaders

Olusegun Obasanjo (President 1999–2007) Umaru Yar'Adua (President 2007–2010) Goodluck Johnathan (President 2010–2015) Muhammadu Buhari(President 2015–present) Mahamadou Issoufou (President 2011–present) Idriss Deby (President 1990–present) Paul Biya (President 1982–present) Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
(Chancellor 1998–2005) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(Chancellor 2005 –present) Silvio Berlusconi (Prime Minister 2001–2006 and 2008–2011) Romano Prodi (Prime Minister 2006–2008) Mario Monti (Prime Minister 2011–2013) Enrico Letta (Prime Minister 2013–2014) Matteo Renzi (Prime Minister 2014–2016) Paolo Gentiloni (Prime Minister 2016–present) King Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (King 1981–2004) (King of Saudi Arabia) King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (King 2004 –2011) (King of Saudi Arabia) King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (King 2015 –present) (King of Saudi Arabia) Crown Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz
Nayef bin Abdulaziz
Al Saud (Crown Prince 2011 –2012) (Former Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia) Crown Prince Mohammed bin Nayef
Mohammed bin Nayef
Al Saud (Crown Prince 2015 –present) (Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia) Pervez Musharraf[note 3] (President 1999–2008) Asif Ali Zardari
Asif Ali Zardari
(President 2008–2013) Nawaz Sharif
Nawaz Sharif
(Prime Minister 2013–2017) Shahid Khaqan Abbasi
Shahid Khaqan Abbasi
(Prime Minister 2017–Present) John Howard
John Howard
(Prime Minister 1996–2007) Kevin Rudd
Kevin Rudd
(Prime Minister 2007–2010, 2013) Julia Gillard
Julia Gillard
(Prime Minister 2010-2013) Tony Abbott
Tony Abbott
(Prime Minister 2013–2015) Malcolm Turnbull
Malcolm Turnbull
(Prime Minister 2015–present) Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Aleksander Kwaśniewski
(President 1995–2005) Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
(Prime Minister 2003–2014, President 2014–present) Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
(Prime Minister 1999–2001) (Prime minister of Israel) Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
(Prime Minister 2001–2006) (Prime Minister of Israel) Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
(Prime Minister 2006–2009) (Prime Minister of Israel) Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
(Prime Minister 2009–current) (Prime Minister of Israel) Jean Kahwaji
Jean Kahwaji
(Commander-in-Chief of the Lebanese Armed Forces) Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(President 2001–2010) Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
(President 2010–2016) Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
(President 2016–present)

al-Qaeda

Osama bin Laden † (Founder and first Emir of al-Qaeda) Ayman al-Zawahiri (Current Emir of al-Qaeda) Saif al-Adel (al-Qaeda Military Chief) Abu Musab al-Zarqawi † (Emir of al-Qaeda in Iraq) Ilyas Kashmiri † (Commander of Lashkar al-Zil) Qasim al-Raymi (Emir of AQAP) Abdelmalek Droukdel (Emir of AQIM) Mokhtar Belmokhtar † (Emir of AQWA) Asim Umar (Emir of AQIS) Ahmad Umar (Emir of al-Shabaab) Abu Mohammad al-Julani (Emir of al-Nusra Front) Muhsin al-Fadhli † (Leader of Khorasan Group)[39]

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Caliph of ISIL) Abu Ala al-Afri † (Deputy Emir of ISIL)[40][41][42] Abu Muslim
Muslim
al-Turkmani † (Deputy Leader, Iraq)[43] Abu Suleiman al-Naser † (Head of War Council)[44] Abu Mohammad al-Adnani † (Spokesperson for ISIL) Abu Omar al-Shishani † (Senior ISIL commander) Abu Nabil al-Anbari † (ISIL Emir of North Africa) Abu Abdullah al-Filipini † (ISIL Emir of Southeast Asia) Mohammed Abdullah (ISIL Emir of Derna) Ali Al Qarqaa (ISIL Emir of Nofaliya) Hafiz Saeed Khan †[45] (ISIL Emir of Wilayat Khorasan) Usman Ghazi[46][47] Abubakar Shekau[48] (Emir of Boko Haram)

Taliban

Mohammed Omar (1st Supreme Commander of the Taliban)(2001-2013) Akhtar Mansour (2nd Supreme Commander of the Taliban) † Hibatullah Akhundzada (Current & 3rd Supreme Commander of the Taliban) Quetta Shura (Senior Taliban
Taliban
council) Abdul Ghani Baradar Obaidullah Akhund † Mohammad Fazl Dadullah Akhund †

Tehrik-i-Taliban

Maulana Fazlullah (Emir of Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan)

Haqqani Network

Jalaluddin Haqqani † (leader of the Haqqani network) Sirajuddin Haqqani

East Turkestan Islamic Movement

Abdul Haq (Emir of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement) Abdullah Mansour (Emir of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement)

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the U.S. government after the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in the U.S. in 2001.[49] The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U.S. president George W. Bush
George W. Bush
first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001,[50][51] and then "war on terror" a few days later in a formal speech to Congress.[52][53] In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them."[53][54] The term was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was immediately criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and more nuanced ones subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U.S.;[49] it was never used as a formal designation of U.S. operations in internal government documentation.[55] U.S. president Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and his administration (2009–2017) on a number of occasions expressly rejected the term "War on Terror", as well as the qualifier global, as being inaccurate and misleading.[56][57][58][59] Obama announced on 23 May 2013 that the Global War on Terror
War on Terror
is over, saying the military and intelligence agencies will not wage war against a tactic but will instead focus on a specific group of networks determined to destroy the U.S.[60] On 28 December 2014, the Obama administration announced the end of the combat role of the U.S.-led mission in Afghanistan.[61] However, with the unexpected rise of the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant terror group earlier that year, a new operation against terror in the Middle East and South Asia was announced – the Operation Inherent Resolve.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 History of use of the phrase and its rejection by the U.S. government 1.2 The rhetorical war on terror

2 Background

2.1 Precursor to the September 11 attacks 2.2 September 11, 2001, attacks

3 U.S. objectives 4 Afghanistan

4.1 Operation Enduring Freedom 4.2 Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Afghanistan 4.3 International Security Assistance Force

5 Iraq
Iraq
and Syria

5.1 Iraqi no-fly zones 5.2 Operation Iraqi Freedom 5.3 Operation New Dawn 5.4 Operation Inherent Resolve
Operation Inherent Resolve
( Syria
Syria
and Iraq)

6 Pakistan

6.1 Baluchistan

7 Trans-Sahara (Northern Africa)

7.1 Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara

8 Horn of Africa and the Red Sea

8.1 Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa

9 Philippines

9.1 Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Philippines

10 Yemen 11 U.S. Allies in the Middle East

11.1 Israel 11.2 Saudi Arabia

12 Libya 13 Other military operations

13.1 Operation Active Endeavour 13.2 Fighting in Kashmir 13.3 American military intervention in Cameroon

14 International military support 15 Terrorist attacks and failed plots since 9/11

15.1 Al-Qaeda 15.2 The Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL)

16 Post 9/11
9/11
events inside the United States 17 Casualties

17.1 Total terrorist casualties

18 Costs 19 Criticism 20 Other Wars on Terror 21 See also 22 Notes 23 References 24 Further reading 25 External links

Etymology[edit]

Letter from Barack Obama
Barack Obama
indicating appropriation of Congressional funds for "Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terrorism"

The phrase "War on Terror" has been used to specifically refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U.S., U.K. and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, and usually excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia
Russia
and India. The conflict has also been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has also been known as:

World War III[62] World War IV[63] (assuming the Cold War
Cold War
was World War III) Bush's War on Terror[64] The Long War[65][66] The Forever War[67] The Global War on Terror[68] The War Against al-Qaeda[69]

History of use of the phrase and its rejection by the U.S. government[edit] In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had significantly expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U.S. and 58 French peacekeepers.[70] US Vice President
US Vice President
Mike Pence
Mike Pence
called the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing “the opening salvo in a war that we have waged ever since—the global war on terror,".[71] The concept of the U.S. at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on [America]."[72] On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, U.S. president George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an ostensibly unscripted comment when answering a journalist′s question about the impact of enhanced law enforcement authority given to the U.S. surveillance agencies on Americans′ civil liberties: "This is a new kind of — a new kind of evil. And we understand. And the American people are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while. And the American people must be patient. I'm going to be patient."[50][51] Shortly after, the White House
White House
said the president regretted use of the term crusade, as it might have been misunderstood as reference to the historical Crusades; the word crusade was not used again.[73] On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, George Bush said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated."[52][53] In April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful.[74] This was explained more recently by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5
MI5
said that the 9/11
9/11
attacks were "a crime, not an act of war. So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."[75] U.S. president Barack Obama
Barack Obama
rarely used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated: "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred."[76] In March 2009 the Defense Department officially changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation" (OCO).[77] In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term and instead to use "Overseas Contingency Operation".[77] Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place.[78][79] In May 2010, the Obama administration published a report outlining its National Security Strategy. The document dropped the Bush era phrase "global war on terror" and reference to "Islamic extremism," and stated, "This is not a global war against a tactic — terrorism, or a religion — Islam. We are at war with a specific network, al-Qaeda, and its terrorist affiliates who support efforts to attack the United States, our allies, and partners."[57] In December 2012, Jeh Johnson, the General Counsel of the Department of Defense, stated that the military fight would be replaced by a law enforcement operation when speaking at Oxford University,[80] predicting that al Qaeda will be so weakened to be ineffective, and has been "effectively destroyed", and thus the conflict will not be an armed conflict under international law.[81] In May 2013, two years after the assassination of Osama bin Laden, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
delivered a speech that employed the term global war on terror put in quotation marks (as officially transcribed by the White House): ″Now, make no mistake, our nation is still threatened by terrorists. <...> But we have to recognize that the threat has shifted and evolved from the one that came to our shores on 9/11. <...> From our use of drones to the detention of terrorist suspects, the decisions that we are making now will define the type of nation — and world — that we leave to our children. So America is at a crossroads. We must define the nature and scope of this struggle, or else it will define us. We have to be mindful of James Madison’s warning that “No nation could preserve its freedom in the midst of continual warfare.” <...> In Afghanistan, we will complete our transition to Afghan responsibility for that country’s security. <...> Beyond Afghanistan, we must define our effort not as a boundless “global war on terror,” but rather as a series of persistent, targeted efforts to dismantle specific networks of violent extremists that threaten America. In many cases, this will involve partnerships with other countries.″ Nevertheless, in the same speech, in a bid to emphasise the legality of military actions undertaken by the U.S., noting that Congress had authorised the use of force, he went on to say, ″Under domestic law, and international law, the United States
United States
is at war with al Qaeda, the Taliban, and their associated forces. We are at war with an organization that right now would kill as many Americans
Americans
as they could if we did not stop them first. So this is a just war — a war waged proportionally, in last resort, and in self-defense.″[58][59] The rhetorical war on terror[edit] Because the actions involved in the "war on terrorism" are diffuse, and the criteria for inclusion are unclear, political theorist Richard Jackson has argued that "the 'war on terrorism,' therefore, is simultaneously a set of actual practices—wars, covert operations, agencies, and institutions—and an accompanying series of assumptions, beliefs, justifications, and narratives—it is an entire language or discourse."[82] Jackson cites among many examples a statement by John Ashcroft
John Ashcroft
that "the attacks of September 11 drew a bright line of demarcation between the civil and the savage".[83] Administration officials also described "terrorists" as hateful, treacherous, barbarous, mad, twisted, perverted, without faith, parasitical, inhuman, and, most commonly, evil.[84] Americans, in contrast, were described as brave, loving, generous, strong, resourceful, heroic, and respectful of human rights.[85] Both the term and the policies it denotes have been a source of ongoing controversy, as critics argue it has been used to justify unilateral preventive war, human rights abuses and other violations of international law.[86][87] Background[edit] Precursor to the September 11 attacks[edit] See also: Terrorism
Terrorism
and List of terrorist incidents The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced back to the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(December 1979 – February 1989). The United States, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China
China
supported the Islamist
Islamist
Afghan mujahadeen guerillas against the military forces of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. A small number of "Afghan Arab" volunteers joined the fight against the Soviets, including Osama bin Laden, but there is no evidence they received any external assistance.[88] In May 1996 the group World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders (WIFJAJC), sponsored by bin Laden (and later re-formed as al-Qaeda), started forming a large base of operations in Afghanistan, where the Islamist
Islamist
extremist regime of the Taliban
Taliban
had seized power earlier in the year.[89] In February 1998, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
signed a fatwā, as head of al-Qaeda, declaring war on the West and Israel,[90][91] later in May of that same year al-Qaeda released a video declaring war on the U.S. and the West.[92][93] On 7 August 1998, al-Qaeda struck the U.S. embassies in Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania, killing 224 people, including 12 Americans.[94] In retaliation, U.S. President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
launched Operation Infinite Reach, a bombing campaign in Sudan
Sudan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
against targets the U.S. asserted were associated with WIFJAJC,[95][96] although others have questioned whether a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan
Sudan
was used as a chemical warfare facility. The plant produced much of the region's antimalarial drugs[97] and around 50% of Sudan's pharmaceutical needs.[98] The strikes failed to kill any leaders of WIFJAJC or the Taliban.[97] Next came the 2000 millennium attack plots, which included an attempted bombing of Los Angeles International Airport. On 12 October 2000, the USS Cole bombing
USS Cole bombing
occurred near the port of Yemen, and 17 U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
sailors were killed.[99] September 11, 2001, attacks[edit] Main article: September 11 attacks On the morning of September 11, 2001, nineteen men hijacked four airliners all bound for California. Once the hijackers assumed control of the airliners, they told the passengers that they had a bomb on board and would spare the lives of passengers and crew once their demands were met – no passenger and crew actually suspected that they would use the airliners as suicide weapons since it had never happened before in history, and many previous hijacking attempts had been resolved with the passengers and crew escaping unharmed after obeying the hijackers.[100][101] The hijackers – members of al-Qaeda's Hamburg cell[102] – intentionally crashed two airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Both buildings collapsed within two hours from fire damage related to the crashes, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, just outside Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane, which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington D.C., to target the White House
White House
or the U.S. Capitol. None of the flights had any survivors. A total of 2,977 victims and the 19 hijackers perished in the attacks.[103] Fifteen of the nineteen were citizens of Saudi Arabia, and the others were from the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(2), Egypt, and Lebanon.[104] On 13 September, for the first time ever, NATO
NATO
invoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty.[105] On 18 September 2001, President Bush signed the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists passed by Congress a few days prior. U.S. objectives[edit]

  NATO   Trans-Sahara initiative   Major military operations ( Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
Iraq
Iraq
Somalia
Somalia
• Yemen)   Other allies involved in major operations Major terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda and affiliated groups: 1. 1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings • 2. 11 September 2001 attacks • 3. Bali bombings 2002• 4. Madrid bombings 2004 • 5. London bombings 2005 • 6. Mumbai attacks 2008

The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists or "AUMF" was made law on 14 September 2001, to authorize the use of United States
United States
Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on 11 September 2001. It authorized the President to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on 11 September 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States
United States
by such nations, organizations or individuals. Congress declares this is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution of 1973. The George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration defined the following objectives in the War on Terror:[106]

Defeat terrorists such as Osama bin Laden, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
and demolish their organizations Identify, locate and demolish terrorists along with their organizations Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to terrorists

End the state sponsorship of terrorism Establish and maintain an international standard of accountability concerning combating terrorism Strengthen and sustain the international effort to combat terrorism Work with willing and able states Enable weak states Persuade reluctant states Compel unwilling states Interdict and disorder material support for terrorists Abolish terrorist sanctuaries and havens

Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit

Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence of terrorism Win the war of ideals

Defend U.S. citizens and interests at home and abroad

Integrate the National Strategy for Homeland Security Attain domain awareness Enhance measures to ensure the integrity, reliability, and availability of critical, physical, and information-based infrastructures at home and abroad Implement measures to protect U.S. citizens abroad Ensure an integrated incident management capability

Afghanistan[edit]

U.S. Army soldier of the 10th Mountain Division
10th Mountain Division
in Nuristan Province, June 2007

Operation Enduring Freedom[edit] Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom

Campaign streamer awarded to units who have participated in Operation Enduring Freedom

Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
is the official name used by the Bush administration for the War in Afghanistan, together with three smaller military actions, under the umbrella of the Global War on Terror. These global operations are intended to seek out and destroy any al-Qaeda fighters or affiliates. Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Afghanistan[edit] Main article: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) See also: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present) and List of military operations in the war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) On 20 September 2001, in the wake of the 11 September attacks, George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum to the Taliban
Taliban
government of Afghanistan, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, to turn over Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda leaders operating in the country or face attack.[53] The Taliban
Taliban
demanded evidence of bin Laden's link to the 11 September attacks and, if such evidence warranted a trial, they offered to handle such a trial in an Islamic Court.[107] The U.S. refused to provide any evidence. Subsequently, in October 2001, U.S. forces (with UK and coalition allies) invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to oust the Taliban
Taliban
regime. On 7 October 2001, the official invasion began with British and U.S. forces conducting airstrike campaigns over enemy targets. Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, fell by mid-November. The remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban
Taliban
remnants fell back to the rugged mountains of eastern Afghanistan, mainly Tora Bora. In December, Coalition forces (the U.S. and its allies) fought within that region. It is believed that Osama bin Laden escaped into Pakistan
Pakistan
during the battle.[108][109] In March 2002, the U.S. and other NATO
NATO
and non- NATO
NATO
forces launched Operation Anaconda
Operation Anaconda
with the goal of destroying any remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban
Taliban
forces in the Shah-i-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains of Afghanistan. The Taliban
Taliban
suffered heavy casualties and evacuated the region.[110] The Taliban
Taliban
regrouped in western Pakistan
Pakistan
and began to unleash an insurgent-style offensive against Coalition forces in late 2002.[111] Throughout southern and eastern Afghanistan, firefights broke out between the surging Taliban
Taliban
and Coalition forces. Coalition forces responded with a series of military offensives and an increase of troops in Afghanistan. In February 2010, Coalition forces launched Operation Moshtarak
Operation Moshtarak
in southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
along with other military offensives in the hopes that they would destroy the Taliban
Taliban
insurgency once and for all.[112] Peace talks are also underway between Taliban affiliated fighters and Coalition forces.[113] In September 2014, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the United States
United States
signed a security agreement, which permits the United States
United States
and NATO
NATO
forces to remain in Afghanistan until at least 2024.[114] The United States
United States
and other NATO
NATO
and non- NATO
NATO
forces are planning to withdraw;[115] with the Taliban claiming it has defeated the United States
United States
and NATO,[116] and the Obama Administration
Obama Administration
viewing it as a victory.[117] In December 2014, ISAF encasing its colors, and Resolute Support began as the NATO operation in Afghanistan.[118] Continued United States
United States
operations within Afghanistan
Afghanistan
will continue under the name "Operation Freedom's Sentinel".[119] International Security Assistance Force[edit] Main article: International Security Assistance Force

Map of countries contributing troops to ISAF as of 5 March 2010. Major contributors (over 1000 troops) in dark green, other contributors in light green, and former contributors in magenta.

December 2001 saw the creation of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the Afghan Transitional Administration and the first post- Taliban
Taliban
elected government. With a renewed Taliban
Taliban
insurgency, it was announced in 2006 that ISAF would replace the U.S. troops in the province as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. The British 16th Air Assault Brigade
16th Air Assault Brigade
(later reinforced by Royal Marines) formed the core of the force in southern Afghanistan, along with troops and helicopters from Australia, Canada
Canada
and the Netherlands. The initial force consisted of roughly 3,300 British, 2,000 Canadian, 1,400 from the Netherlands
Netherlands
and 240 from Australia, along with special forces from Denmark
Denmark
and Estonia
Estonia
and small contingents from other nations. The monthly supply of cargo containers through Pakistani route to ISAF in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is over 4,000 costing around 12 billion in Pakistani Rupees.[120][121][122][123][124] Iraq
Iraq
and Syria[edit] Further information: Iraq War
Iraq War
and the War on Terror

A British C-130J Hercules
C-130J Hercules
aircraft launches flare countermeasures before being the first coalition aircraft to land on the newly reopened military runway at Baghdad
Baghdad
International Airport

Iraq
Iraq
had been listed as a State sponsor of terrorism
State sponsor of terrorism
by the U.S. since 1990,[125] when Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
invaded Kuwait. Iraq
Iraq
had also been on the list from 1979 to 1982; it was removed so that the U.S. could provide material support to Iraq
Iraq
in its war with Iran. Hussein's regime had proven to be a problem for the UN and Iraq's neighbors due to its use of chemical weapons against Iranians and Kurds
Kurds
in the 1980s. Iraqi no-fly zones[edit] Following the ceasefire agreement that suspended hostilities (but not officially ended) in the 1991 Gulf War, the United States
United States
and its allies instituted and began patrolling Iraqi no-fly zones, to protect Iraq's Kurdish and Shi'a
Shi'a
Arab
Arab
population—both of which suffered attacks from the Hussein regime before and after the Gulf War—in Iraq's northern and southern regions, respectively. U.S. forces continued in combat zone deployments through November 1995 and launched Operation Desert Fox
Operation Desert Fox
against Iraq
Iraq
in 1998 after it failed to meet U.S. demands for "unconditional cooperation" in weapons inspections.[126] In the aftermath of Operation Desert Fox, during December 1998, Iraq announced that it would no longer respect the no-fly zones and resumed its attempts to shoot down U.S. aircraft. Operation Iraqi Freedom[edit] Main article: Iraq
Iraq
War The Iraq War
Iraq War
began in March 2003 with an air campaign, which was immediately followed by a U.S.-led ground invasion. The Bush administration stated the invasion was the "serious consequences" spoken of in the UNSC Resolution 1441, partially by Iraq
Iraq
possessing weapons of mass destruction. The Bush administration also stated the Iraq
Iraq
war was part of the War on Terror; something later questioned or contested. The first ground attack came at the Battle of Umm Qasr
Battle of Umm Qasr
on 21 March 2003 when a combined force of British, American and Polish forces seized control of the port city of Umm Qasr.[127] Baghdad, Iraq's capital city, fell to American troops in April 2003 and Saddam Hussein's government quickly dissolved.[128] On 1 May 2003, Bush announced that major combat operations in Iraq
Iraq
had ended.[129] However, an insurgency arose against the U.S.-led coalition and the newly developing Iraqi military and post-Saddam government. The rebellion, which included al-Qaeda-affiliated groups, led to far more coalition casualties than the invasion. Other elements of the insurgency were led by fugitive members of President Hussein's Ba'ath regime, which included Iraqi nationalists and pan-Arabists. Many insurgency leaders are Islamists
Islamists
and claim to be fighting a religious war to reestablish the Islamic Caliphate
Caliphate
of centuries past.[130] Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
was captured by U.S. forces in December 2003. He was executed in 2006. In 2004, the insurgent forces grew stronger. The U.S. conducted attacks on insurgent strongholds in cities like Najaf and Fallujah. In January 2007, President Bush presented a new strategy for Operation Iraqi Freedom based upon counter-insurgency theories and tactics developed by General David Petraeus. The Iraq War
Iraq War
troop surge of 2007 was part of this "new way forward" and, along with U.S. backing of Sunni
Sunni
groups it had previously sought to defeat, has been credited with a widely recognized dramatic decrease in violence by up to 80%. Operation New Dawn[edit] The war entered a new phase on 1 September 2010,[131] with the official end of U.S. combat operations. The last U.S. troops exited Iraq
Iraq
on 18 December 2011.[132] Operation Inherent Resolve
Operation Inherent Resolve
( Syria
Syria
and Iraq)[edit] Main articles: Military intervention against ISIL, Timeline of the Iraq War
Iraq War
(2014), Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, American-led intervention in Syria, American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present), and List of wars and battles involving ISIL

Tomahawk missiles being fired from USS Philippine Sea and USS Arleigh Burke at IS targets in Syria

In a major split in the ranks of Al Qaeda's organization, the Iraqi franchise, known as Al Qaeda in Iraq
Iraq
covertly invaded Syria
Syria
and the Levant and began participating in the ongoing Syrian Civil War, gaining enough support and strength to re-invade Iraq's western provinces under the name of the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIS/ISIL), taking over much of the country in a blitzkrieg-like action and combining the Iraq
Iraq
insurgency and Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
into a single conflict.[133] Due to their extreme brutality and a complete change in their overall ideology, Al Qaeda's core organization in Central Asia eventually denounced ISIS and directed their affiliates to cut off all ties with this organization.[134] Many analysts[who?] believe that because of this schism, Al Qaeda and ISIL are now in a competition to retain the title of the world's most powerful terrorist organization.[135] The Obama administration began to re-engage in Iraq
Iraq
with a series of airstrikes aimed at ISIS starting on 10 August 2014.[136] On 9 September 2014, President Obama said that he had the authority he needed to take action to destroy the militant group known as the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant, citing the 2001 Authorization for the Use of Military Force Against Terrorists, and thus did not require additional approval from Congress.[137] The following day on 10 September 2014 President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
made a televised speech about ISIL, which he stated: "Our objective is clear: We will degrade, and ultimately destroy, ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counter-terrorism strategy".[138] Obama has authorized the deployment of additional U.S. Forces into Iraq, as well as authorizing direct military operations against ISIL within Syria.[138] On the night of 21/22 September the United States, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the UAE, Jordan
Jordan
and Qatar
Qatar
started air attacks against ISIS in Syria.[citation needed] In October 2014, it was reported that the U.S. Department of Defense considers military operations against ISIL as being under Operation Enduring Freedom in regards to campaign medal awarding.[139] On 15 October, the military intervention became known as "Operation Inherent Resolve".[140] Pakistan[edit] Main article: Pakistan's role in the War on Terror See also: Pakistan– United States
United States
relations, Pakistan
Pakistan
and state-sponsored terrorism, War in North-West Pakistan, Drone strikes in Pakistan, and Death of Osama bin Laden Following the 11 September 2001 attacks, former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
sided with the U.S. against the Taliban
Taliban
government in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after an ultimatum by then U.S. President George W. Bush. Musharraf agreed to give the U.S. the use of three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom. United States
United States
Secretary of State Colin Powell and other U.S. administration officials met with Musharraf. On 19 September 2001, Musharraf addressed the people of Pakistan
Pakistan
and stated that, while he opposed military tactics against the Taliban, Pakistan
Pakistan
risked being endangered by an alliance of India
India
and the U.S. if it did not cooperate. In 2006, Musharraf testified that this stance was pressured by threats from the U.S., and revealed in his memoirs that he had "war-gamed" the United States
United States
as an adversary and decided that it would end in a loss for Pakistan.[141] On 12 January 2002, Musharraf gave a speech against Islamic extremism. He unequivocally condemned all acts of terrorism and pledged to combat Islamic extremism and lawlessness within Pakistan
Pakistan
itself. He stated that his government was committed to rooting out extremism and made it clear that the banned militant organizations would not be allowed to resurface under any new name. He said, "the recent decision to ban extremist groups promoting militancy was taken in the national interest after thorough consultations. It was not taken under any foreign influence".[142] In 2002, the Musharraf-led government took a firm stand against the jihadi organizations and groups promoting extremism, and arrested Maulana Masood Azhar, head of the Jaish-e-Mohammed, and Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, chief of the Lashkar-e-Taiba, and took dozens of activists into custody. An official ban was imposed on the groups on 12 January.[143] Later that year, the Saudi born Zayn al-Abidn Muhammed Hasayn Abu Zubaydah was arrested by Pakistani officials during a series of joint U.S.- Pakistan
Pakistan
raids. Zubaydah is said to have been a high-ranking al-Qaeda official with the title of operations chief and in charge of running al-Qaeda training camps.[144] Other prominent al-Qaeda members were arrested in the following two years, namely Ramzi bin al-Shibh, who is known to have been a financial backer of al-Qaeda operations, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who at the time of his capture was the third highest-ranking official in al-Qaeda and had been directly in charge of the planning for the 11 September attacks. In 2004, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army launched a campaign in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan's Waziristan
Waziristan
region, sending in 80,000 troops. The goal of the conflict was to remove the al-Qaeda and Taliban
Taliban
forces in the area. After the fall of the Taliban
Taliban
regime, many members of the Taliban resistance fled to the Northern border region of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
where the Pakistani army had previously little control. With the logistics and air support of the United States, the Pakistani Army captured or killed numerous al-Qaeda operatives such as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, wanted for his involvement in the USS Cole bombing, the Bojinka plot, and the killing of Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
reporter Daniel Pearl. The United States
United States
has carried out a campaign of Drone attacks on targets all over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. However, the Pakistani Taliban
Taliban
still operates there. To this day it is estimated that 15 U.S. soldiers were killed while fighting al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants in Pakistan
Pakistan
since the War on Terror
War on Terror
began.[145] Osama bin Laden, who was of many founders of al-Qaeda, his wife, and son, were all killed on 2 May 2011, during a raid conducted by the United States
United States
special operations forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.[146] The use of drones by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
in Pakistan
Pakistan
to carry out operations associated with the Global War on Terror
War on Terror
sparks debate over sovereignty and the laws of war. The U.S. Government uses the CIA rather than the U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
for strikes in Pakistan
Pakistan
to avoid breaching sovereignty through military invasion. The United States was criticized by[according to whom?] a report on drone warfare and aerial sovereignty for abusing the term 'Global War on Terror' to carry out military operations through government agencies without formally declaring war. In the three years before the attacks of 11 September, Pakistan received approximately US$9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to US$4.2 billion, making it the country with the maximum funding post 9/11. Baluchistan[edit] An uprising in Baluchistan
Baluchistan
began after Pakistan
Pakistan
invaded and occupied the territory in 1948. Various NGOs have reported human rights violations in committed by Pakistani armed forces. Approximately 18,000 Baluch residents are reportedly missing and about 2000 have been killed.[147] Brahamdagh Bugti, leader of the Baloch Republican Party, stated in a 2008 interview that he would accept aid from India, Afghanistan, and Iran
Iran
in defending Baluchistan
Baluchistan
against Pakistani aggression.[148] Pakistan
Pakistan
has repeatedly accused India
India
of supporting Baloch rebels,[149][150] and David Wright-Neville writes that outside Pakistan, some Western observers also believe that India
India
secretly funds the Balochistan Liberation Army
Balochistan Liberation Army
(BLA).[151] Trans-Sahara (Northern Africa)[edit] Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara[edit] Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Trans Sahara

Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara
Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara
(OEF-TS) is the name of the military operation conducted by the U.S. and partner nations in the Sahara/Sahel region of Africa, consisting of counter-terrorism efforts and policing of arms and drug trafficking across central Africa. The conflict in northern Mali
Mali
began in January 2012 with radical Islamists
Islamists
(affiliated to al-Qaeda) advancing into northern Mali. The Malian government had a hard time maintaining full control over their country. The fledgling government requested support from the international community on combating the Islamic militants. In January 2013, France
France
intervened on behalf of the Malian government's request and deployed troops into the region. They launched Operation Serval
Operation Serval
on 11 January 2013, with the hopes of dislodging the al-Qaeda affiliated groups from northern Mali.[152] Horn of Africa and the Red Sea[edit] Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa[edit] Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Horn of Africa See also: War in Somalia
Somalia
(2006–2009), War in Somalia (2009–present), Piracy off the coast of Somalia, and Drone strikes in Somalia This extension of Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
was titled OEF-HOA. Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect militant activities in the region and to work with willing governments to prevent the reemergence of militant cells and activities.[153] In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established in Djibouti
Djibouti
at Camp Lemonnier.[154] It contains approximately 2,000 personnel including U.S. military and special operations forces (SOF) and coalition force members, Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150). Task Force 150 consists of ships from a shifting group of nations, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region and affecting the United States' Operation Iraqi Freedom. Included in the operation is the training of selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenya
Kenya
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics and providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained. The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the armed forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritania
Mauritania
and Mali. However, the War on Terror
War on Terror
does not include Sudan, where over 400,000 have died in an ongoing civil war. On 1 July 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Laden urged Somalis
Somalis
to build an Islamic state
Islamic state
in the country and warned western governments that the al-Qaeda network would fight against them if they intervened there.[155] Somalia
Somalia
has been considered a "failed state" because its official central government was weak, dominated by warlords and unable to exert effective control over the country. Beginning in mid-2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist
Islamist
faction campaigning on a restoration of "law and order" through Sharia
Sharia
law, had rapidly taken control of much of southern Somalia. On 14 December 2006, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazer claimed al-Qaeda cell operatives were controlling the Islamic Courts Union, a claim denied by the ICU.[156] By late 2006, the UN-backed Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
(TFG) of Somalia
Somalia
had seen its power effectively limited to Baidoa, while the Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
controlled the majority of southern Somalia, including the capital of Mogadishu. On 20 December 2006, the Islamic Courts Union launched an offensive on the government stronghold of Baidoa
Baidoa
and saw early gains before Ethiopia
Ethiopia
intervened for the government. By 26 December, the Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
retreated towards Mogadishu, before again retreating as TFG/Ethiopian troops neared, leaving them to take Mogadishu
Mogadishu
with no resistance. The ICU then fled to Kismayo, where they fought Ethiopian/TFG forces in the Battle of Jilib. The Prime Minister of Somalia
Somalia
claimed that three "terror suspects" from the 1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings are being sheltered in Kismayo.[157] On 30 December 2006, al-Qaeda deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri called upon Muslims worldwide to fight against Ethiopia and the TFG in Somalia.[158] On 8 January 2007, the U.S. launched the Battle of Ras Kamboni
Battle of Ras Kamboni
by bombing Ras Kamboni
Ras Kamboni
using AC-130
AC-130
gunships.[159] On 14 September 2009, U.S. Special Forces
U.S. Special Forces
killed two men and wounded and captured two others near the Somali village of Baarawe. Witnesses claim that helicopters used for the operation launched from French-flagged warships, but that could not be confirmed. A Somali-based al-Qaida affiliated group, the Al-Shabaab, has verified the death of "sheik commander" Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan along with an unspecified number of militants.[160] Nabhan, a Kenyan, was wanted in connection with the 2002 Mombasa attacks.[161] Philippines[edit] Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Philippines[edit] Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Philippines

U.S. Special Forces
U.S. Special Forces
soldier and infantrymen of the Philippine Army

In January 2002, the United States
United States
Special
Special
Operations Command, Pacific deployed to the Philippines
Philippines
to advise and assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
in combating Filipino Islamist
Islamist
groups.[162] The operations were mainly focused on removing the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
group and Jemaah Islamiyah
Jemaah Islamiyah
(JI) from their stronghold on the island of Basilan.[163] The second portion of the operation was conducted as a humanitarian program called "Operation Smiles". The goal of the program was to provide medical care and services to the region of Basilan
Basilan
as part of a "Hearts and Minds" program.[164][165] Joint Special
Special
Operations Task Force – Philippines
Philippines
disbanded in June 2014,[166] ending a successful 12-year mission.[167] After JSOTF-P had disbanded, as late as November 2014, American forces continued to operate in the Philippines
Philippines
under the name "PACOM Augmentation Team", until February 24, 2015.[168][169] Yemen[edit] Main articles: Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
insurgency in Yemen
Yemen
and Drone strikes in Yemen The United States
United States
has also conducted a series of military strikes on al-Qaeda militants in Yemen
Yemen
since the War on Terror
War on Terror
began.[170] Yemen has a weak central government and a powerful tribal system that leaves large lawless areas open for militant training and operations. Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
has a strong presence in the country.[171] On 31 March 2011, AQAP declared the Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
Emirate in Yemen
Yemen
after its captured most of Abyan Governorate.[172] The U.S., in an effort to support Yemeni counter-terrorism efforts, has increased their military aid package to Yemen
Yemen
from less than $11 million in 2006 to more than $70 million in 2009, as well as providing up to $121 million for development over the next three years.[173] U.S. Allies in the Middle East[edit] Israel[edit] Further information: Category: Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism
in Israel Israel
Israel
has been fighting terrorist groups such Hezbollah, Hamas, and Islamic Jihad, who are all Iran's proxies aimed at Iran's objective to destroy Israel. According to the Clarion Project: "Since 1979, Iran has been responsible for countless terrorist plots, directly through regime agents or indirectly through proxies like Hamas
Hamas
and Hezbollah.[174] In 2006, U.S. President [George W Bush] said that Israel's war on terrorist group Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was part of war on terror.[175] Saudi Arabia[edit] Further information: List of terrorist incidents
List of terrorist incidents
in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
witnessed multiple terror attacks from different groups such as Al-Qaeda, whose leader, Osama Bin Laden, declared war on the Saudi government. On June 16, 1996, the Khobar Towers bombing
Khobar Towers bombing
killed 19 U.S. soldiers. The 9/11 Commission
9/11 Commission
concluded that Hezbollah, likely with the support of the Iranian regime, was the perpetrator of that bombing in Saudi Arabia. It said there are “signs” that Al-Qaeda also played a role.[174] Libya[edit] Main articles: 2011 military intervention in Libya, Factional violence in Libya
Libya
(2011–14), Libyan Civil War (2014–present), and American intervention in Libya
Libya
(2015–present) On 19 March 2011, a multi-state coalition began a military action in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The United Nations Intent and Voting was to have "an immediate ceasefire in Libya, including an end to the current attacks against civilians, which it said might constitute crimes against humanity" ... "imposing a ban on all flights in the country's airspace – a no-fly zone – and tightened sanctions on the Qadhafi regime and its supporters." The resolution was taken in response to events during the Libyan Civil War,[176] and military operations began, with American and British naval forces firing over 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles,[177] the French Air Force, British Royal Air Force, and Royal Canadian Air Force[178] undertaking sorties across Libya
Libya
and a naval blockade by Coalition forces.[179] French jets launched air strikes against Libyan Army tanks and vehicles.[180][181] The Libyan government response to the campaign was totally ineffectual, with Gaddafi's forces not managing to shoot down a single NATO
NATO
plane despite the country possessing 30 heavy SAM batteries, 17 medium SAM batteries, 55 light SAM batteries (a total of 400–450 launchers, including 130–150 SA-6
SA-6
launchers and some SA-8
SA-8
launchers), and 440–600 short-range air-defense guns.[182][183] The official names for the interventions by the coalition members are Opération Harmattan by France; Operation Ellamy
Operation Ellamy
by the United Kingdom; Operation Mobile for the Canadian participation and Operation Odyssey Dawn
Operation Odyssey Dawn
for the United States.[184] From the beginning of the intervention, the initial coalition of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Qatar, Spain, UK and US[185][186][187][188][189] expanded to nineteen states, with newer states mostly enforcing the no-fly zone and naval blockade or providing military logistical assistance. The effort was initially largely led by France
France
and the United Kingdom, with command shared with the United States. NATO
NATO
took control of the arms embargo on 23 March, named Operation Unified Protector. An attempt to unify the military leadership of the air campaign (while keeping political and strategic control with a small group), first failed over objections by the French, German, and Turkish governments.[190][191] On 24 March, NATO agreed to take control of the no-fly zone, while command of targeting ground units remains with coalition forces.[192][193][194] The handover occurred on 31 March 2011 at 06:00 UTC
UTC
(08:00 local time). NATO
NATO
flew 26,500 sorties since it took charge of the Libya
Libya
mission on 31 March 2011. Fighting in Libya
Libya
ended in late October following the death of Muammar Gaddafi, and NATO
NATO
stated it would end operations over Libya
Libya
on 31 October 2011. Libya's new government requested its mission to be extended to the end of the year,[195] but on 27 October, the Security Council voted to end NATO's mandate for military action on 31 October.[196]

An AV-8B Harrier takes off from the flight deck of USS Wasp during Operation Odyssey Lightning, August 8, 2016.

NBC News reported that in mid-2014, ISIS had about 1,000 fighters in Libya. Taking advantage of a power vacuum in the center of the country, far from the major cities of Tripoli and Benghazi, ISIS expanded rapidly over the next 18 months. Local militants were joined by jihadists from the rest of North Africa, the Middle East, Europe and the Caucasus. The force absorbed or defeated other Islamist
Islamist
groups inside Libya
Libya
and the central ISIS leadership in Raqqa, Syria, began urging foreign recruits to head for Libya
Libya
instead of Syria. ISIS seized control of the coastal city of Sirte
Sirte
in early 2015 and then began to expand to the east and south. By the beginning of 2016, it had effective control of 120 to 150 miles of coastline and portions of the interior and had reached Eastern Libya's major population center, Benghazi. In spring 2016, AFRICOM estimated that ISIS had about 5,000 fighters in its stronghold of Sirte.[197] However, the indigenous rebel groups who had staked their claims to Libya
Libya
and turned their weapons on ISIS — with the help of airstrikes by Western forces, including U.S. drones, the Libyan population resented the outsiders who wanted to establish a fundamentalist regime on their soil. Militias loyal to the new Libyan unity government, plus a separate and rival force loyal to a former officer in the Qaddafi regime, launched an assault on ISIS outposts in Sirte
Sirte
and the surrounding areas that lasted for months. According to U.S. military estimates, ISIS ranks shrank to somewhere between a few hundred and 2,000 fighters. In August 2016, the U.S. military began airstrikes that, along with continued pressure on the ground from the Libyan militias, pushed the remaining ISIS fighters back into Sirte, In all, U.S. drones and planes hit ISIS nearly 590 times, the Libyan militias reclaimed the city in mid-December.[197] On January 18, 2017, ABC News reported that two USAF B-2 bombers struck two ISIS camps 28 miles (45 km) south of Sirte, the airstrikes targeted between 80 and 100 ISIS fighters in multiple camps, an unmanned aircraft also participated in the airstrikes. NBC News reported that as many as 90 ISIS fighters were killed in the strike, a U.S. defense official said that "This was the largest remaining ISIS presence in Libya," and that "They have been largely marginalized, but I am hesitant to say they have been eliminated in Libya."[197] Other military operations[edit] Operation Active Endeavour[edit] Main article: Operation Active Endeavour Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of NATO
NATO
started in October 2001 in response to the 11 September attacks. It operates in the Mediterranean and is designed to prevent the movement of militants or weapons of mass destruction and to enhance the security of shipping in general.[198] Fighting in Kashmir[edit] Main article: Kashmir conflict

Political Map: the Kashmir region districts

In a 'Letter to American People' written by Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
in 2002, he stated that one of the reasons he was fighting America is because of its support of India
India
on the Kashmir issue.[199][200] While on a trip to Delhi in 2002, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld suggested that Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
was active in Kashmir, though he did not have any hard evidence.[201][202] In 2002, The Christian Science Monitor published an article claiming that Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
and its affiliates were "thriving" in Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Pakistan-administered Kashmir
with the tacit approval of Pakistan's National Intelligence agency Inter-Services Intelligence.[203] A team of Special Air Service
Special Air Service
and Delta Force
Delta Force
was sent into Indian-administered Kashmir
Indian-administered Kashmir
in 2002 to hunt for Osama bin Laden after reports that he was being sheltered by the Kashmiri militant group Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.[204] U.S. officials believed that Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
was helping organize a campaign of terror in Kashmir to provoke conflict between India
India
and Pakistan. Fazlur Rehman Khalil, the leader of the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, signed al-Qaeda's 1998 declaration of holy war, which called on Muslims to attack all Americans
Americans
and their allies.[205] Indian sources claimed that In 2006, Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
claimed they had established a wing in Kashmir; this worried the Indian government.[206] India
India
also argued that Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
has strong ties with the Kashmir militant groups Lashkar-e-Taiba
Lashkar-e-Taiba
and Jaish-e-Mohammed
Jaish-e-Mohammed
in Pakistan.[207] While on a visit to Pakistan
Pakistan
in January 2010, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates
Robert Gates
stated that Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
was seeking to destabilize the region and planning to provoke a nuclear war between India
India
and Pakistan.[208] In September 2009, a U.S. Drone strike reportedly killed Ilyas Kashmiri, who was the chief of Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, a Kashmiri militant group associated with Al-Qaeda.[209][210] Kashmiri was described by Bruce Riedel as a 'prominent' Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
member,[211] while others described him as the head of military operations for Al-Qaeda.[212] Waziristan
Waziristan
had now become the new battlefield for Kashmiri militants, who were now fighting NATO
NATO
in support of Al-Qaeda.[213] On 8 July 2012, Al-Badar Mujahideen, a breakaway faction of Kashmir centric terror group Hizbul Mujahideen, on the conclusion of their two-day Shuhada Conference called for a mobilization of resources for continuation of jihad in Kashmir.[214] American military intervention in Cameroon[edit] In October 2015, the US began deploying 300 soldiers[215] to Cameroon, with the invitation of the Cameroonian government, to support African forces in a non-combat role in their fight against ISIS insurgency in that country. The troops' primary missions will revolve around providing intelligence support to local forces as well as conducting reconnaissance flights.[216] International military support[edit] Main articles: Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
and Multi-National Force – Iraq See also: Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2008 and Afghan War order of battle 2012

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the second largest contributor of troops in Afghanistan

The invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is seen to have been the first action of this war, and initially involved forces from the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Afghan Northern Alliance. Since the initial invasion period, these forces were augmented by troops and aircraft from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand and Norway
Norway
amongst others. In 2006, there were about 33,000 troops in Afghanistan. On 12 September 2001, less than 24 hours after the 11 September attacks in New York City
New York City
and Washington, D.C., NATO
NATO
invoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
and declared the attacks to be an attack against all 19 NATO
NATO
member countries. Australian Prime Minister John Howard also stated that Australia
Australia
would invoke the ANZUS
ANZUS
Treaty along similar lines.[217] In the following months, NATO
NATO
took a broad range of measures to respond to the threat of terrorism. On 22 November 2002, the member states of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
(EAPC) decided on a Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism, which explicitly states, "[The] EAPC States are committed to the protection and promotion of fundamental freedoms and human rights, as well as the rule of law, in combating terrorism."[218] NATO
NATO
started naval operations in the Mediterranean Sea designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general called Operation Active Endeavour. Support for the U.S. cooled when America made clear its determination to invade Iraq
Iraq
in late 2002. Even so, many of the "coalition of the willing" countries that unconditionally supported the U.S.-led military action have sent troops to Afghanistan, particular neighboring Pakistan, which has disowned its earlier support for the Taliban
Taliban
and contributed tens of thousands of soldiers to the conflict. Pakistan
Pakistan
was also engaged in the War in North-West Pakistan ( Waziristan
Waziristan
War). Supported by U.S. intelligence, Pakistan
Pakistan
was attempting to remove the Taliban
Taliban
insurgency and al-Qaeda element from the northern tribal areas.[219] Terrorist attacks and failed plots since 9/11[edit]

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Al-Qaeda[edit] Main article: al-Qaeda Since 9/11, Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
and other affiliated radical Islamist
Islamist
groups have executed attacks in several parts of the world where conflicts are not taking place. Whereas countries like Pakistan
Pakistan
have suffered hundreds of attacks killing tens of thousands and displacing much more.

The 2002 Bali bombings
2002 Bali bombings
in Indonesia
Indonesia
were committed by various members of Jemaah Islamiyah, an organization linked to Al-Qaeda. The 2003 Casablanca bombings
2003 Casablanca bombings
were carried out by Salafia Jihadia, an Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
affiliate. After the 2003 Istanbul bombings, Turkey
Turkey
charged 74 people with involvement, including Syrian Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
member Loai al-Saqa. The 2004 Madrid train bombings
2004 Madrid train bombings
in Spain
Spain
were "inspired by" Al-Qaeda, though no direct involvement has been established. The 7 July 2005 London bombings
2005 London bombings
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
were perpetrated by four homegrown terrorists, one of whom appeared in an edited video with a known Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
operative, though the British government denies Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
involvement. Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the 11 April 2007 Algiers bombings in Algeria. The 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack
2007 Glasgow International Airport attack
in the United Kingdom was carried out by a pair of bombers whose laptops and suicide notes included videos and speeches referencing Al-Qaeda, though no direct involvement was established. The 2009 Fort Hood shooting
2009 Fort Hood shooting
in the United States
United States
was committed by Nidal Malik Hasan, who had been in communication with Anwar al-Awlaki, though the Department of Defense classifies the shooting as an incidence of workplace violence. Morocco
Morocco
blames Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
for the 2011 Marrakech bombing, though Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
denies involvement. The 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings
Toulouse and Montauban shootings
in France
France
were committed by Mohammed Merah, who reportedly had familial ties to Al-Qaeda, along with a history of petty crime and psychological issues. Merah claimed ties to Al-Qaeda, though French authorities deny any connection. To date, no one has been convicted for the 2012 U.S. Consulate attack in Benghazi
Benghazi
in Libya, and no one has claimed responsibility. Branches of Al-Qaeda, Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
affiliates, and individuals "sympathetic to Al-Qaeda" are blamed. The gunmen in the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting
Charlie Hebdo shooting
in Paris identified themselves as belonging to Al-Qaeda's branch in Yemen.

There may also have been several additional planned attacks that were not successful.

2004 financial buildings plot
2004 financial buildings plot
(The United States
United States
and the United Kingdom) 21 July 2005 London bombings
2005 London bombings
(United Kingdom) 2006 Toronto terrorism plot (Canada) 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot
2006 transatlantic aircraft plot
involving liquid explosives carried onto commercial airplanes 2006 Hudson River bomb plot (United States) 2007 Fort Dix attack plot (United States) 2007 London car bombs
2007 London car bombs
(United Kingdom) 2007 John F. Kennedy International Airport attack plot (United States) 2009 Bronx terrorism plot
2009 Bronx terrorism plot
(United States) 2009 New York City
New York City
Subway and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
plot (The United States and the United Kingdom) 2009 Northwest Airlines Flight 253
Northwest Airlines Flight 253
bombing plot (United States) 2010 Stockholm bombings
2010 Stockholm bombings
(Sweden) 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt
2010 Times Square car bombing attempt
(United States) 2010 cargo plane bomb plot
2010 cargo plane bomb plot
(United States) 2010 Portland car bomb plot
2010 Portland car bomb plot
(United States) 2011 Manhattan terrorism plot (United States) 2013 VIA Rail Canada
Canada
terrorism plot (Canada)

The Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL)[edit] Main article: Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

2013 Reyhanlı bombings in Turkey
Turkey
that led to 52 deaths and the injury of 140 people. 2014 Canadian parliament shootings, an ISIL-inspired attack on Canada's Parliament, resulting in the death of a Canadian soldier, as well as that of the perpetrator. 2015 Porte de Vincennes siege
Porte de Vincennes siege
perpetrated by Amedy Coulibaly
Amedy Coulibaly
in Paris, which led to four deaths and the injury of nine others. 2015 Corinthia Hotel attack
2015 Corinthia Hotel attack
on 27 January in Libya
Libya
that resulted in 10 deaths. 2015 Sana'a mosque bombings
2015 Sana'a mosque bombings
on 20 March that led to the death of 142 and injury of 351 people. 2015 Curtis Culwell Center attack
Curtis Culwell Center attack
on 3 May 2015 that resulted in the injury of one security officer. November 2015 Paris attacks
November 2015 Paris attacks
on the 13th that left at least 137 dead and injured at least 352 civilians caused France
France
to be put under a state of emergency, close its borders and deploy three French contingency plans.[220] Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attacks,[221] with French President François Hollande
François Hollande
later stated the attacks were carried out "by the Islamic state
Islamic state
with internal help".[222] 2015 San Bernardino attack
2015 San Bernardino attack
on 2 December 2015, two gunmen attacked a county building in San Bernardino, California killing 16 people and injuring 24 others.[223] 2016 Brussels bombing
2016 Brussels bombing
on 22 March 2016 two bombing attacks, first at Brussels Airport
Brussels Airport
and the second at the Maalbeek/Maelbeek metro station, killed 35 people and injured more than 300. 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting
2016 Orlando nightclub shooting
on 12 June 2016 a gunman opened fire at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Florida killing 50 people and wounding 53 others. It was the worst mass shooting in U.S. history.[224] As well as a thwarted 2014 mass-beheading plot in Australia.

Post 9/11
9/11
events inside the United States[edit] Main article: Patriot Act Further information: Detentions following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
and Aftermath of the September 11 attacks

A U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
helicopter patrols the airspace over New York City

In addition to military efforts abroad, in the aftermath of 9/11, the Bush Administration increased domestic efforts to prevent future attacks. Various government bureaucracies that handled security and military functions were reorganized. A new cabinet-level agency called the United States
United States
Department of Homeland Security was created in November 2002 to lead and coordinate the largest reorganization of the U.S. federal government since the consolidation of the armed forces into the Department of Defense.[citation needed] The Justice Department launched the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System for certain male non-citizens in the U.S., requiring them to register in person at offices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The USA PATRIOT Act of October 2001 dramatically reduces restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eases restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States; expands the Secretary of the Treasury's authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and broadens the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expanded the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Act's expanded law enforcement powers could be applied. A new Terrorist Finance Tracking Program monitored the movements of terrorists' financial resources (discontinued after being revealed by The New York Times). Global telecommunication usage, including those with no links to terrorism,[225] is being collected and monitored through the NSA electronic surveillance program. The Patriot Act
Patriot Act
is still in effect. Political interest groups have stated that these laws remove important restrictions on governmental authority, and are a dangerous encroachment on civil liberties, possible unconstitutional violations of the Fourth Amendment. On 30 July 2003, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed the first legal challenge against Section 215 of the Patriot Act, claiming that it allows the FBI
FBI
to violate a citizen's First Amendment rights, Fourth Amendment rights, and right to due process, by granting the government the right to search a person's business, bookstore, and library records in a terrorist investigation, without disclosing to the individual that records were being searched.[226] Also, governing bodies in many communities have passed symbolic resolutions against the act.

John Walker Lindh
John Walker Lindh
was captured as an enemy combatant during the United States' 2001 invasion of Afghanistan

In a speech on 9 June 2005, Bush said that the USA PATRIOT Act had been used to bring charges against more than 400 suspects, more than half of whom had been convicted. Meanwhile, the ACLU quoted Justice Department figures showing that 7,000 people have complained of abuse of the Act. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began an initiative in early 2002 with the creation of the Total Information Awareness program, designed to promote information technologies that could be used in counter-terrorism. This program, facing criticism, has since been defunded by Congress. By 2003, 12 major conventions and protocols were designed to combat terrorism. These were adopted and ratified by many states. These conventions require states to co-operate on principal issues regarding unlawful seizure of aircraft, the physical protection of nuclear materials, and the freezing of assets of militant networks.[227] In 2005, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1624 concerning incitement to commit acts of terrorism and the obligations of countries to comply with international human rights laws.[228] Although both resolutions require mandatory annual reports on counter-terrorism activities by adopting nations, the United States and Israel
Israel
have both declined to submit reports. In the same year, the United States
United States
Department of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a planning document, by the name "National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism", which stated that it constituted the "comprehensive military plan to prosecute the Global War on Terror
War on Terror
for the Armed Forces of the United States...including the findings and recommendations of the 9/11 Commission and a rigorous examination with the Department of Defense". On 9 January 2007, the House of Representatives passed a bill, by a vote of 299–128, enacting many of the recommendations of the 9/11 Commission The bill passed in the U.S. Senate,[229] by a vote of 60–38, on 13 March 2007 and it was signed into law on 3 August 2007 by President Bush. It became Public Law 110-53. In July 2012, U.S. Senate passed a resolution urging that the Haqqani Network
Haqqani Network
be designated a foreign terrorist organization.[230] The Office of Strategic Influence was secretly created after 9/11
9/11
for the purpose of coordinating propaganda efforts but was closed soon after being discovered. The Bush administration implemented the Continuity of Operations Plan
Continuity of Operations Plan
(or Continuity of Government) to ensure that U.S. government would be able to continue in catastrophic circumstances. Since 9/11, extremists made various attempts to attack the United States, with varying levels of organization and skill. For example, vigilant passengers aboard a transatlantic flight prevented Richard Reid, in 2001, and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, in 2009, from detonating an explosive device. Other terrorist plots have been stopped by federal agencies using new legal powers and investigative tools, sometimes in cooperation with foreign governments.[citation needed] Such thwarted attacks include:

The 2001 shoe bomb plot A plan to crash airplanes into the U.S. Bank Tower (aka Library Tower) in Los Angeles The 2003 plot by Iyman Faris to blow up the Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
in New York City The 2004 Financial buildings plot, which targeted the International Monetary Fund and World Bank
World Bank
buildings in Washington, D.C., the New York Stock Exchange and other financial institutions The 2004 Columbus Shopping Mall Bombing Plot The 2006 Sears Tower plot The 2007 Fort Dix attack plot The 2007 John F. Kennedy International Airport attack plot The New York Subway Bombing Plot and 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt

The Obama administration has promised the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, increased the number of troops in Afghanistan, and promised the withdrawal of its forces from Iraq. Casualties[edit] According to Joshua Goldstein, an international relations professor at the American University, The Global War on Terror
War on Terror
has seen fewer war deaths than any other decade in the past century.[231] There is no widely agreed on figure for the number of people that have been killed so far in the War on Terror
War on Terror
as it has been defined by the Bush Administration to include the war in Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, and operations elsewhere. The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and the Physicians for Social Responsibility and Physicians for Global Survival give total estimates ranging from 1.3 million to 2 million casualties.[232] Some estimates for regional conflicts include the following:

Child killed by a car bomb in Kirkuk, July 2011

Play media

Footage of leaked Apache gunship strike in Baghdad, July 2007

Iraq: 62,570 to 1,124,000

Main article: Casualties of the Iraq
Iraq
War

Iraq
Iraq
Body Count project documented 110,937–121,227 civilian deaths from violence from March 2003 to December 2012.[233][234][235] 110,600 deaths in total according to the Associated Press
Associated Press
from March 2003 to April 2009.[236] 151,000 deaths in total according to the Iraq
Iraq
Family Health Survey.[237] Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll conducted 12–19 August 2007 estimated 1,033,000 violent deaths due to the Iraq
Iraq
War. The range given was 946,000 to 1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2,000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household (living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq
Iraq
War. 22% of the respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that "48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9% from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from another blast/ordnance."[238][239][240] Between 392,979 and 942,636 estimated Iraqi (655,000 with a confidence interval of 95%), civilian and combatant, according to the second Lancet survey of mortality. A minimum of 62,570 civilian deaths reported in the mass media up to 28 April 2007 according to Iraq
Iraq
Body Count project.[241] 4,409 U.S. military dead (929 non-hostile deaths), and 31,926 wounded in action during Operation Iraqi Freedom.[242] 66 U.S. Military Dead (28 non-hostile deaths), and 295 wounded in action during Operation New Dawn.[242]

Afghanistan: between 10,960 and 249,000[243]

Main article: Civilian casualties of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

16,725–19,013 civilians killed according to Cost of War project from 2001 to 2013[244]

According to Marc W. Herold's extensive database,[245] between 3,100 and 3,600 civilians were directly killed by U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom bombing and Special
Special
Forces attacks between 7 October 2001 and 3 June 2003. This estimate counts only "impact deaths"—deaths that occurred in the immediate aftermath of an explosion or shooting—and does not count deaths that occurred later as a result of injuries sustained, or deaths that occurred as an indirect consequence of the U.S. airstrikes and invasion.

In an opinion article published in August 2002 in the magazine The Weekly Standard, Joshua Muravchik
Joshua Muravchik
of the American Enterprise Institute,[246] questioned Professor Herold's study entirely by one single incident that involved 25–93 deaths. He did not provide any estimate his own.[247]

In a pair of January 2002 studies, Carl Conetta of the Project on Defense Alternatives estimates that "at least" 4,200–4,500 civilians were killed by mid-January 2002 as a result of the war and Coalition airstrikes, both directly as casualties of the aerial bombing campaign, and indirectly in the resulting humanitarian crisis.

His first study, "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties?",[248] released 18 January 2002, estimates that, at the low end, "at least" 1,000–1,300 civilians were directly killed in the aerial bombing campaign in just the three months between 7 October 2001 to 1 January 2002. The author found it impossible to provide an upper-end estimate to direct civilian casualties from the Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
bombing campaign that he noted as having an increased use of cluster bombs.[249] In this lower-end estimate, only Western press sources were used for hard numbers, while heavy "reduction factors" were applied to Afghan government reports so that their estimates were reduced by as much as 75%.[250]

In his companion study, "Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
and the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
war",[251] released 30 January 2002, Conetta estimates that "at least" 3,200 more Afghans died by mid-January 2002, of "starvation, exposure, associated illnesses, or injury sustained while in flight from war zones", as a result of the war and Coalition airstrikes.

In similar numbers, a Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
review of U.S., British, and Pakistani newspapers and international wire services found that between 1,067 and 1,201 direct civilian deaths were reported by those news organizations during the five months from 7 October 2001 to 28 February 2002. This review excluded all civilian deaths in Afghanistan that did not get reported by U.S., British, or Pakistani news, excluded 497 deaths that did get reported in U.S., British, and Pakistani news but that were not specifically identified as civilian or military, and excluded 754 civilian deaths that were reported by the Taliban
Taliban
but not independently confirmed.[252]

According to Jonathan Steele of The Guardian
The Guardian
between 20,000 and 49,600 people may have died of the consequences of the invasion by the spring of 2002.[253]

2,046 U.S. military dead (339 non-hostile deaths), and 18,201 wounded in action.[242]

A report titled Body Count put together by Physicians for Social Responsibility, Physicians for Global Survival, and International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) concluded that between 185,000–249,000 people had been killed as a result of the fighting in Afghanistan.[243]

Pakistan: Between 1467 and 2334 people were killed in U.S. drone attacks as of 6 May 2011. Tens of thousands have been killed by terrorist attacks, millions displaced.

Main articles: Drone attacks in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Terrorism
Terrorism
in Pakistan

Somalia: 7,000+

In December 2007, The Elman Peace and Human Rights Organization said it had verified 6,500 civilian deaths, 8,516 people wounded, and 1.5 million displaced from homes in Mogadishu
Mogadishu
alone during the year 2007.[254]

USA

1 June 2009, Pvt. William Andrew Long was shot and killed by Abdulhakim Muhammad, while outside a recruiting facility in Little Rock AR.[255][256] On 5 November 2009, Nidal Malik Hasan
Nidal Malik Hasan
shot and killed 13 people and wounded more than 30 others at Fort Hood, Texas.[257]

Total American casualties from the War on Terror (this includes fighting throughout the world):

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U.S. Military killed 7,008[242]

U.S. Military wounded 50,422[242]

U.S. DoD Civilians killed 16[242]

U.S. Civilians killed (includes 9/11
9/11
and after) 3,000 +

U.S. Civilians wounded/injured 6,000 +

Total Americans
Americans
killed (military and civilian) 10,008 +

Total Americans
Americans
wounded/injured 56,422 +

[258][259][260][261][262] The United States
United States
Department of Veterans Affairs has diagnosed more than 200,000 American veterans with PTSD
PTSD
since 2001.[263]

Yemen

Main article: Terrorism
Terrorism
in Yemen Total terrorist casualties[edit] On December 7, 2015, the Washington Post reported that since 2001, in five theaters of the war (Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen, Syria
Syria
and Somalia) that the total number of terrorists killed ranges from 65,800 to 88,600, with Obama administration being responsible for between 30,000 and 33,000.[264] Costs[edit] A March 2011 Congressional report[265] estimated spending related to the war through the fiscal year 2011 at $1.2 trillion, and that spending through 2021 assuming a reduction to 45,000 troops would be $1.8 trillion. A June 2011 academic report[265] covering additional areas of spending related to the war estimated it through 2011 at $2.7 trillion, and long-term spending at $5.4 trillion including interest.[note 4] According to the Soufan Group in July 2015, the United States government spends $9.4 million per day in operations against ISIS in Syria
Syria
and Iraq.[266]

Expense CRS/CBO (Billions US$):[267][268][269] Watson (Billions constant US$):[270]

FY2001-FY2011

War appropriations to DoD 1208.1 1311.5

War appropriations to DoS/USAID 66.7 74.2

VA Medical 8.4 13.7

VA disability

18.9

Interest paid on DoD war appropriations

185.4

Additions to DoD base spending

362.2–652.4

Additions to Homeland Security base spending

401.2

Social costs to veterans and military families to date

295-400

Subtotal: 1283.2 2662.1–3057.3

FY2012-future

FY2012 DoD request 118.4

FY2012 DoS/USAID request 12.1

Projected 2013–2015 war spending 168.6

Projected 2016–2020 war spending 155

Projected obligations for veterans' care to 2051

589–934

Additional interest payments to 2020

1000

Subtotal: 454.1 2043.1–2388.1

Total: 1737.3 4705.2–5445.4

Criticism[edit] Main article: Criticism of the War on Terror

Participants in a rally, dressed as hooded detainees

Criticism of the War on Terror
Criticism of the War on Terror
addressed the issues, morality, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terror and made against the phrase itself, calling it a misnomer. The notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven highly contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives,[271] reduce civil liberties,[272] and infringe upon human rights. It is argued that the term war is not appropriate in this context (as in War on Drugs) since there is no identifiable enemy and that it is unlikely international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means.[273] Other critics, such as Francis Fukuyama, note that "terrorism" is not an enemy, but a tactic; calling it a "war on terror", obscures differences between conflicts such as anti-occupation insurgents and international mujahideen. With a military presence in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and its associated collateral damage, Shirley Williams maintains this increases resentment and terrorist threats against the West.[274] There is also perceived U.S. hypocrisy,[275][276] media-induced hysteria,[277] and that differences in foreign and security policy have damaged America's reputation internationally.[278] Other Wars on Terror[edit] In the 2010s, China
China
has also been engaged in its own War on Terror, predominantly a domestic campaign in response to violent actions by Uighur separatist movements in the Xinjiang conflict.[279] This campaign was widely criticized in international media due to the perception that it unfairly targets and persecutes Chinese Muslims,[280] potentially resulting in a negative backlash from China's predominantly Muslim
Muslim
Uighur population. Russia
Russia
has also been engaged on its own, also largely internally focused, counter-terrorism campaign often termed a war on terror, during the Second Chechen War, the Insurgency
Insurgency
in the North Caucasus, and the Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War.[281] Like China's war on terror, Russia's has also been focused on separatist and Islamist
Islamist
movements that use political violence to achieve their ends.[282] See also[edit]

Islam portal Terrorism
Terrorism
portal War portal Government of the United States
United States
portal 2000s portal 2010s portal

AfPak Appeal to fear Attacks on U.S. consulate in Karachi Axis of evil Bush Doctrine Cold War Culture of fear Foreign policy of the United States Iran
Iran
and state-sponsored terrorism Islamic terrorism
Islamic terrorism
in Europe (2014–present) List of military operations in the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) Nuclear terrorism Pakistan– United States
United States
relations Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Timeline of the War on Terror Timeline of United States
United States
military operations History of the United States
United States
at War United States
United States
and state terrorism

Notes[edit]

^ Origins date back to the 1980s. ^ Origins date back to the 1980s. ^ Former army chief. ^ Among costs not covered by these figures are off-DoD spending beyond 2012, economic opportunity costs, state and local expenses not reimbursed by the federal government, nor reimbursements made to foreign coalition allies for their expenses.

References[edit]

^ Duterte Invites China
China
to Fight Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
Pirates – MaritimeExecutive.com ^ China
China
confiscates passports of Xinjiang people – BBC.com ^ Sebastian Payne (25 September 2014). "What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing". Washington Post.  ^ "Bangladesh". Coalition Contires. United States
United States
Central Command. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.  ^ Vasudevan Sridharan. " Cyprus
Cyprus
offers its airbase to France
France
to bomb Isis targets". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ "Allies Express Support for U.S. War on Terror". Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ Stout, David (31 July 2006). "Bush Ties Battle With Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to War on Terror". The New York Times.  ^ Williams, Dan (2014-09-08). " Israel
Israel
provides intelligence on Islamic State: Western diplomat". Reuters/Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2014-09-27.  ^ " Israel
Israel
urges global spies to pool resources on IS". AFP/Yahoo! News. 2014-09-09. Retrieved 2014-09-27.  ^ "Backing Kuwait's Stand against Terrorism". washingtoninstitute.org.  ^ "Congressional Record, V. 153, PT. 12, June 18, 2007 to June 26, 2007". US Congress. Government Printing Office: 16154. 2010.  ^ Elisa Vásquez. " Panama
Panama
Joins Coalition against ISIS Despite Having No Army". PanAm Post.  ^ "Saudi Arabia's Shifting War on Terror". Washington Institute. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ Mike Levine; James Gordon Meek; Pierre Thomas; Lee Ferran (23 September 2014). "What Is the Khorasan Group, Targeted By US in Syria?". ABC News. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ "Wilayat al-Yemen: The Islamic State's New Front". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Schanzer, Jonathan (2011-05-02). "The Hamas-al Qaeda Alliance". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2014-09-27.  ^ Bush, George W. (2010). Decision Points. Crown Publishers. pp. 399–400. Palestinian extremists, many affiliated with the terrorist group Hamas, launched a wave of terrorist attacks against innocent civilians in Israel...My views [on Israel
Israel
and Hamas] came into sharper focus after 9/11.  ^ Halevi, Jonathan D. (2014-08-04). "The Hamas
Hamas
Threat to the West Is No Different from ISIS". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2014-09-29.  ^ Thiessen, Marc A. (8 December 2011). " Iran
Iran
responsible for 1998 U.S. embassy bombings". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2014.  ^ "U.S. District Court Rules Iran
Iran
Behind 9/11
9/11
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had planned to attack COAS, The News International, 18 September 2009[dead link] ^ "'Militants recruit in Rawalpindi for anti- India
India
activities'". 10 July 2012.  ^ "Obama to deploy 300 US troops to Cameroon
Cameroon
to fight Boko Haram
Boko Haram
World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-25.  ^ "US troops deployed to Cameroon
Cameroon
for Boko Haram
Boko Haram
fight". Al Jazeera English. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2015-10-25.  ^ "PM speaks on Ansett collapse, Anzus treaty". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 September 2001. Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ "Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism" (PDF). NATO. 22 November 2002. Retrieved 19 January 2011. [dead link] ^ "New frontline in the war on terror".  ^ "Paris attacks: Suspect on the run as terror raids end in failure — latest news". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-16.  ^ "L'organisation État islamique revendique les attentats de Paris" (in French). France
France
24. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.  ^ "Paris attacks: Hollande blames Islamic State for 'act of war'". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2015.  ^ Callimachi, Rukmini (5 December 2015). "Islamic State Says 'Soldiers of Caliphate' Attacked in San Bernardino" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "ISIS claims responsibility for Orlando mass shooting".  ^ "The double danger of the NSA's 'collect it all' policy on surveillance Rachel Levinson-Waldman Comment is free". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.  ^ "American Libraries – First Patriot Act
Patriot Act
Challenge Filed by ACLU". ALA. 4 August 2003. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Cindy C Combs (2003), Terrorism
Terrorism
in the Twenty First Century, (3rd Edition, New Jersey: Pearsons Educ. Inc.) ^ "UN Security Council Counter- Terrorism
Terrorism
Committee". United Nations. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote". senate.gov. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.  ^ "US Cong votes for designating Haqqani network
Haqqani network
as terror group". 28 July 2012.  ^ Goldstein, Joshua S. "Think Again: War". Foreign Policy Magazine, 15 August 2011. ^ "Doctors' group says 1.3 million killed in U.S. 'War on Terror'". 25 March 2015.  ^ Staff writer (23 October 2010). " Iraq War
Iraq War
Logs: What the Numbers Reveal". Iraq
Iraq
Body Count. Retrieved 20 November 2010. ^ "Civilian deaths from violence in 2003–2011". Iraq
Iraq
Body Count. 2 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-10.  ^ "Civilian deaths from violence in 2012". Iraq
Iraq
Body Count. 1 January 2013.  ^ Associated Press, 14 October 2009 ^ " Iraq
Iraq
Family Health Survey". Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ ""More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered"". Archived from the original on 2 October 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007. . September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: Opinion.co.uk Archived 25 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq
Iraq
May Top 1 Million". Common Dreams. Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq
Iraq
was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". Common Dreams. Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ "IraqBodyCount". IraqBodyCount. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ a b c d e f "OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS *" (PDF). American Forces Press Service. United States
United States
Department of Defense. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ a b "Body Count – Casualty Figures after 10 Years of the "War on Terror" – Iraq
Iraq
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Pakistan" (PDF), by IPPNW, PGS and PSR, p. 78, First international edition (March 2015) Gabriela Motroc (7 April 2015). "U.S. War on Terror
War on Terror
has reportedly killed 1.3 million people in a decade". Australian National Review. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.  "220,000 killed in US war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
80,000 in Pakistan: report". Daily Times. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.  ^ "Afghan Civilians". Costs of War. 27 February 2001. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ "Dossier on Civilian Victims of United States' Aerial Bombing". Pubpages.unh.edu. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "The FP Memo: Operation Comeback – By Joshua Muravchik". Foreign Policy. 10 October 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "The Prof Who Can't Count Straight". The Weekly Standard. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties?". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties – Bombers and cluster bombs". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties – Appendix 1. Estimation of Civilian Bombing Casualties: Method and Sources". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
war". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "'The Americans
Americans
. . . They Just Drop Their Bombs and Leave'". Los Angeles Times - Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 4 June 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Guardian.co.uk" The Guardian ^ " Mogadishu
Mogadishu
violence kills 6,500 in past year: rights group". 21 March 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ Gambrell, Jon (8 June 2009). "Funeral held for soldier killed in Ark. attack". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.  ^ "Recruitment Shooting Suspect Doesn't Think Killing Was Murder". Fox News. Associated Press. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.  ^ "Bill would give Purple Heart to Fort Hood shooting victims". Austin Statesman. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2013. Thirteen people were killed and more than 30 wounded in the rampage.  ^ " Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Iraq". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Forces: U.S. & Coalition/POW/MIA". CNN.  ^ "Military Casualty Information". Siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "OEF Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Fatalities By Year". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ " Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Iraq
Iraq
Fatalities By Nationality". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Aikins, Matthieu; Koehler, Chris (2013). "Mental Combat". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. 282 (3): 40–45. Retrieved 15 February 2013.  ^ "How many terrorists has President Obama actually 'taken out'? Probably over 30,000". The Washington Post. 7 December 2015.  ^ a b Daniel Trotta (29 June 2011). "Cost of war at least $3.7 trillion and counting". Reuters. Retrieved 25 June 2012.  ^ "TSG IntelBrief: Terrorism
Terrorism
in the Horn of Africa". The Soufan Group. New York, NY. 2015-07-28. Retrieved 2015-07-28.  ^ Amy Belasco (16 July 2010). "The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror
War on Terror
Operations Since 2011". Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.  ^ K. Alan Kronstadt (6 February 2009). "Pakistan-U.S. Relations". Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.  ^ Congressional Research Service
Congressional Research Service
(11 February 2011). "Long-Term Implications of the 2011 Future Years Defense Program". Retrieved 25 June 2012.  ^ Eisenhower Study Group (2011). "Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Anti- Terrorism
Terrorism
Operations". Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.  ^ George Monbiot, "A Wilful Blindness" ("Those who support the coming war with Iraq
Iraq
refuse to see that it has anything to do with US global domination"), monbiot.com (author's website archives), reposted from The Guardian, 11 March 2003. Retrieved 28 May 2007. ^ Singel, Ryan (13 March 2008). " FBI
FBI
Tried to Cover Patriot Act
Patriot Act
Abuses With Flawed, Retroactive Subpoenas, Audit Finds". Wired. Retrieved 13 February 2012.  ^ Richissin, Todd (2 September 2004). ""War on terror" difficult to define". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ Williams, Shirley. "The seeds of Iraq's future terror". The Guardian, 28 October 2003. ^ "American Hegemony: How to Use It, How to Lose It by Gen. William Odom" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-27.  ^ Obama's Muslim
Muslim
Speech, The New York Times, by Madeleine Albright, retrieved on April 25, 2016 "According to Muslim
Muslim
speakers at such events, one fact stands out: When the cold war ended, America needed an enemy to replace Communism and chose Islam...Mr. Obama's dilemma is that no speech, however eloquent, can disentangle U.S.-Muslim relations from the treacherous terrain of current events in places such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran
Iran
and the Middle East...Muslims desire respect and respect demands frankness. We cannot pretend that American soldiers and aircraft are not attacking Muslims." ^ Lustick, Ian S. (2006) [1 September 2006]. Trapped in the War on Terror. University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. ISBN 0-8122-3983-0.  ^ "America's Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project". Pew Research Center. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012.  ^ "China's 'War on Terror': September 11 and Uighur Separatism". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 10 September 2015.  ^ Simon Denyer (19 September 2014). "China's war on terror becomes all-out attack on Islam in Xinjiang". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 September 2015.  ^ "Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com". Time. 19 September 2011.  ^ Cohen, Ariel. "Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism" (PDF). Retrieved 29 November 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Sergei Boeke, Transitioning from Military Interventions to a Long-Term Counter- Terrorism
Terrorism
Policy (International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague, 2014) Coughlin, Stephen (2015). Catastrophic Failure: Blindfolding America in the Face of Jihad. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1511617505.  Jackson, Richard. Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counter-Terrorism. Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press, 2005. ISBN 0719071216.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: War on Terror

White House
White House
information about the War on Terrorism CIA and the War on Terrorism U.S. National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 2006

Articles relating to the War on Terror

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism
Terrorism
in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia
Somalia
(2006–09) 2007 Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism
Terrorism
portal War portal

v t e

al-Qaeda

Leadership

Ayman al-Zawahiri Saif al-Adel Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah Hamza bin Laden Abdelmalek Droukdel Mokhtar Belmokhtar Qasim al-Raymi Abu Mohammad al-Julani Ahmad Umar Asim Umar Ezedin Abdel Aziz Khalil

Former leadership

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
(killed) Abu Yahya al-Libi (killed) Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
(captured) Mamdouh Mahmud Salim
Mamdouh Mahmud Salim
(captured) Anwar al-Awlaki
Anwar al-Awlaki
(killed) Samir Khan (killed) Younis al-Mauritani (captured) Mohammed Atef
Mohammed Atef
(killed) Fazul Abdullah Mohammed (killed) Abu Faraj al-Libbi (captured) Atiyah Abd al-Rahman (killed) Abu Laith al-Libi
Abu Laith al-Libi
(killed) Fahd al-Quso (killed) Ilyas Kashmiri
Ilyas Kashmiri
(killed) Abu Hamza Rabia (killed) Haitham al-Yemeni (killed) Abdullah Said al Libi (killed) Abu Sulayman Al-Jazairi (killed) Saleh al-Somali (killed) Abu Ubaidah al-Masri (died) Saad bin Laden (killed) Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam (killed) Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan (killed) Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali (killed) Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim (killed) Mushin Musa Matwalli Atwah (killed) Midhat Mursi (killed) Saeed al-Masri (killed) Hassan Ghul (killed) Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri (died) Walid bin Attash
Walid bin Attash
(captured) Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri
Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri
(captured) Mustafa Setmariam Nasar (captured) Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi (killed) Khalid Habib (killed) Abdul Hadi al Iraqi (captured) Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil
Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil
(killed) Mohamed Abul-Khair (killed) Mahfouz Ould al-Walid (left) Sulaiman Abu Ghaith (captured) Abu Anas al-Libi (captured and died) Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
(killed) Abu Ayyub al-Masri (killed) Abu Omar al-Baghdadi (killed) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
(expelled) Abu-Zaid al Kuwaiti
Abu-Zaid al Kuwaiti
(killed) Omar al-Faruq (killed) Said Ali al-Shihri
Said Ali al-Shihri
(killed) Ahmed Abdi Godane (killed) Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah (killed) Adam Yahiye Gadahn (killed) Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari
Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari
(killed) Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh
Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh
(killed) Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi
Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi
(killed) Nasir al-Wuhayshi
Nasir al-Wuhayshi
(killed) Muhsin al-Fadhli
Muhsin al-Fadhli
(killed) Abu Khalil al-Madani (killed) Abu Khayr al-Masri (killed)

Timeline of attacks

1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings 2000 USS Cole bombing 2001 September 11 attacks 2002 Bali bombings 2007 Algiers bombings 2008 Islamabad Danish embassy bombing 2008 Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing 2012 Benghazi
Benghazi
attack 2013 In Amenas hostage crisis 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting 2015 Garissa University College attack 2015 Bamako hotel attack 2016 Ouagadougou attacks 2016 Grand-Bassam shootings 2016 Bamako attack

Wars

Soviet–Afghan War Afghan Civil War (1989–92) Afghan Civil War (1992–96) Bosnian War

Bosnian Al-Qaeda

First Chechen War Afghan Civil War (1996–2001) Second Chechen War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Civil War War in North-West Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
(Drone strikes) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Maghreb (2002–present) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present) Syrian Civil War Yemeni Civil War

al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Houthi insurgency in Yemen

Affiliates

al-Shabaab (Somalia) al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (North Africa) Egyptian Islamic Jihad (Egypt) al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (Indian Subcontinent) Tahrir al-Sham
Tahrir al-Sham
(Syria)

Charity organizations

Benevolence International Foundation al-Haramain Foundation

Media

Al Qaeda Handbook Al Neda As-Sahab Fatawā of Osama bin Laden Inspire Al-Khansaa Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit Management of Savagery Voice of Jihad Qaedat al-Jihad Global Islamic Media Front

Video and audio

Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden Videos and audio recordings of Ayman al-Zawahiri USS Cole bombing

v t e

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Names of the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Leadership

Current

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Abu Ahmad al-Alwani Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi Abu Muhammad al-Shimali

 † Former

Haji Bakr Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi Abu Mohannad al-Sweidawi Abdul Rauf Aliza Abu Sayyaf Ali Awni al-Harzi Abu Umar al-Tunisi Abu Khattab al-Tunisi Abu Muslim
Muslim
al-Turkmani Mohammed Emwazi Abu Nabil al-Anbari Abu Ali al-Anbari Abu Waheeb Abu Omar al-Shishani Abu Mohammad al-Adnani Abu Jandal al-Kuwaiti Ahmad Abousamra Turki al-Binali

History

Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (1999–2004) Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (2004–06) Mujahideen
Mujahideen
Shura Council (2006) Islamic State of Iraq (2006–13) Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (2013–14) Islamic State (June 2014–present)

Timeline of events

2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

International branches

Khorasan Province ( Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan) Libyan Provinces (Libya) Caucasus Province (North Caucasus) Sinai Province (Sinai) Algeria
Algeria
Province (Algeria) Yemen
Yemen
Province (Yemen) Abnaa ul-Calipha (Somalia) Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
(Philippines) Boko Haram
Boko Haram
(West Africa)

Wars

War on Terror Iraq
Iraq
War

Iraqi insurgency (2003–11) Sectarian violence (2006–07) Iraqi insurgency (2011–14) Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)

Syrian Civil War

Spillover Spillover in Lebanon Inter-rebel conflict

Sinai insurgency Libyan Civil War (2014–present) War in North-West Pakistan War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present) Moro conflict
Moro conflict
(Philippines) al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Yemeni Civil War (2015–present) Boko Haram
Boko Haram
insurgency Military intervention against ISIL

American-led intervention in Iraq American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War Turkish military intervention in Syria

Battles

2013

Akashat ambush Hawija clashes Raqqa campaign (2012–13) Operation al-Shabah Battle of Ras al-Ayn Battle of Tell Abyad Latakia offensive Siege of Menagh Air Base Battle of Sadad Battle of Qalamoun Aleppo offensive (October–December 2013) Anbar campaign (2013–14)

2014

Fall of Fallujah Northern Aleppo offensive (February–July 2014) Battle of Markada Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive (June 2014) Fall of Mosul Salahuddin campaign First Battle of Tikrit Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive (August 2014) Siege of Kobanî Sinjar massacre Derna campaign (2014–16) Battle of Baiji Battle of Ramadi (2014–15) Deir ez-Zor offensive (December 2014) Battle of Baiji (2014–15) Sinjar offensive (December 2014) Battle of Zumar Siege of Amirli

2015

Fall of Nofaliya West African offensive February 2015 Egyptian airstrikes in Libya Bosso and Diffa raid Eastern al-Hasakah offensive Second Battle of Tikrit Battle of Sirte Hama and Homs offensive (March–April 2015) Battle of Sarrin (March–April 2015) Battle of Yarmouk Camp Anbar offensive (2015) Qalamoun offensive (May–June 2015) Palmyra offensive (May 2015) Western al-Hasakah offensive Al-Hasakah city offensive (May–June 2015) Tell Abyad offensive
Tell Abyad offensive
(May–July 2015) Battle of Sarrin (June–July 2015) Battle of al-Hasakah Kobanî massacre Palmyra offensive (July–August 2015) Battle of Ramadi (2015–16) Battle of Al-Qaryatayn (August 2015) Al-Hawl offensive Homs offensive (November–December 2015) Sinjar offensive (November 2015) East Aleppo offensive (2015–16) Nineveh Plains offensive Tishrin Dam offensive

2016

Deir ez-Zor offensive (January 2016) Siege of Fallujah (2016) Nangarhar Offensive Battle of Ben Guerdane Ithriyah-Raqqa offensive (February–March 2016) Al-Shaddadi offensive 2016 Khanasir offensive Battle of al-Qaryatayn (March–April 2016) Palmyra offensive (March 2016) Northern Aleppo offensive (March–June 2016) Hīt offensive Battle of Basilan Battle of Sirte Ar-Rutbah offensive Northern Raqqa offensive (May 2016) Battle of Fallujah Manbij offensive Ithriyah-Raqqa offensive (June 2016) Abu Kamal offensive Battle of al-Rai (August 2016) Northern al-Bab offensive (September 2016) Western al-Bab offensive (September 2016) 2016 Dabiq offensive Western al-Bab offensive (October–November 2016) Battle of al-Bab Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016) Palmyra offensive (December 2016)

2017

Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) Raqqa campaign (2016–2017) Palmyra offensive (2017) Deir ez-Zor offensive (January–February 2017) East Aleppo offensive (January–April 2017) Eastern Homs offensive (2017) Hama offensive (2017) Western Nineveh offensive (2017) Battle of Tabqa (2017) Syrian Desert campaign (December 2016–April 2017) Syrian Desert campaign (May–July 2017) Maskanah Plains offensive Battle of Marawi Battle of Raqqa (2017) Southern Raqqa offensive (June 2017) Central Syria
Syria
campaign (2017) Battle of Tal Afar (2017) Hawija offensive (2017) Eastern Syria
Syria
campaign (September–December 2017) 2017 Abu Kamal offensive 2017 Western Iraq
Iraq
campaign

Attacks

2014

Jewish Museum of Belgium
Belgium
shooting Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu ramming attack

2015

Porte de Vincennes siege Beheading of Copts in Libya Corinthia Hotel attack Al Qubbah bombings Bardo National Museum attack Sana'a mosque bombings Jalalabad suicide bombing Curtis Culwell Center attack Qatif and Dammam mosque bombings 26 June 2015 Islamist
Islamist
attacks

Kobanî massacre Saint-Quentin-Fallavier attack Kuwait
Kuwait
mosque bombing Sousse attacks

Khan Bani Saad bombing Suruç bombing Baghdad
Baghdad
bombing (August) Ankara bombings Metrojet Flight 9268 Beirut bombings Paris attacks (November) Tunis bombing Qamishli bombings

2016

Zliten truck bombing Hurghada attack Istanbul bombing (January) Jakarta attacks Ramadi bombing Mahasin mosque attack Sayyidah Zaynab attack (January) Mosul massacre Homs bombings (February) Sayyidah Zaynab bombings (February) Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (February) Istanbul bombing (March) Brussels bombings Aden car bombing Iskandariya suicide bombing Baghdad
Baghdad
bombing (April) Samawa bombing Gaziantep bombing (May) Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (11 May) Real Madrid fan club massacres Baghdad
Baghdad
gas plant attack Yemen
Yemen
police bombings (15 May) Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (17 May) Jableh and Tartous bombings (May) Yemen
Yemen
bombings (23 May) Aktobe shootings Magnanville stabbing Mukalla attacks (June) Movida Bar grenade attack Atatürk Airport attack Dhaka attack (July) Karrada bombing Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi Mausoleum attack Würzburg train attack Kabul bombing (July) Ansbach bombing Normandy church attack Qamishli bombings (July) Charleroi stabbing Shchelkovo Highway police station attack Aden bombing (August) Syria
Syria
bombings (September) Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (September) Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (October) Quetta police training college attack Hamam al-Alil massacre Khuzdar bombing Samarinda church bombing Kabul suicide bombing (November) Hillah suicide truck bombing (November) Aden suicide bombings (December) Botroseya church bombing Al-Karak attack Berlin attack Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (December)

2017

Istanbul nightclub shooting Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (January) Azaz bombing (January) Kabul Supreme Court attack (February) Sehwan suicide bombing Kabul attack (March) London (Westminster) attack Saint Petersburg Metro bombing Egypt
Egypt
church bombings Mastung suicide bombing Manchester Arena bombing Jakarta bombings Minya attack Al-Faqma bombing London (Southwark) attack Brighton siege Tehran attacks Pakistan
Pakistan
bombings (June) Hurghada attack Attack on the Iraqi embassy in Kabul Herat mosque attack Quetta suicide bombing Barcelona attacks Brussels attack (August) Nasiriyah attacks Sinai mosque attack Kabul suicide bombing (December) Saint Menas church attack

2018

Baghdad
Baghdad
bombings (January) Save The Children Jalalabad attack Kizlyar church shooting Kabul suicide bombing (March) Carcassonne and Trèbes attack

Politics

Finances Ideology Human rights Genocide of Christians Genocide of Shias Genocide of Yazidis Persecution of queer men Killing of captives Beheading incidents Destruction of cultural heritage

Relations

Iran
Iran
and ISIL Philippines
Philippines
and ISIL United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and ISIL Foreign fighters Name changes due to ISIL Portrayal of ISIL in American media Connection with Saddam Regime and Baath Party

Society

Members

Terrorist cell in Brussels

Territorial claims

Media of ISIL

Ahlam al-Nasr Al-Bayan Amaq News Agency Dabiq Dar al-Islam Istok Konstantiniyye Rumiyah

Related topics

Worldwide caliphate Defeating ISIS Islamism Millenarianism Sexual violence in the Iraqi insurgency Shia– Sunni
Sunni
relations Slavery in 21st-century Islamism Theocracy

v t e

People who have been called "high-value detainees" in the War on Terror

Captives transferred to Guantanamo Bay from CIA black sites

Mustafa al-Hawsawi Ahmed Ghailani Ramzi bin al-Shibh Walid bin Attash Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri Abu Zubaydah Abu Faraj al-Libbi Ammar al-Baluchi Riduan Isamuddin (Hambali) Mohamad Farik Amin Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Majid Khan Gouled Hassan Dourad Abdul Hadi al Iraqi Abdul Rahim al-Sharqawi

Captives unaccounted for

Musaad Aruchi Abu Yasir Al Jaza'iri

Died in custody

Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi

v t e

United States articles

History

By event

Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era

Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress

American Revolution

War

American frontier Confederation Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II

home front Nazism in the United States

American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam
Vietnam
War Post- Cold War
Cold War
(1991–2008) War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War

Recent events (2008–present)

By topic

Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic

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Inventions

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Military Postal Technological and industrial

Geography

Territory

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Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains

peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky

National Park Service

National Parks

Regions

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Rivers

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List of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war Peace movement List of anti-war organizations Conscientious objector War on Terror

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Malian conflicts

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Related topics

War on Terror
War on Terror
(2001–present) Arab
Arab
Spring [2010–11]

Arab
Arab
Winter

Colour revolutions

European conflicts Asian conflicts Middle East conflicts Conflicts in the Americas

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Yemeni conflicts

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Others

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Regional spillover

Related topics

War on Terror
War on Terror
(2001–present) Arab
Arab
Spring (2010–11)

Arab
Arab
Winter

Colour revolutions

European conflicts African conflicts Conflicts in the Americas

v t e

Post– Cold War
Cold War
European conflicts

Eastern Europe

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Transnistria War
(1992) Russian constitutional crisis (1993) Moldova
Moldova
civil unrest (2009) Ukrainian revolution (2013-14) Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Ukraine
(2014–)

Annexation of Crimea (2014) War in Donbas (2014-)

Western Europe

Basque conflict
Basque conflict
(1959–2011) The Troubles
The Troubles
(1968–1998) Dissident Irish Republican Campaign (1998–present) France-ISIL conflict (2014–present)

Yugoslav Wars

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(1991) Croatian War of Independence
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Bosnian War
(1992–95)

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
(1992–94)

Southeastern Europe (after Yugoslav Wars)

Albanian Rebellion (1997) Kosovo
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Insurgency
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Insurgency
in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001) 2004 unrest in Kosovo Macedonian inter-ethnic violence (2012)

North Caucasus

East Prigorodny Conflict
East Prigorodny Conflict
(1992) Chechen–Russian conflict
Chechen–Russian conflict
(1785–2017)

First Chechen War
First Chechen War
(1994–96) War of Dagestan
War of Dagestan
(1999) Second Chechen War
Second Chechen War
(1999–2009)

War in Ingushetia
War in Ingushetia
(2007–2015) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
(2009–2017)

South Caucasus

South Ossetia War (1991–92) Georgian Civil War
Georgian Civil War
(1991–93) Abkhaz–Georgian conflict
Abkhaz–Georgian conflict
(1989–present)

Wars in Abkhazia

1992–93 1998

Pankisi Gorge crisis
Pankisi Gorge crisis
(2002–04) Russia–Georgia War (2008) Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
(1988–present)

Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
(1988–94) 2016 clashes

Abkhazian Revolution (2014)

Related topics

Colour revolutions War on Terror

Asian conflicts African conflicts Conflic

.