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The Grand Alliance

 Holy Roman Empire Austria  Prussia Spain
Spain
loyal to Charles

Crown of Aragon

 Great Britain [a]  Dutch Republic  Portugal  Savoy

Bourbon France and Spain
Spain
 France Philip V Bavaria
Bavaria
(until 1704)  Mantua

Commanders and leaders

Duke of Marlborough Marquis of Ruvigny George Rooke Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Lord Overkirk Earl of Albemarle Marquis of Minas Victor Amadeus II

Duc de Villars Duke of Berwick Duke of Vendôme Duke of Boufflers Villeroi Marquis of Villadarias Marquis de Bay Charles III Gonzaga Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria

Casualties and losses

95,000–110,000 40,000–52,000 30,000–40,000 20,000–35,000 24,000–30,000 5,000–6,000 115,000–140,000 10,000–12,000 4,000–5,000

400,000–700,000 dead[1]

v t e

War of the Spanish Succession: Europe

Low Countries
Low Countries
and Upper France

1st Fort Isabella Middelburg Saint Donas Nijmegen Venlo Stevensweert Roermond 1st Liége Hulst Steckene Ekeren 1st Huy Limburg 2nd Fort Isabella 2nd Huy 2nd Liége 3rd Huy Elixheim Zoutleeuw Zandvliet Diest Ramillies Antwerp Ostend Menin Dendermonde Ath Beachy Head Lizard Point Oudenarde Wijnendale Leffinghe Hondschoote Saint Ghislain Brussels Lille Ghent Tournai Malplaquet Mons 1st Douai Béthune Saint-Venant Aire 1st Bouchain 1st Le Quesnoy Landrécies Denain Marchiennes 2nd Douai 2nd Le Quesnoy 2nd Bouchain

Germany and Upper Rhine

Kaiserswerth 1st Landau Friedlingen Rheinberg 1st Trarbach Andernach Neubourg Geldern Kehl Sigharting Bonn Munderkingen Breisach Höchstädt Speyerbach 2nd Landau Augsburg Schellenberg Rain Villingen Ingolstadt Blenheim Ulm 3rd Landau 2nd Trarbach Wissembourg Lauterbourg Homburg 1st Hagenau Drusenheim 2nd Hagenau Sendling Aidenbach 3rd Hagenau Stollhofen Rumersheim 4th Landau Freiburg

Italy and Southern France

Carpi Chiari Cremona 1st Castiglione Santa Vittoria Luzzara Borgoforte Guastalla Governolo Nago Arco Castelnuovo Bormida 1st Susa Vercelli Ivrea Verrua Chivasso Mirandola Cassano Nice Calcinato Turin 2nd Castiglione Pavia Alessandria Pizzigetone Casale Milan Toulon 2nd Susa Gaeta Exilles Fenestrelles Cesana Syracuse

Spain
Spain
and Portugal

Cádiz Vigo
Vigo
Bay Cap de la Roque Castello de Vide 1st Barcelona Portalegre 1st Gibraltar Ceuta Málaga 2nd Gibraltar Cabrita Point Valencia de Alcantara Albuquerque Montjuïc 2nd Barcelona Badajoz San Mateo 3rd Barcelona Alcantara 1st Ciudad Rodrigo Murcia El Albujón Cuenca Elche Santa Cruz de Tenerife Cartagena Villena Almansa Xàtiva 2nd Ciudad Rodrigo Lleida Morella Tortosa Minorca Denia Alicante La Gudina Almenar Saragossa Madrid Brihuega Villaviciosa 1st Girona Aren fort Venasque Castel-Leon Tortosa Cardona 2nd Girona 4th Barcelona

Hungary

Eisenstadt Schmöllnitz Raab Páta Nagyszombat Zsibó Saint Gotthard Trenčín Kölesd Kassa Nagymajtény

v t e

War of the Spanish Succession: North America

Quebec and Newfoundland:

Newfoundland 1st St. John's 2nd St. John's Fort Albany Quebec

Acadia
Acadia
and New England:

1st Northeast Coast Falmouth Deerfield Grand Pré 1st Port Royal Haverhill 2nd Port Royal Bloody Creek 2nd Northeast Coast

Carolina and Florida:

Flint River St. Augustine Apalachee Charles Town Pensacola

v t e

War of the Spanish Succession: West Indies and South America

Santa Marta Guadeloupe Nassau Colonia del Sacramento 1st Cartagena 1st Rio 2nd Cartagena 2nd Rio Cassard

v t e

Anglo-Spanish wars

1585–1604 1625–30 1654–60 1701–13 1718–20 1727–29 1739–48 1762–63 1779–83 1796–1802 1803–08 1833–40

v t e

Anglo-French wars

1202–04 1213–14 1215–17 1242–43 1294–1303 1337–1453 (1337–60, 1369–89, 1415–53) 1496-98 1512–14 1522–26 1542–46 1557–1559 1627–29 1666–67 1689–97 1702–13 1744–48 1744–1763 1754–63 1778–83 1793–1802 1803–14 1815

The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in November 1700 of Charles II, last Habsburg
Habsburg
King of Spain. The central issue was preventing union of an undivided Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
with either France or Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria.[c] When Charles died, his will made Louis XIV's grandson Philip V of Spain
Spain
on condition he renounce his claim to the French throne. Louis' decision to ignore this ultimately led to war with the anti-French Grand Alliance who selected Charles, younger son of Emperor Leopold as their nominee for King of Spain. By 1710, the war was deadlocked and increasingly unpopular in Britain due to its cost and lack of clear objectives. Charles became Emperor when his elder brother Emperor Joseph I
Emperor Joseph I
died in 1711, threatening a potential union of Spain
Spain
and Austria. Since this was as unwelcome for the British as one between France and Spain, they effectively withdrew from the war in early 1712. Without British support the other Allies were forced to make peace and the war ended in 1713 with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
and those of Rastatt and Baden in 1714. Phillip renounced the French throne and was confirmed as King of Spain, retaining Pennisular Spain
Spain
and Spanish possessions outside Europe while their European territories were divided between Austria, Britain and Savoy. The longer term impacts included Britain's emergence as the leading European maritime and commercial power, the decline of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
as a major European power, the creation of a far more centralised Spanish state and the acceleration of the break-up of the Holy Roman Empire.

Contents

1 Background 2 The Spanish Succession

2.1 Attempts at a diplomatic compromise

3 Prelude to war 4 Leadership, strategy and contending forces 5 War, politics and diplomacy

5.1 Campaigns: 1701–1708 5.2 Northern Italy

5.2.1 Low Countries, Rhine
Rhine
and Danube 5.2.2 Italy 5.2.3 Spain
Spain
and Portugal

5.3 Campaigns: 1709–1714

5.3.1 The Hague 5.3.2 Grand Alliance falters 5.3.3 Preliminary peace talks 5.3.4 Peace of Utrecht
Utrecht
and the final campaigns

6 Aftermath 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading

Background[edit]

Charles II, last Habsburg
Habsburg
King of Spain
Spain
(1665–1700), whose death triggered the War

Rivalry between the Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers of Austria and Spain
Spain
and Bourbon France was the single most important theme in European politics during the late 17th and early 18th century.[2] In 1665, Charles II became the last male Habsburg
Habsburg
King of Spain. The unfortunate product of repeated consanguineous marriages among the Spanish Habsburgs,[3] he was "short, lame, epileptic, senile and completely bald before 35, always on the verge of death but repeatedly baffling Christendom by continuing to live."[4] While Spain
Spain
was no longer the dominant global power it once was, the Spanish Monarchy as it was known remained a vast global empire with possessions in Italy, the Spanish Netherlands, the Philippines and large areas of the Americas. Even under Charles, it proved remarkably resilient; when he died in 1700, it was largely intact and had even expanded in the Pacific.[5] Possession of an undivided Monarchy by either Austria or France would change the European balance of power in their favour.[6] Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had long viewed union between Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria and Spain
Spain
as a threat outweighing any other consideration; one clause of the 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover
Secret Treaty of Dover
committed Charles II of England
Charles II of England
to support French claims to the Spanish throne.[d] The Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
showed France was not strong enough to achieve its objectives on its own; the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick
Treaty of Ryswick
was the result of mutual exhaustion and Louis' search for allies in anticipation of a contest over the succession. The Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
Emperor Leopold I initially refused to sign the Treaty since it left this issue unresolved; he reluctantly did so in October 1697 but all sides viewed it as simply a pause in hostilities.[7] The Spanish Succession[edit]

Europe in 1700, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

Unlike France or Austria, the Spanish Monarchy could be inherited by or through a woman.[e][8] Charles had two sisters; Maria (1638-83) married Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and their son Louis, Dauphin of France was heir to the French throne. Margaret (1651-1673) married her Habsburg
Habsburg
cousin Leopold I their daughter Maria Antonia 1669-1692 had a son Joseph Ferdinand with Max Emanuel of Bavaria. When Maria Antonia married Maximilian, her rights to the Spanish throne were transferred to Leopold's sons from his third marriage, her half-brothers Joseph and Charles.[9] This was a measure of dubious legality but Habsburg
Habsburg
marriage alliances had created multiple potential claimants and the arguments for any of them were extremely complex.[f] The reality was neither Austria and France would allow the other to acquire an undivided Spanish Monarchy while the Spanish saw no reason why their Empire should be partitioned to suit the needs of two foreign powers.

Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Bavaria; his death in 1699 was a major blow to a diplomatic solution.

Leopold's intransigence over the Treaty of Ryswick
Treaty of Ryswick
in 1697 created an alliance of convenience between Louis and his long-standing opponent William III.[10] William's dual role as Stadtholder
Stadtholder
and King obscured the different commercial, strategic and political interests of England and the Dutch Republic; these would re-emerge on his death but gave Louis a short-term opportunity to solve the issue by negotiation.[11] Attempts at a diplomatic compromise[edit] The 1698 Treaty of the Hague appointed Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria heir to the bulk of the Spanish Monarchy with its European possessions shared between France and Austria.[g][12] When Joseph Ferdinand died in February 1699, the 1700 Treaty of London replaced him with Leopold's younger son Archduke Charles and divided Spanish possessions between France, Savoy
Savoy
and Austria.[13] The details of the territorial division are complex but largely irrelevant since neither Spain
Spain
nor Austria signed.

Philip, Duke of Anjou is recognised as Philip or Felipe V of Spain
Spain
on 16 November 1700

The Spanish now devised their own solution, the key principle being an undivided and independent Empire.[14] For various reasons, including the unpopularity of the Austrians with Spanish ministers, their first choice was Louis' younger grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou, then his younger brother the Duc de Berry. Since their father the Dauphin and older brother stood between them and the French crown, the Spanish hoped this would be acceptable; if both refused the throne, it would be offered to Archduke Charles.[h][15] When Charles died on 1 November 1700, insisting on the Treaty of London would place an Austrian on the throne of an undivided Spanish Monarchy for a treaty neither signed. Some advised Louis to do so, a suggestion not as odd as it might appear; the Spanish would oppose an Austrian while Leopold could be relied on to antagonise his allies by resisting the territorial concessions stipulated by the Treaty. Since he was currently engaged in suppressing a Hungarian revolt and fighting the Ottomans, France was far better placed to impose its candidate than Austria, one reason the Spanish selected Philip. As the only other power to sign the Treaty of London, it would also keep England
England
on their side. However, this ignored the deep suspicion with which other European powers viewed Louis and his expansionist policies. He also calculated England
England
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
preferred peace and any solution that kept the French and Spanish crowns separate. On 16 November 1700, his grandson became Philip V of Spain, a decision accepted with varying degrees of enthusiasm by the other European powers.[16] Prelude to war[edit] Having apparently achieved most of his aims by diplomacy, Louis' subsequent actions threatened vital interests of the primary members of the anti-French coalition or Grand Alliance i.e., Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria, the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and England.[17] None was catastrophic individually but in combination made war inevitable.

"View of Antwerp
Antwerp
with the frozen Scheldt" (1590); French possession of this vital port threatened both England
England
and the Dutch Republic.

The Tory majority in the English Parliament would not fight a war simply to install an Austrian on the throne of Spain
Spain
or on behalf of the Dutch Republic.[i] This meant William was forced to recognise Philip as King of Spain
Spain
in early 1701 but perceived French threats to English commercial and strategic interests eroded that opposition. In early 1701, Louis raised the possibility of uniting the French and Spanish thrones in contradiction of Charles' will by reiterating the doctrine of the divine right of kings and recognising Philip's place in the French line of succession.[18] With the agreement of Max Emanuel of Bavaria, Viceroy of the Spanish Netherlands, in February the French occupied the Dutch-held 'Barrier' fortresses gained in the Treaty of Ryswick.[19] This made the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
vulnerable to attack and also threatened their monopoly over the Scheldt
Scheldt
granted by Spain
Spain
in the 1648 Peace of Münster. As the primary outlet for European trade, this was an extremely valuable asset which appeared unlikely to be renewed by a Bourbon-controlled Spain. Award of the lucrative Spanish Asiento
Asiento
concession to a French company shortly afterwards was a further blow to Dutch and English hopes of gaining trading rights in the Spanish Empire.[20]

Max Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria; his alliance with France threatened Habsburg
Habsburg
dominance of the Holy Roman Empire

Louis calculated this would compel Dutch recognition of Philip but without causing an English response as they too objected to this monopoly.[21] The States General acknowledged Philip as King of Spain but the example of the Asiento
Asiento
made it hard to believe England
England
would benefit from France becoming masters of the Scheldt
Scheldt
estuary and its vital port of Antwerp. In addition, hostile control of this area and the Spanish Netherland ports of Ostend, Zeebrugge and Ghent
Ghent
posed a vital strategic threat to England. Preventing it had been their primary European policy objective for over a century.[j][22] At the same time, the Imperial duchies of Milan
Milan
and Mantua
Mantua
in Northern Italy which Leopold viewed as essential to the security of Austria's southern border accepted French garrisons and declared for Philip.[23] Max Emmanuel of Bavaria
Bavaria
followed with an initiative to align Imperial German states in Swabia
Swabia
and Franconia
Franconia
with France. These challenges to Habsburg
Habsburg
interests could not be ignored.[24] Confirmation of Louis' apparent intent to establish French political and economic domination over Europe led to talks in March 1701 to reform the Grand Alliance. The then Earl of Marlborough represented England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
as Ambassador Extraordinary and Commander of their forces in the Low Countries, with Anthonie Heinsius
Anthonie Heinsius
for the Dutch and Count Wratislaw for Emperor Leopold. The Treaty of The Hague reformed the Second Alliance on 7 September 1701, although the stated aims were deliberately left vague. the principle of a separate Spanish throne was central to the agreement but there was no direct reference to the succession other than that Leopold would receive an 'equitable and reasonable' outcome.[25] Shortly afterwards, the exiled James II
James II
died in France on 16 September and Louis proclaimed his son James Francis Edward
James Francis Edward
as King of England and Scotland. This violated his recognition of William as King in the Treaty of Ryswyck and threatened the Act of Settlement making the Protestant Electress Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of Hanover
and her children heirs to James' younger daughter Anne. Securing the Protestant succession in England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
became a primary aim for the Grand Alliance and ensured Tory support.[26] On 19 March 1702, William died; Anne succeeded him as Queen of England and Scotland
Scotland
and promptly confirmed her intent to ensure the Protestant succession and reduce the power of France.[27] Even William's Dutch opponents viewed French control of the Spanish Netherlands as a threat to their survival; contrary to Louis' hopes, his policies were continued by his successors and the Grand Alliance declared war on France on 15 May 1702.[28] While some members of the Empire followed Bavaria
Bavaria
in supporting France, the majority backed Leopold, although Frederick, Elector of Prussia negotiated a clause recognising him as King in Prussia. The Imperial Diet then declared war on 30 September.[29] Leadership, strategy and contending forces[edit]

Defeating France required a coalition effort, and by attacking Louis XIV across multiple fronts the Allies forced the French to divide their substantial military resources.[30]

To England, Spain
Spain
itself was not the central issue, but the potential growth of French power and its capacity to dominate Europe was seen as the primary danger to England's interests at home and abroad. The best way to achieve the country's goals was a source of heated debate. In general terms, the Tories eschewed continental warfare in favour of a 'blue water policy' whereby the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
waged war against French and Spanish trade at sea while at the same time protecting and expanding England's commerce. The Tories regarded a major land commitment on the continent as too expensive, and would primarily benefit Allied rather than English interests. In contrast, the Court Whigs and the financiers in London, who would profit most from the land campaign, supported the continental strategy, arguing that the navy alone could never defeat Louis XIV.[31] The debate over the use of English resources would persist throughout the war, but the country's financial strength helped it to develop a number of strategies, most important of which was the ability to attack France across multiple fronts. However, defeating Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was beyond any single Allied member, and therefore any strategy necessitated the close commercial and political co-operation between England
England
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
to put together an effective army in the field and to sustain a close relationship with a number of European allies, principally from Germany whose princes would provide essential troops for hire.[32]

King George I when Elector of Hanover (1660–1727), engraving by John Smith, 1706

Many of the small German states (including Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, the Palatinate, Münster, Baden) fought to regain some of the Holy Roman Empire's former territories in Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine, and thereby secure a strong Reichsbarriere on the Empire's western frontier. However, many of the more influential German rulers had other strategic and dynastic priorities, and preferred to enlist many of their troops in the Anglo-Dutch army in exchange for annual subsidies. George Louis, Elector of Hanover, was eager to strengthen his position in England
England
as Queen Anne's heir, while Frederick Augustus of Saxony – as King of Poland – had his own interests in the Great Northern War against Charles XII of Sweden. The Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
– whose backing Leopold I had secured by recognising him as Frederick I, King in Prussia, as well an equal member of the Grand Alliance – provided a corps of 12,000 men early in the war, but his participation could only be guaranteed by a steady stream of financial and territorial concessions.[33] Frederick IV of Denmark also provided valuable troops in return for subsidies, though he never joined the war against France.[34] Recognising the rising political, economic, and naval strength in England, the Dutch accepted Marlborough as the Allied commander-in-chief in the Low Countries. However, his command necessarily had its limitations and was subject to the approval of Dutch generals and Field Deputies (civil and military representatives of the States General).[35] The priority of the Dutch was to re-establish their Barrier fortresses, a goal which could be achieved through sieges rather than risky battles. On several occasions the Dutch vetoed Marlborough's attempts to engage his opponents in the field, but losing a battle in the Low Countries
Low Countries
could have potentially fatal consequences to the security of the Republic, and Marlborough himself was a relatively inexperienced foreign general.[36] It was the Dutch, moreover, who provided the main system of supply, as well as the majority of the troops, engineers, and guns in theatre, initially fielding an army of 60,000 men (including hired contingents from the German states), plus 42,000 for garrison duty. For their part, the English Parliament voted for a field army of 40,000 men to fight in the Low Countries
Low Countries
in 1702. Of this figure some 18,500 were British subject troops, the remainder were mostly auxiliaries from Germany.[37] At sea the English dominated having 127 ships of the line notionally available for service in 1700; the Dutch having 83.[38] In contrast, Leopold I had more limited resources and no navy, and he relied heavily on the Maritime Powers for his war effort.[39] The Emperor had initially committed to a field army of 90,000 men, yet in 1702 he was unable to deploy any more than 40,000 in Italy (which would be half that number by December) and 20,000 on the Rhine.[40]

Portrait of Philip V of Spain
Philip V of Spain
(1683–1746) by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701

For Louis XIV, control of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
was a legitimate economic and strategic prize, and he was anxious to keep the riches of America out of the hands of the English and Dutch.[41] For these ends the King exercised complete authority for forming French foreign policy and strategy, relying on a small but trusted group of advisers, notably the Marquis of Torcy, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. A series of councils regulated the decision making process, the most prominent of which was the Council of State. As the war progressed – and as Louis XIV
Louis XIV
aged – Torcy, along with others such as Voysin, Secretary of State for War from 1709, came to dominate discussion in council and elsewhere.[42] In Madrid, French statesmen and generals exerted guiding influence over government and the army, and in the early years of the war Philip V was inclined to defer to his grandfather, who exercised control through the cabinet council (despacho). The principal member of the council was the French ambassador, the most notable of whom, Amelot, stayed in the capital from 1705–09.[43] Resentful of this French dominance and authority, many grandees, excluded from real power and swayed by family loyalties, would defect to the Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
cause during the course of the war.[44]

Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
Bavaria
(1662–1726) by Joseph Vivien

At the beginning of the 18th century Louis XIV
Louis XIV
remained the most powerful monarch in Europe. Although in 1700 his fleet of 108 ships of the line[38] could not match the combined strength of the Maritime Powers, his army was by far the largest, reaching a peak paper figure of 373,000 men (in real terms approximately 255,000, including foreign regiments).[45] At the beginning of the war Spanish military resources were much more limited, and like other states their numbers had fallen drastically following the Peace of Ryswick. In 1703 the army in Peninsular Spain, for example, numbered just over 13,000 foot and 5,000 horse, and both were ill-equipped to fight. Likewise, Spain's navy was considerably smaller than the other powers, and Philip V had to rely on the French to help patrol his coastline and guard the American trade routes.[46] Beyond Spain, however, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had few other allies to rely on. The Duke of Savoy
Savoy
and King Peter II of Portugal would both break prior agreements and defect to the Grand Alliance in 1703, and nearly all the German states were against Louis XIV.[47] Nevertheless, the King did have direct influence deep within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
through alliances with the House of Wittelsbach: Joseph Clemens, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Liège, and, more significantly, his brother Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. After the Spanish throne had been lost with the death of his son, Joseph, Max Emanuel had sought compensation elsewhere. Initially, the Elector had pressed the Emperor into exchanging Bavaria
Bavaria
for the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
and Sicily, but when this was rejected he turned to France for the realisation of his ambitions: the sovereign ownership of the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
(of which he was the current governor) or the Imperial Crown itself.[48] War, politics and diplomacy[edit] Campaigns: 1701–1708[edit] Northern Italy[edit]

Northern Italy: Spanish realms in Italy comprised the Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia, the Duchy of Milan, the Marquisate of Finale, and the State of Presidi.

In addition to Milan
Milan
and Mantua, the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
also backed Philip, only Modena and Guastalla supporting Leopold and the rest remaining neutral.[49] Savoy
Savoy
was the rising power in northern Italy, its ruler Victor Amadeus II having a distant claim on the Spanish thrones as a great-great-grandson of Philip II. He used this as leverage for the more realistic objective of Milan
Milan
and on 6 April 1701 allied with France, with Philip marrying his 13 year old daughter Maria Luisa. While Victor Amadeus received French subsidies and the nominal title of Supreme Commander of the Savoyard and Bourbon armies in Italy, Louis refused to make any territorial promises.[50] Outmanoeuvred diplomatically, in May Leopold sent 30,000 Imperial soldiers under Prince Eugene of Savoy
Savoy
to expel the French.[51] On 9 July, Eugene defeated Catinat at Carpi then his successor Villeroi at Chiari on 1 September. The collapse of Habsburg
Habsburg
financial credit meant Eugene received limited support but by early 1702 had occupied most of Mantua. On 1 February 1702 , he attacked Cremona; Villeroi was captured and the French forced to retreat behind the Adda river although they retained Milan. The Austrians had proved both their strength and willingness to fight.[52] Low Countries, Rhine
Rhine
and Danube[edit]

The Low Countries; note location of Prince-Bishopric of Liège. Red lines show the Pré carré, a double line of fortresses guarding the French border.

The alliance between France, Max Emmanuel of Bavaria
Bavaria
and his younger brother Joseph Clemens, ruler of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
and Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne
made securing the Dutch frontiers the primary Allied objective in this theatre for 1702. This was achieved by the capture of the Barrier fortresses lost in 1701 and cities governed by Joseph Clemens, including Kaiserswerth, Venlo, Roermond
Roermond
and finally Liège
Liège
in late October.[53] The 1703 campaign was less successful; conflicts over strategy and lack of co-ordination meant the Allies failed to take Antwerp, while Dutch defeat at Ekeren
Ekeren
on 30 June led to bitter recriminations.[54]

Holy Roman Empire. Beyond the Low Countries
Low Countries
the main action occurred along Moselle, the Rhine, and the Upper Danube.

The Imperial commander Louis of Baden adopted a largely defensive posture on the Upper Rhine, the exception being capturing Landau in September 1702. Victories by Villars at Friedlingen
Friedlingen
in October and the fall of Kehl
Kehl
in March 1703 threatened Vienna and northern Italy.[55] Max Emmanuel of Bavaria
Bavaria
took a series of strongholds along the Danube, linking up with Villars in May. Together they defeated an Imperial force at Höchstädt in September but Marsin then replaced Villars due to his poor relationship with Max Emmanuel.[56] The French and Bavarians maintained momentum; Tallard took Breisach
Breisach
in September, defeated the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel at Speyerbach
Speyerbach
on 15 November and recaptured Landau.[57] Max Emmanuel and Tallard continued their steady advance during the first part of 1704, yet another anti- Habsburg
Habsburg
Hungarian revolt placing Leopold under increased pressure. [58] To relieve this, Marlborough marched up the Rhine
Rhine
from the Low Countries
Low Countries
in May, linked up with Louis of Baden and Egg of Savoy
Savoy
and on 2 July crossed the Danube. On 13 August, the Allied army defeated a slightly larger Franco-Bavarian army under Max Emmanuel and Tallard at the Battle of Blenheim.[k] Blenheim made Marlborough's reputation and was a decisive defeat for Bavaria; in the November Treaty of Ilbersheim Max Emanuel was humiliated by being 'restored' as Viceroy of the Spanish Netherlands with Bavaria
Bavaria
placed under Austrian rule.[l][59]

Pursuit of the French after the Battle of Ramillies, possibly by Louis Laguerre

Allied attempts to exploit victory at Blenheim foundered on poor co-ordination, tactical disputes and command rivalries. They made little progress in 1705, while Leopold's predictably ruthless approach to ruling Bavaria
Bavaria
caused a brief but vicious peasant revolt.[60] In May 1706 a decisive Allied victory at the Battle of Ramillies shattered the French army and led to the rapid capture of the entire Spanish Netherlands. This was restored as a buffer zone and ruled by the Maritime Powers in the name of Archduke Charles for the duration of the war.[61] Ramillies forced French onto the defensive but prevented the Allies making progress in the campaign of 1707. Popular discontent meant the Maritime Powers lost control of large parts of the Spanish Netherlands although this was restored by their victory at Oudenarde.[62] In August, the Allies besieged Lille; it was accepted no fortified place could hold out indefinitely, their primary purpose being to absorb the energy of the attackers for as long as possible.[63] The French commander Boufflers performed this task admirably; Lille finally surrendered on 9 December but yet again the Allies were unable to fully exploit a resounding victory.[m] Italy[edit]

Duchy of Savoy. Victor Amadeus II's lands c. 1700 comprised the Duchy of Savoy, the Principality of Piedmont, the Duchy of Aosta, the County of Nice, and the tiny Principality of Oneglia.

In 1702 the war in northern Italy was in its second year. After Austria's initial success Louis XIV
Louis XIV
sent Marshal Vendôme to command the Bourbon army, and with greatly superior numbers he began to dominate and pin back his opponent. Although Prince Eugene held the French at the Battle of Luzzara on 15 August, the Austrians had lost much of what they gained in the first campaign, and the Bourbons were still firmly in control of the Duchy of Milan.[64] In June 1703 Eugene returned to Vienna to preside over the Court War Council (Hofkriegsrat) and set about reorganising the Imperial armies, leaving Guido Starhemberg
Guido Starhemberg
to oppose Vendôme. Vendôme had been ordered to link with the Elector of Bavaria
Bavaria
for the thrust into the Tyrol, but he made little progress towards this goal, due in part to rumours that Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, was about to defect to the Grand Alliance.[65] Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had failed to satisfy Amadeus' claims on the Duchy of Milan, and the latter had taken umbrage at France's limited financial aid. Moreover, reasoned the Duke, if French power was established in Italy his territory would be surrounded by lands ruled from Versailles. Fearing that he would become little more than a French vassal, Amadeus secured himself behind the walls of his capital, Turin, and declared war on France on 24 October. Won over by a combination of subsidies and territorial concessions,[66] he signed a formal treaty with the Emperor on 8 November.[67]

Portrait de Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme, Maréchal de France, 1706 (1654–1712), by Jean Gilbert Murat

With the Duke of Savoy's desertion Piedmont- Savoy
Savoy
became an important goal for the French, who now aimed to isolate Victor Amadeus and Starhemberg from the Austrians to the east and secure communications between France and Milan. By the beginning of 1704 Marshal Tessé had taken the Duchy of Savoy
Savoy
(except Montmélian), and La Feuillade captured Susa in June. Moving into Piedmont from the east Vendôme captured Vercelli
Vercelli
in July, Ivrea
Ivrea
in September, and invested Verrua in October.[68] By the time Verrua fell in April 1705, La Feuillade had occupied the County of Nice, including Nice itself (though its citadel did not fall till January 1706), before threatening Turin. For the Allies, attention was also drawn towards Vienna, for in May 1705 Joseph I succeeded Leopold I as Holy Roman Emperor. Joseph I pursued his father's anti-Bourbon policy with great enthusiasm and he was initially keen to carry the war into Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine, but after the Franco-Bavarian advance had been stemmed at Blenheim he began to reassess his priorities. Although the Emperor recognised the importance to the German princes of a strong Reichsbarriere, he could not place their interests above Habsburg
Habsburg
dynastic objectives in other theatres. Replacing Spanish with Austrian rule in Italy – and thereby securing the Monarchy's south-west flank – became Joseph I's priority. For now, though, Philip V still controlled all of Spain's Italian realms, and Bourbon armies were once again making progress in the north of the peninsula.[69]

Portrait of Victor Amadeus II
Victor Amadeus II
of Savoy, during the siege of Turin, by Maria Giovanna Clementi

On 16 August 1705, Vendôme defeated Eugene at the Battle of Cassano on the Adda. On 19 April 1706, the French commander defeated Count Reventlow at the Battle of Calcinato, and drove the Austrians back into the mountains around Lake Garda; shortly after, La Feuillade began the siege of Turin. The French victories had prevented the Austrians marching to aid Savoy, but as in the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
the year would prove decisive for the Grand Alliance. By mid-May Eugene's army, newly reinforced with German auxiliaries (secured by Marlborough and financed by the Maritime Powers), had grown to 50,000 men.[70] Thus strengthened, the Austrian commander was at last able to outflank French defences on the Adige, and in mid-July he descended south across the river Po. In response to the disaster at Ramillies, Vendôme was at this point ordered to the Low Countries; the Duke of Orléans and Marshal Marsin took command in his place, and though they shadowed the Allied army as it marched west up the Po valley, they declined to intercept it. Unchallenged, Eugene joined with Victor Amadeus and his small force in late August, and on 7 September they decisively defeated the Bourbon army at the Battle of Turin. With Marsin mortally wounded, Orléans retreated west, leaving the Count of Medavy isolated on the Adige
Adige
far to the east. Although Medavy defeated an Imperial corps at the Battle of Castiglione on 8 September, he prudently distributed his army around the fortresses still under Bourbon control.[71] Eugene's victory had given him effective control of the whole Po valley. Although the Duchy of Savoy
Savoy
and the County of Nice
County of Nice
remained in Bourbon hands, Victor Amadeus eventually took possession of most of the territories promised him in the 1703 treaty with the Emperor.[72] However, the Allied victories in 1706 had failed to dampen the growing animosity within the Grand Alliance as English and Dutch ministers blamed Joseph I for refusing to end the war in Hungary. Rákóczi's uprising was diverting vital Austrian resources from the fight with Louis XIV, and there were also fears the Ottoman Turks would take advantage to renew hostilities against the Emperor. Conversely, the Maritime Powers' sympathetic stance towards the rebellion's leader and co-religionist remained a source of bitterness in Vienna.[73] To compound their disagreements, Joseph I signed the Convention of Milan on 13 March 1707, by which terms Louis XIV
Louis XIV
surrendered northern Italy in exchange for the safe passage of Medavy's army back to France. For the Austrians, the agreement assured their full uncontested possession of the Duchy of Milan
Milan
and the Duchy of Mantua, but it also enabled Joseph I to pursue his dynastic interests in southern Italy, and in May Count Daun, with about 10,000 men, moved south to the Kingdom of Naples. The city of Naples
Naples
surrendered without resistance and Gaeta fell after a siege on 30 September. Austria was now the predominant power in Italy, and Charles III was proclaimed King of Naples.[74]

Portrait of Prince Eugene of Savoy
Savoy
(1663–1736), from the school of Godfrey Kneller, 1712

By taking the Duchy of Milan
Milan
and securing the Spanish realms in Italy, the Austrian Habsburgs had fulfilled their major war objective. Nevertheless, the Neapolitan campaign had been undertaken in the face of opposition from the Maritime Powers, who instead had favoured a diversionary attack on southern France. To assuage his allies Eugene, together with the Duke of Savoy, agreed to attack Toulon in July 1707, but the attempt proved ineffectual and Marshal Tessé thwarted all attacks. The Allies withdrew in August, though not before acquiring some advantage: the French squadron in the harbour had been permanently put out of action during the battle, leaving the Anglo-Dutch fleet uncontested in the Mediterranean.[75] On the diplomatic front that year the Allies also had to contend with King Charles XII of Sweden, whose war against Russia and Saxony-Poland threatened to spill over into the War of the Spanish Succession. Charles XII had invaded Saxony in 1706, but the King had also threatened to interfere in Silesia
Silesia
on behalf of the Emperor's Protestant subjects, and there were fears that he might be inclined to assist the largely Protestant rebels in Hungary. However, once Joseph I had yielded enough concessions and signed the Treaty of Altranstädt on 31 August 1707, Charles XII turned his back on Germany in September, and headed east to Russia and to his eventual defeat at the Battle of Poltava.[76] The overwhelming strength of Joseph I in Italy had served to emphasise the ongoing tensions between Imperial and Papal suzerainty: in the Duchy of Parma (which the papacy had deemed a fief of the Holy See, but which Joseph I deemed a fief of the Empire), as well as in the Duchy of Milan, Pope Clement XI forbade the collection of Imperial taxes on the church. To gain leverage, the Austrians seized the disputed town of Comacchio
Comacchio
in May 1708, before Daun overran large parts of the Papal States. The Pope raised an army of 25,000 men under Marsigli but he soon capitulated, and in return for Joseph I submitting the disputes over Parma and Comacchio
Comacchio
to a cardinal's commission, Clement XI recognised Archduke Charles as King Charles III of Spain.[77] In the meantime, fighting continued along the French- Savoy
Savoy
border as the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
sought his own 'Barrier' against future French incursion, and in July he launched a campaign towards Briançon, capturing Exilles
Exilles
and Fenestrelle. These raids were repeated in subsequent years of the war, but Austrian and Savoyard commanders could not overcome the difficulties in launching a full-scale attack over the Alps, and the Emperor showed little enthusiasm for liberating the Duke's occupied transalpine territories of Nice and Savoy.[78] Spain
Spain
and Portugal[edit]

Battle of Vigo
Vigo
Bay. Anonymous. English and Dutch fleet sail towards the Spanish treasure ships and their French naval escorts in Vigo
Vigo
Bay.

The despatch of an Anglo-Dutch expeditionary force to Spain
Spain
in 1702 was a continuation of William III's policy, using the navy to open the Strait of Gibraltar, secure Allied naval power in the Mediterranean, and cut off Spain's transatlantic economy. The Austrians also clamoured for early naval support, claiming the sight of an Allied fleet in the Mediterranean would inspire the anti-Bourbon nobles in Naples, overawe the Francophile papacy, and encourage the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
to change sides.[79] The need for a base between England
England
and the Mediterranean was therefore essential, but the attack on Cádiz in September ended in failure and looting. However, the Allies recovered some prestige when they destroyed the Spanish treasure fleet and their French escorts anchored in Vigo
Vigo
Bay on 23 October. The attack did not yield as much silver as hoped,[80] but it was to have wide implications. For King Peter II of Portugal, whose country's economy depended on oceanic trade with the Americas, the demonstration of Allied naval dominance in the Atlantic played a decisive part in persuading him to abandon his nominal alliance with France and Spain. Although most of his ministers preferred neutrality, Peter II signed with the Allies the Treaty of Defensive Alliance and the Treaty of Offensive Alliance on 16 May 1703.[81]

Portrait of Charles III of Habsburg
Habsburg
(1685–1740). Oil by Francesco Solimena, c. 1707. Archduke Charles, known to his supporters as Charles III of Spain.

The Portuguese alliance began a new era in political and commercial relations with England.[82] However, of more immediate benefit to the Allies was the port of Lisbon, which would provide year-round naval access to the Mediterranean, as well as support from the Portuguese army[83] to fight for the Grand Alliance in Spain. As part of the agreement Peter II had demanded that Archduke Charles be sent in person to Portugal. In the King's estimation the presence of the Archduke would help facilitate an anti-Bourbon rising in Spain, but it would also guarantee that the Allies would not leave him in the lurch once he had forfeited his French alliance. To Queen Anne's ministers replacing the Duke of Anjou with Archduke Charles appeared a good way to break Spain's trade monopoly in its colonial empire, knowing that Habsburg
Habsburg
control over Spanish America was in England's commercial interest; moreover, it satisfied the Grand Strategic concept of pressing Louis XIV
Louis XIV
across multiple fonts. However, the agreement also meant the Allies were now committed to a war to secure the whole Spanish inheritance for the Austrian Habsburgs. At first the Emperor had been hesitant as his immediate goals were in Italy not Spain. Nevertheless, it was the weight of English gold and diplomacy which prevailed, and on 12 September 1703 Archduke Charles was crowned Charles III of Spain
Spain
in Vienna. He arrived in Lisbon, via London, in early March 1704.[84] The war now moved to the Iberian Peninsula in earnest. In May 1704 the Franco-Spanish army of approximately 26,000 men under the Duke of Berwick, accompanied by Philip V, advanced on Portugal and scored several minor victories against the disorganised Allies under the Marquis of Minas, the Duke of Schomberg, and the Dutch Baron Fagel, whose combined strength of 21,000 men fell far short of their treaty obligations.[85] For their part, Allied successes that year were achieved and sustained by their navy, and in early August George Rooke and Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt
Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt
captured Gibraltar. Two attempts were made to retake the place that year: the first by sea, leading to the indecisive Battle of Málaga on 24 August (the only full-dress naval engagement of the war); then by land when Tessé and Villadarias besieged the Rock before abandoning the attempt after six months in April 1705. Gibraltar remained in Allied hands, but attempts to garner support for Charles III amongst the populace of Spain
Spain
largely failed.[86]

Peninsular Spain. The seat of Philip V's government was in Madrid, the principal city of the Crown of Castile. In the autonomous Crown of Aragon (as Philip IV) and the Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Navarre
(as Philip VII), Philip V was represented by his viceroys.

On the whole the people of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
had rallied to support Philip V, but in the autonomous Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
there had arisen centres of discontent. In the Principality of Catalonia, as in other parts of the peninsula, the people had differing opinions about supporting the Duke of Anjou or Archduke Charles, but there was a strong anti-French feeling rooted in recent experience, especially the attack on Barcelona in 1697. In early June 1705 a small number of Catalans[87] – in return for men, weapons, and support for their own constitutional liberties, or Catalan constitutions
Catalan constitutions
– committed themselves to support Charles and the Allied cause. This new allegiance encouraged the English to prepare an expeditionary force to Spain's Mediterranean provinces, thereby opening a two front war in the peninsula: Das Minas, the Huguenot
Huguenot
Earl of Galway (Schomberg's replacement), and Baron Fagel attacking from Portugal; and the Earl of Peterborough and Charles III campaigning in the north-east. The arrival of the Allied fleet off the Mediterranean coast not only influenced disaffected Catalans, however. In the Kingdom of Valencia there was strong anti-French feeling based on trade rivalry, but there was also repercussions of a recent peasant rebellion against the Valencian nobility, which was never fully extinguished and which the Allies were able to exploit. In the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
there was also strong Francophobia, based largely on commercial rivalry and proximity, but Philip V's attempts to raise taxes for the war effort without the approval of the Catalan Courts, to appoint a Castilian viceroy, and to move and quarter French and Castilian troops within the kingdom, were also causes of friction, which went against the spirit of their own Constitutions.[88]

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
(1670–1734). Anonymous. Berwick was an illegitimate son of King James II
James II
and a nephew of the Duke of Marlborough.

The internal divisions in the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
prepared the way for early Allied victories in the region in 1705, culminating with Peterborough taking Barcelona on 9 October, and Juan Bautista Basset y Ramos capturing the city of Valencia on 16 December.[89] The defeats in the north-east provinces were a major set-back to the Bourbon cause; a problem exacerbated when Philip V and Tessé failed to retake Barcelona in May 1706. Moreover, the concentration of French forces in the north-east had enabled the Allies under Das Minas and Galway to make progress on the Portuguese front, where they quickly captured several towns. Berwick could not halt a mainly Portuguese-allied army advance led by Das Minas, and on 25 June, Portuguese, Dutch, and British forward elements entered Madrid; by the time they took Saragossa
Saragossa
on the 29th, they controlled the four chief cities of Spain. But the gains were illusory. Although several nobles joined the Habsburg
Habsburg
cause the majority of Castile remained loyal to Philip V, and the Allied army, far from its supply ports, could not maintain their position so deep within the country. When Charles III and Peterborough moved to join Das Minas and Galway they failed to take decisive action, and after Berwick received French reinforcements the Allies retreated to Valencia, allowing Philip V to re-enter Madrid in early October. Although the Allies captured the key Valencian town of Alicante, and Leake took the islands of Ibiza
Ibiza
and Majorca
Majorca
in September, the Allied retreat from Castile brought forth the reversal of Philip V's fortunes in the peninsula, and softened the blows of Ramillies and Turin. By the time Cartagena fell to Franco-Spanish forces in November, the territories of Castile, Murcia, and the southern tip of Valencia had returned to Bourbon obedience.[90]

Battle of Almansa, 1707. The victory of the Franco-Spanish Bourbon army at Almansa in Spain
Spain
was a serious setback for the Grand Alliance.

In an attempt to regain the initiative in 1707, Galway and Das Minas led the main Allied army of 15,500 Portuguese, English, and Dutch troops into Murcia, prior to advancing once again on Madrid. Opposing them stood Berwick who, reinforced with troops released from the Italian front, now commanded 25,000 men. When Berwick advanced towards the Allies on 25 April Galway accepted the challenge. The result was the Battle of Almansa
Battle of Almansa
and complete defeat for the main Allied army.[91] With the Allies in full retreat the Duke of Orléans, newly arrived from Italy to take command in Spain, now joined with Berwick to retake much of what had been lost in the earlier campaigns: Valencia city and Saragossa
Saragossa
fell in May, d'Asfeld reduced Xátiva in June, and Lleida fell in November. Most of Aragon and Valencia returned to the obedience of Philip V, and the Allies were pushed back to Catalonia and beyond the line of the Segre and the Ebro.[92] The Bourbons also made gains on the Portuguese front, notably the Marquis of Bay's recovery of Ciudad Rodrigo on 4 October. Young King John V had been on the throne in Portugal for less than a year following the death of Peter II, but his country was exhausted and in danger of defeat if the Allies could not make progress in the Crown of Aragon.[93] Following the Habsburg
Habsburg
victory in Italy the Emperor could at last send Charles III assistance in early 1708. Joseph I's resources remained limited and he was still unwilling to assign a high priority to the war in Iberia. Nevertheless, the Austrians agreed to send reinforcements, as well as Guido Starhemberg
Guido Starhemberg
to assume supreme Allied command in the peninsula. James Stanhope – the English envoy to Charles III – became the new British commander in Spain, and in September he and Admiral Leake captured Menorca and the key harbour, Mahón. This success followed hard on Leake's capture of Sardinia in the name of Charles III in August. However, Philip V's generals on the Spanish mainland continued their advance on Charles III in Barcelona. Orléans took Tortosa
Tortosa
in mid-July, while on the Valencian coast d'Asfeld re-captured Dénia
Dénia
in mid-November, and Alicante
Alicante
(though not its citadel) in early December.[94] Campaigns: 1709–1714[edit] The Hague[edit] From the start of the war the Dutch priority had been to secure their Barrier fortress system as stipulated – though unspecified – in the Grand Alliance treaty; they also had concerns on their eastern German border (from Cleves in the south to East Frisia
East Frisia
in the north) where their once political and economical dominance had come under threat from the Prussians.[95] As a consequence, Spain
Spain
had become largely irrelevant to the States General, and they had increasingly looked favourably on a deal with France based on partition of the Spanish inheritance between Archduke Charles and the Duke of Anjou. As early as 1705 Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had approached the Allies with peace feelers, attempting to split the Dutch from the Alliance and achieve a partition of Spain. The defeat at Ramillies in 1706, and the defeat at Oudenarde
Oudenarde
and loss of Lille in 1708, had further encouraged Louis XIV to abandon the principle of Spanish integrity. Yet for dynastic and strategic reasons Joseph I and his ministers in Vienna were unwilling to grant Philip V compensation in Italy, while Charles III in Barcelona, after years of struggle, sincerely believed in his rightful claims to the whole of Spain
Spain
and its dependencies. The British supported the Habsburgs in opposing partition, in part to protect their Mediterranean trade: they were already pressing for the cessation of Menorca and the strategically important Port Mahón
Mahón
for themselves, and they were determined to prevent the Duke of Anjou acquiring Sicily and Naples, thereby limiting French maritime influence in the region. In desperation, therefore, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
sent the president of the Parlement
Parlement
of Paris, Pierre Rouillé, to meet with Dutch ministers in March 1709 at Moerdijk, confident that they at least were willing to accept some token partition. However, British and Austrian intransigence, and a whole raft of conditions from their allies, scuppered any chance of a compromise. The Dutch, unwilling to treat without British support, were compelled once again to put their faith in the strength of the Grand Alliance.[96]

Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de Torcy
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de Torcy
(1665–1746). Attributed to Robert Tournières, 1701.

After the collapse of the talks with Rouillé on 21 April, the Allies prepared to resume hostilities, but for Louis XIV
Louis XIV
this represented an unacceptable risk. Not only was the Anglo-Dutch army fighting on French soil, the whole of France had recently suffered a severe winter, resulting in widespread crop failure and famine; a hardship exacerbated by a British naval blockade of grain imports. In early May Louis XIV
Louis XIV
sent his Foreign Minister, Torcy, to deal with the Allied negotiators at The Hague, principally Eugene, later assisted by Count Sinzendorf, for the Emperor; Marlborough and a Whig leader, Charles Townshend, representing Queen Anne; and Heinsius, Willem Buys, and Bruno van der Dussen, for the Dutch. Prussian, Savoyard, Portuguese, and German representatives were also present.[97] The French had hoped to reduce the demands presented to Rouillé in April, but recognising Louis XIV's weakness the Allies adhered to particularly harsh conditions, and on 27 May they presented Torcy the forty articles of the Preliminaries of The Hague, the most important of which was the Anglo- Habsburg
Habsburg
demand that required Philip V to hand over the entire Spanish Monarchy to Charles III without compensation. In return, the Allies offered a two-month truce. Within that time Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was to withdraw his troops from Spain
Spain
and procure Philip V's renunciation of the Spanish throne. At largely Dutch insistence – though supported by the British – Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was to hand over three French and three Spanish 'cautionary' towns to guarantee his grandson's compliance. If Philip V refused to surrender his claims peacefully the French were to join with the Allies and forcibly drive the Bourbon claimant from the peninsula or face a renewal of the war in Flanders, though now without the towns they had surrendered. To Dutch ministers these stipulations ensured France could not reap the benefits of peace and recover its strength while the Grand Alliance continued fighting in Spain.[98] Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had been willing to accept the bulk of the demands, including relinquishing several fortresses to provide for the Dutch Barrier, ceding Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and many of his rights in Alsace
Alsace
to accommodate a Reichsbarriere on the Empire's western frontier, and recognising the Protestant succession in England, but he could not agree to the terms regarding Spain, and in early June the King publicly rejected the Preliminaries, calling on his subjects for new efforts of resistance. Nevertheless, with French forces under pressure on other fronts Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was willing to manoeuvre for peace at Philip V's expense, and after the Preliminaries had been rejected he withdrew much of his army from Spain
Spain
to encourage his grandson's voluntary abdication. However, by now Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had far less influence over Philip V than the Allies realised, and surrendering Spain
Spain
was not something the Spanish king, now firmly established on his throne and enjoying the support of the majority of his subjects, would countenance.[99] Grand Alliance falters[edit]

The Battle of Malplaquet
Battle of Malplaquet
1709: The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene Entering the French Entrenchments, possibly by Louis Laguerre. The battle, often described as a Pyrrhic victory, was the bloodiest of all Louis XIV's wars.

Believing that Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was only stalling for time in order to recuperate his army, the ministry in London prepared to act vigorously on all fronts in 1709, hoping to draw the French back to the negotiating table. Central to both sides was the situation in Flanders. Here, Villars replaced Vendôme as commander of the French army and set about building a new defensive line from Aire to Douai (the Lines of Cambrin, or la Bassée, later extended) to block the line of advance from Lille to Paris. Due to the harshness of the previous winter and the scarcity of stores and provisions, Marlborough had initially recoiled from a full-scale invasion of France in preference to a conservative policy of siege warfare. The Allies invested Tournai in July (the citadel did not fall till 3 September), before moving to attack Mons. Given a free hand from Louis XIV
Louis XIV
to save the city Villars, commanding perhaps 75,000 men, entrenched his army centred around the tiny village of Malplaquet. Confident that one last set-piece battle would result in the final destruction of the main French army and force Louis XIV
Louis XIV
to accept peace on Allied terms, Marlborough and Eugene, leading some 86,000 men, accepted the challenge and attacked the French position on 11 September. The Battle of Malplaquet was nominally a victory for the Allies, but a stern French defence and faults in the execution of the battle-plan prevented the Allies from winning decisively, and they suffered major losses. Although Mons subsequently fell in October, Villars and his co-commander Boufflers, had kept the French army intact.[100]

Infantry of the Dutch States Army. A musketeer (left), two ensigns (centre), grenadier (right).

The Allies were now lodged in the northern French provinces depriving Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of vital resources, but Villars' resistance had provided a boost to French morale. There was also French success in Spain
Spain
in 1709: Alicante's citadel fell in April, and on 7 May the Marquis of Bay defeated Fronteira and Galway at the Battle of La Gudina
Battle of La Gudina
on the Portuguese border. However, Louis XIV's greatest advantage lay in his enemy's political disunity, exacerbated as it was by the appalling Allied losses at Malplaquet (particularly the Dutch) and the strategic indecisiveness of the battle. The Tories – whose Land Tax was funding the war – sought to make political gain by demonstrating that the Whigs and their friends at the Bank of England
England
were benefiting from the ongoing conflict to the detriment of their compatriots.[101] But there was also anger from the Dutch who, since April, had been pressing British ministers to accept their latest Barrier project. Talks had reached deadlock, but in August the Dutch had learnt of the secret territorial and commercial concessions the Habsburgs had yielded Britain, concessions at odds with the Treaty of Grand Alliance, which had promised an equal division of the Spanish spoils. To appease their allies the Godolphin ministry now proposed its own concessions. By the Barrier Treaty
Barrier Treaty
of 29 October, Townshend, without consulting Vienna, promised the Dutch an extensive Barrier fortress system, as well as commercial advantages in the Spanish Netherlands and an equal share of any advantages secured from Spain's empire; the Treaty also granted the Dutch Upper Guelders, to which the Prussians laid claim. In return, the States General offered concessions of their own, primarily to provide armed help in repelling any future foreign attempt to overthrow the Protestant succession in Great Britain. From the outset, however, Joseph I, Charles III, and the Tories who saw the Dutch primarily as commercial rivals, considered the agreement prejudicial to their own economic and strategic interests.[102] The Grand Alliance had failed to make the decisive breakthrough in 1709, but Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was far from confident: his finances were in a mess and the famine lingered. At Geertruidenberg
Geertruidenberg
from March through July 1710 the French envoys, Marshal d'Uxelles and the Abbé Polignac, sought to modify the harsh Hague Preliminaries. Against Joseph I's wishes – whose objective remained the entire Spanish inheritance – the Dutch had suggested Philip V could retain Sicily, and perhaps receive Sardinia as compensation for vacating Spain. Yet the Allies now went even beyond the demands specified at The Hague. Prompted by their distrust of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and convinced of France's exhaustion, the Dutch insisted Louis XIV
Louis XIV
take sole responsibility, in men and money, for driving Philip V from Spain
Spain
if he refused to leave voluntarily. This was flatly rejected. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had already recalled much of his army from Spain
Spain
to promote the peace process, and he was even willing to pay a large subsidy to assist the Allied campaign in the peninsula. But he would not send French troops to depose his grandson while his enemies watched from afar.[103]

Portrait of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford (1661–1724) by Jonathan Richardson, c. 1711

In Britain, the Whigs remained strongly in favour of the war, and Allied negotiators had been spurred on by Marlborough and Eugene passing the Lines of Cambrin, before taking the pré carré fortress of Douai on 25 June 1710. However, calls for peace were growing: the war was profitable for some, but the general populace had become overburdened, and dissatisfaction set in against Godolphin and his government.[104] Due to their support for the continental strategy (and other measures such as supporting the political union of England and Scotland, which the High Tories opposed), Godolphin was beholden to the Whigs, particularly the Whig Junto
Whig Junto
who had long been demanding greater power in the Cabinet Council. The first major crisis had come in 1706 when Godolphin and the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough compelled the highly reluctant Queen to accept a member of the Junto, the Earl of Sunderland, as Secretary of State. The appointment further damaged the Queen's already barbed relationship with the Duchess, and it estranged Anne from Godolphin.[105] Consequently, the Queen turned to the moderate Tory Robert Harley, Sunderland's fellow Secretary of State, who had long reviled the Junto and who now set himself up in opposition to the ministry. As early as 1707 Harley was voicing doubts about the hard-line Whig policy in Spain,[106] and in opposing the Junto he had the Queen's sympathy, but with Godolphin and the victorious Marlborough presenting a united front it was Harley who lost the initial power struggle, and he was forced from office in February 1708. The subsequent General Election in May proved very favourable to the Whigs, who became champions of a belligerent war policy which they were determined to see through at any cost.[107] However, by 1710 domestic party strife, war-weariness, and the disappointment of Malplaquet, all led to political upheaval in England, and Harley encouraged Anne, herself tired of the endless war and the hated Whig Junto, to change her ministry. In June Anne dismissed Sunderland. In August, shortly after the collapse of the Geertruidenberg
Geertruidenberg
talks, she dismissed Godolphin, who was followed in September by the rest of the Whig Junto. Following the General Election in October Harley led a new largely Tory ministry, alongside the Whig moderate, the Duke of Shrewsbury, and the highly partisan Henry St. John, who became the principal Secretary of State.[108]

Battle of Villaviciosa
Battle of Villaviciosa
by Jean Alaux, 1836. ″The battle placed the crown on the head of the Catholic king [Philip V].″[109]

Harley came to power advocating peace – a just peace for Britain and all its allies. However, the other members of the Grand Alliance, as well as the Whig directors of the Bank of England, had viewed with apprehension Anne's new government, and interpreted the fall of the Whigs as signifying a shift in war policy. To avoid a credit crisis at home and to dispel Allied fears abroad – thereby forestalling Vienna and The Hague rushing to make their own separate arrangements – the Harley government at first returned to the war strategy undertaken by the previous administration to secure from a position of strength an advantageous settlement.[110] Marlborough remained at the head of the Anglo-Dutch army in Northern France, and by the end of the 1710 campaign the Duke and Eugene had added to their earlier success by capturing Béthune, Saint-Venant, and in early November, Aire-sur-la-Lys, thereby penetrating the second line of the pré carré. Yet these sieges had been costly and time consuming, and there had been no decisive breakthrough; moreover, between Marlborough and Paris still lay several fortresses and a new defensive line.[111] Other fronts in 1710 produced little, but in Spain
Spain
the dispute over who would rule in Madrid was finally settled. Due to Louis XIV withdrawing much of his army from Spain, Philip V took to the field bereft of French generals and troops. In contrast, Joseph I at last fully committed himself to the Iberian front, hoping to dispel Tory resentment of his reputed half-hearted prosecution of the war. Thus reinforced, Starhemberg and Stanhope defeated Villadarias and Philip V at the Battle of Almenar
Battle of Almenar
on 27 July 1710, followed by victory against de Bay (Villadarias' replacement) at the Battle of Saragossa
Battle of Saragossa
on 20 August. The Allies had regained control of Aragon, and at the end of September Charles III entered Madrid, albeit to a hostile reception. With Barcelona, Madrid, and Saragossa
Saragossa
in Allied hands Philip V's position looked precarious, but again they failed to secure the backing of the Spanish people; moreover, with the collapse of the Geertruidenberg
Geertruidenberg
talks Louis XIV
Louis XIV
could return to support his grandson.[112] Vendôme passed through the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and took control of the main Franco-Spanish army, while the Duke of Noailles attacked Catalonia from Roussillon. Facing this new threat and unwilling to winter in the hostile territories of Castile, Starhemberg retired eastward. Vendôme pursued, and on 8/9 December he captured Stanhope and the British rearguard at Brihuega. When Starhemberg turned the main army to offer assistance, Vendôme attacked him at Villaviciosa on the 10th. Although Starhemberg kept the field, the Allies were subsequently forced into a precipitous retreat back to Catalonia, reduced to the region between Tarragona, Igualada, and Barcelona, where they would largely remain till the end of the war.[113] Preliminary peace talks[edit] The new Harley ministry in London sought the same goals for Great Britain as had the Godolphin ministry, that is, to ensure the country's safety, prevent outside interference in its internal affairs, and secure its trade abroad. But there was one big difference – their readiness to commit to peace. As early as August 1710 the Tories had initiated secret talks with the French, seeking mutual ground whereon Great Britain and France could dictate peace to the rest of Europe. Initially, Harley and Shrewsbury conducted these talks through the Jacobite Earl of Jersey, and through Torcy's London agent, François Gaultier, who between them sketched out the broad outline of a peace agreement. At first the Tories had offered no concrete concessions to the French, but when news of the Allied retreat from Madrid and the defeat at Brihuega reached London in December, Anne's ministers finally resolved to abandon Spain
Spain
and the Indies to Philip V (provided the thrones of France and Spain
Spain
remained separate) in return for exclusive territorial and trade advantages. To this end they were aided by the sudden death in April 1711 of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I. Joseph I's brother, Archduke Charles (Charles III of Spain), was his sole male heir, yet if Charles III was to succeed to the Austrian inheritance as well as that of Spain, the balance of power in Europe would once again be overthrown, this time in favour of the Austrian Habsburgs.[114] For the Tories, the threat of a dominant Habsburg empire was no more desirable than a Bourbon one, but for now the need for the Grand Alliance remained: peace was necessary, yet in order to strengthen their negotiating position Queen Anne's ministers stood by the basic strategy of attacking Louis XIV
Louis XIV
across multiple fronts. In 1711 this was to include a revival of an earlier plan to seize the French stronghold of Quebec in North America.[115]

North America in the years following the War of the Spanish Succession. The war in North America was named Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
by British colonists.

Up till now the war in North America had been a relatively minor affair fought between English, Spanish, and French colonists who rallied their Indian allies to attack frontier settlements for trade and territorial advantage. The French were aware of the danger of their position between Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
in the north and the British colonies to the south, but the expansion of French settlements from Louisiana, along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
in Canada, threatened to encircle the British settlers. For the most part the English in North America had been left to their own devices, but the growing power of France had persuaded the new Tory ministry to take direct action to secure the colonies and its commerce for Britain. Regular troops were taken from Flanders for the Quebec campaign, but the naval expedition against the French stronghold in August 1711 ended in disaster.[116] The campaign in North America did nothing to shake the common Whig belief that America was to be won by defeating France in Europe. However, the failure at Quebec was somewhat compensated by Marlborough's final victory in the field. Anne's Captain-General no longer had the influence he enjoyed under the Godolphin ministry: his wife's relationship with the Queen had ended acrimoniously and he was now under the influence of Harley, now the Earl of Oxford and Lord High Treasurer. Nevertheless, Marlborough still commanded the Anglo-Dutch forces in northern France, and in August he outmanoeuvred Villars and crossed the formidable Ne Plus Ultra lines, before capturing Bouchain on 12 September. The campaign was not decisive, however. Arras, Cambrai, Le Quesnoy, and Landrecies
Landrecies
still stood between the Duke and Paris, and it would take at least one more campaign to secure their capitulation.[117] On 27 September Charles III reluctantly left Barcelona to take possession of the Austrian hereditary lands and the Imperial crown, leaving behind his wife Elizabeth as a pledge to the Spanish.[118] In order to facilitate the Imperial election at Frankfurt
Frankfurt
– and keep the electors loyal to the Habsburgs – Eugene and the troops still in Austrian pay (no more than 16,000 men)[119] had already moved from Flanders to the Rhine
Rhine
where the French were massing for a new offensive (or to at least disrupt the Imperial election). In the event Eugene's campaign proved uneventful and in October, shortly after his embarkation at Genoa, Archduke Charles was elected Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Yet even before he had left Barcelona Charles knew the Allies were on the point of making peace and that Spain
Spain
was no longer within the dynasty's grasp.[120] Vendôme sought to hasten the Allied departure from Catalonia by moving on Tarragona
Tarragona
and Barcelona; several small towns fell as a prelude, but Starhemberg fought back, and the Bourbons were unable to secure a military solution that year. Meanwhile, on the Spanish-Portuguese border Vila Verde had replaced Fronteira as commander of the Portuguese army, and the Earl of Portmore succeeded Galway as British commander. However, the campaign against de Bay proved uneventful as it became clear that the momentum was now with the peace negotiations.[121]

Portrait of Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
(1678–1751). Attributed to Alexis Simon Belle, c. 1712.

Oxford (Harley) had refused to make a separate treaty between Britain and France, but ultimately he had excluded the Dutch from negotiating the preliminary articles of peace, which together with French ministers he would present to the States General as a done deal. After much cross-Channel diplomacy the final proposals were agreed. First, there were the vague public preliminaries made by Britain on behalf of itself and the Allies, namely: French recognition of Queen Anne and the Act of Settlement; a guarantee that the French and Spanish crowns would remain separate; a restoration of international commerce; protective 'barriers' for the Dutch Republic, Austria, and the Holy Roman Empire against future French aggression; and a secret agreement that France would cooperate in securing for the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
– Britain's close ally – those parts of Italy which the British deemed necessary to counter Habsburg
Habsburg
domination. On top of these general concessions were the secret articles pertaining only to Britain, including negotiations for an Anglo-French commercial treaty, and the demolition of the privateer base of Dunkirk. There were also the advantages which Britain had previously hoped to gain by supporting the Habsburg
Habsburg
cause in Spain
Spain
and which were now to be granted by Philip V, including the cession of Gibraltar, Menorca, and the Asiento (slaving contract) for 30 years. The agreement was laid down as the Preliminary Articles of London, signed on 8 October 1711 (N.S.) by St. John and the Earl of Dartmouth for Great Britain, and Nicolas Mesnager for France.[122] For the British, there now remained the problem of convincing their allies to accept those Preliminary articles that had been made public as a basis for a future peace congress. However, the court in Vienna were dissatisfied with Britain's evident change in policy, and were suspicious that Anne's government had already consigned Spain
Spain
and the Indies to the Bourbons. Consequently, Charles VI at first rejected the idea of a peace conference, but once the Dutch were pulled into line by Britain's threat to abandon them and force them to fight on alone, the Emperor reluctantly consented.[123] George Louis, Elector of Hanover, also thought the Tories were betraying the Grand Alliance and their cause, and as heir to the British throne he was concerned that if the Bourbons were established in Spain
Spain
they would actively support James Edward Stuart's claim to succeed Queen Anne. His ambition to raise his electorate to the status of a kingdom also necessitated his continuing support for the Emperor, and although he accepted the principle of a peace congress, the Elector refused to abandon Charles VI's claim to the Spanish succession.[124] In Britain, there was also opposition in the House of Lords, notably from the influential Tory, the Earl of Nottingham, whose motion that "no peace was safe or honourable to Great Britain or Europe if Spain
Spain
and the West Indies were allotted to any branch of the House of Bourbon", was carried on 7 December ( Julian calendar
Julian calendar
(O.S.)).[125]

Blenheim Palace. After his dismissal Marlborough went into exile. On Anne's death he returned to England
England
and to favour under the Hanoverian dynasty. In 1719 the Duke and Duchess moved into the east wing of their unfinished palace.

To rouse public feeling against the Whigs and their European allies the Tories had turned to propaganda, notably Jonathan Swift's The Conduct of the Allies. In his pamphlet (composed with ministerial assistance) Swift protested against Allied intransigence at The Hague and Geertruidenberg
Geertruidenberg
peace talks, and he reminded the public of the original Treaty of Grand Alliance where no mention was made of driving Philip V from Spain. Swift lamented that the early Allied victories had led to hubris and intransigence, and he rejected the preoccupation with the security of the Low Countries
Low Countries
at the expense of a naval and colonial war. He also denigrated Marlborough, a leading member of the former administration and opponent of the new ministry's direction who, now that the Preliminaries had been unilaterally agreed with France, was no longer needed. To further discredit the Duke charges of financial corruption during the war were lodged against him in Parliament, leading to his dismissal at the end of 1711.[126] Tory propaganda was built in part on a foundation of anti-Dutch and anti- Habsburg
Habsburg
xenophobia, but Britain was being drained of its resources, and many thought the country had borne too much of the burden pursuing their allies' interests while being denied any advantage for itself. Domestically, Oxford had the backing of the Queen, the war-weary public, the House of Commons; support from the House of Lords
House of Lords
was secured by the expedient of the Queen creating 12 new Tory peers. Nevertheless, the Whigs and some Tory Lords refused to accept the possibility of Philip V remaining in Spain, and persisted in supporting the Habsburg
Habsburg
bloc as a counterbalance to powerful France. To others, Charles VI's succession as Holy Roman Emperor and inheritor of the Habsburg
Habsburg
lands meant supporting his claim to the Spanish succession had long ceased to be politically desirable. The danger of too much power accumulating to Austria had convinced many, including Daniel Defoe, the chief Whig propagandist, to re-think Grand Strategy.[127] Peace of Utrecht
Utrecht
and the final campaigns[edit]

Treaty of Utrecht, colour print by Abraham Allard, 18th century

Battle of Denain, by Jean Alaux. In Napoleon's words, ″Denain saved France″.[128]

The congress at Utrecht
Utrecht
convened on 29 January 1712. However, within weeks of the talks opening the Bourbons in France had suffered a series of royal deaths,[129] and soon all that was standing between Philip V and the French crown was a sickly two-year-old boy, Louis. To safeguard against the unification of the French and Spanish thrones under one monarch – and therefore prevent a collapse of the negotiations – Philip V was pressed to choose between the two crowns. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was receptive to Oxford's plan whereby Philip V, on choosing France, would immediately hand over Spain
Spain
and Spanish America to the Duke of Savoy. In return, Philip would receive Savoy's lands, plus Montferrat
Montferrat
and Sicily as a kingdom for himself; if and when the young Louis died, Philip would ascend the French throne, and the Italian territories (except Sicily which would go to the Habsburgs) would be absorbed into the kingdom of France. However, Philip V, comfortable in his adopted country and with no guarantee young Louis would die, rejected the plan, and renounced his claim to the French throne in favour of staying in Spain. His response did not promote the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
to the position which the Tories had hoped, and it would make a resolution with the Emperor more difficult. Nevertheless, the renunciation was seen in London as an acceptable basis on which to press for peace.[130] The congress at Utrecht
Utrecht
had not been accompanied by an armistice, yet Oxford and St John were determined not to fight another costly and potentially damaging campaign in Flanders. Even before Philip V gave his answer to the ' Savoy
Savoy
plan', Queen Anne had issued Marlborough's successor, the Duke of Ormonde, his 'Restraining Orders' (21 May), forbidding him to use British troops against the French. In effect, Anne's ministers had abandoned their allies in the field and made a separate deal with France, but they were convinced they had reached the best agreement possible, not just for themselves, but also for the other members of the Grand Alliance who were asked to join the Anglo-French suspension of arms. However, the Dutch – who had received no guarantees for their strategic and commercial interests – were inclined to fight on; as was Prince Eugene who was determined to breach the remaining fortresses guarding northern France and compel Louis XIV
Louis XIV
into making substantial concessions.[131] On 4 July 1712, Eugene took Le Quesnoy; on the 17th he invested Landrecies, the last pré carré fortress between himself and Paris. British troops had by now pulled back to Ghent
Ghent
and Bruges, and in conformity with the agreement with France they also occupied Dunkirk. Nevertheless, the majority of Ormonde's German and Danish auxiliaries went over to Eugene who, following the Treaty of Szatmár
Treaty of Szatmár
and end of Rákóczi's revolt, also received reinforcements from Hungary, giving the Austrian commander a numerical advantage. Yet Villars, encouraged by Britain's withdrawal, decided to take the initiative. Feinting against the besiegers at Landrecies
Landrecies
the French commander struck out for Denain and defeated the Earl of Albemarle's Dutch garrison on 24 July. The victory was pivotal. The French subsequently seized the Allies' main supply magazine at Marchiennes
Marchiennes
on 30 July, before reversing their earlier losses at Douai, Le Quesnoy
Le Quesnoy
and, in early October, Bouchain. The pré carré had been restored.[132]

Claude Louis Hector, duc de Villars, (1653–1734) after Hyacinthe Rigaud

On 19 August 1712, Britain, Savoy, France and Spain
Spain
agreed to a general suspension of arms. The British now began to draw back their troops from Catalonia and reduce the regiments in Portugal. When Portugal agreed an armistice with France and Spain
Spain
on 8 November, Starhemberg was deprived of all but his Catalan allies.[133] By the end of the year Charles VI's German ministers were in agreement that Austria would have to make peace: the Emperor could not fight Louis XIV and Philip V without the Maritime Powers, but the Dutch, following the collapse of their public finances, could not carry on the war without Britain. To draw the States General into a general peace the Tories offered new terms regarding the Barrier in the Spanish Netherlands, supplanting the former Whig agreement which had since been repudiated by the British Parliament. The new treaty, signed on 29 January 1713, maintained the principle of the Barrier, but it now comprised fewer fortresses than the one promised by the Whigs, though better than the one the Dutch held at the beginning of the war. Trade interests in the region were to satisfy both Maritime Powers, but the agreement was still subject to Austrian approval.[134] Austria's inability to impose a military solution in Spain
Spain
or Flanders had strengthened the French and British negotiating positions at Utrecht. Consequently, in March 1713, Count Sinzendorf, the Emperor's representative at the congress, signed a convention for the evacuation of Imperial troops from Catalonia: the Empress departed Barcelona on 19 March, followed in July by Starhemberg. Charles VI had been willing to make unpalatable concessions to end the war, but last minute demands by Louis XIV's diplomats at Utrecht
Utrecht
– including the cession of Luxembourg to the Elector of Bavaria, the immediate formal recognition of Philip V as King of Spain, and a guarantee the Austrians would not extend their rule in northern Italy to Mantua
Mantua
and Mirandola
Mirandola
– proved a step too far. As a result, Charles VI resolved to fight on, but for other key members of the Grand Alliance the war was over.[135]

Cover of the English translation of the Asiento, a contract for the African slave trade monopoly to Spanish America, signed by Britain and Spain
Spain
in 1713 as part of the Utrecht
Utrecht
treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession.

On 11 April 1713, Great Britain, Prussia, Savoy, Portugal, and after midnight, the Dutch Republic, signed the treaties at Utrecht
Utrecht
to secure peace with France – a peace built around a framework pre-established by French and British diplomats, and on the principle of a European balance of power. The treaty secured Britain's main war aims: Louis XIV's acknowledgement of the Protestant succession as regulated by Parliament,[136] and safeguards to ensure that the French and Spanish thrones remained separate. In North America, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
ceded to Britain the territories of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Acadia, and recognised Britain's sovereignty over Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
and Newfoundland (less some rights for French coastal fishermen). In return, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
kept the major city of Lille on his northern border, but he ceded Furnes, Ypres, Menin, and Tournai to the Spanish Netherlands; he also agreed to the permanent demilitarisation of the naval base at Dunkirk. The Dutch received their restricted Barrier – with French amendments – in the Spanish Netherlands, and a share of the trade in the region with Britain; Prussia gained Upper Guelders, and international recognition of the disputed Orange succession lands of Moers, Lingen, and Neuchâtel; and Portugal won minor concessions in Brazil against encroachments on the Amazon from French Guiana.[137] Nice and the Duchy of Savoy
Savoy
was restored to Victor Amadeus who, at British insistence, also acquired Sicily to act as a counter-weight to the Habsburg's political and commercial dominance in Italy.[138] Louis XIV also ceded the district of Pragelato
Pragelato
and the fortresses of Exilles
Exilles
and Fenestrelle
Fenestrelle
to act as part of an alpine barrier; to compensate, Amadeus ceded the Barcelonnette
Barcelonnette
valley to France.[139] Above all, though, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
had secured for the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
the throne of Spain, with his grandson, Philip V, recognised as the rightful king by all signatories.[140] Spain
Spain
made peace with the Dutch in June, and with Savoy
Savoy
and Britain on 13 July 1713. To Britain, Spain
Spain
ceded Gibraltar and Menorca, recognised the Protestant succession, and confirmed the March agreement to grant Britain the Asiento
Asiento
slaving contract for 30 years (besides other trade advantages for the newly formed South Sea Company); in return, Spain
Spain
and the Spanish Indies were guaranteed to Philip V, who reaffirmed his renunciation of the French throne. The Spanish-Dutch treaty changed little, however: Dutch trade was put on 'most favoured nation' basis, but they had to abandon trade with the Spanish Indies. Spain
Spain
and Portugal came to terms in February 1715. Spain
Spain
ceded Colonia del Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento
in South America, and confirmed the mutual restitutions already settled between France and Portugal, but there were to be no Portuguese gains in Extremadura
Extremadura
or Galicia as promised by the Allies in 1703.[141]

Europe at the end of the war

Emperor Charles VI and the Elector of Hanover were to fight a final campaign on the Rhine
Rhine
before they and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
would submit. The numerically superior French under Marshal Villars captured Landau in August 1713, and Freiburg in November. With Austrian finances exhausted and the German states reluctant to continue, Charles VI was compelled to enter into negotiations. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
too required peace, and on 26 November Eugene and Villars initiated talks, culminating in the Franco-Austrian Treaty of Rastatt
Treaty of Rastatt
on 7 March 1714. The treaty was largely built on what had already been agreed at Utrecht
Utrecht
before the Emperor pulled out of the talks, but by fighting on for another year Charles VI had gained some advantages: he was not asked to renounce his claim to Spain
Spain
formally, and he had forestalled the French attempt to limit his influence in Italy. Ultimately, therefore, the Emperor now controlled Milan, Naples, Mantua, the Tuscan ports (State of Presidi), Sardinia (which was promised to Bavaria
Bavaria
at Utrecht), and most of the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
(known henceforth as the Austrian Netherlands). Louis XIV
Louis XIV
yielded all French conquests on the east bank of the Rhine
Rhine
(Breisach, Kehl, Freiburg), and ended his support of Rákóczi's cause in Hungary. Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and Alsace
Alsace
remained French, however, and the Emperor ceded Landau to Louis XIV, and agreed to a full reinstatement of the Electors of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Cologne. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
became part of this treaty at Baden on 7 September.[142]

Assault and conquest of Barcelona, engraving by Martin Engelbrecht

There remained the struggle in Catalonia. At no stage in the war had there been a unanimous or even majority support for Archduke Charles (Charles III) in the principality, but the existence of a rebel group inside the province, together with a superior Allied military and naval presence in Barcelona, forced many towns to decide – often reluctantly – for the Archduke's cause.[143] Nevertheless, those who wished to continue fighting could point to the fact that the Kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, as well as those in Castile, were subject to a regime that had forced them to change their laws and historic constitutions, and at no stage since his victory at Almansa and the subsequent abolition of the fueros in Aragon and Valencia in 1707, had Philip V shown any intention of respecting Catalonia's privileges. In consequence, Barcelona decided to resist, but there would be no Allied help. After the peace agreements between the major powers neither Austria nor Great Britain could return to a war footing.[144] To compound the issue, Tory diplomatic efforts with Philip V to secure Catalan liberties were half-hearted, and Bolingbroke made no protest when, in early July 1714 – after a year of guerrilla warfare in the region – Berwick returned to Catalonia to formally besiege Barcelona. Antoni de Villarroel
Antoni de Villarroel
put up a stout defence of the city, but with little hope of relief the Catalan capital surrendered on 11 September (which is since remembered as the National Day of Catalonia). Cardona soon followed. Majorca
Majorca
held out for nine months until its surrender in July 1715.[145] Aftermath[edit]

Charles VI, by Johann Kupezky, 1716

With Germany and Italy providing a buffer with France, the Austrian Habsburgs had maintained what was crucial to their security and interests. Together with the recent Balkan conquests, Charles VI now ruled an extensive Habsburg
Habsburg
empire. Austria had confirmed its position as a major power, yet the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty had fallen short of its full war aims: Spain
Spain
had been lost to Philip V and Sicily lost to the Duke of Savoy. Although Sardinia was exchanged for Sicily in 1720 the island, together with the acquisitions of the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
and Naples, extended the Monarchy's responsibilities beyond their traditional interests and commitments – an overextension which made the Habsburg
Habsburg
territories more vulnerable at their periphery, particularly without the assistance of the Maritime Powers.[146] In Germany, the Imperial army had been unable to recover the lost lands in Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine, and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
itself made no gains, and even lost territory (Landau). This was largely due to the fact that Vienna's principal concern had been to establish a secure Danubian state, and the Emperor and his ministers had been unwilling to put German interests before those of Italy and Hungary. The Habsburgs would make further gains when Prince Eugene once again defeated the Ottomans in the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18, but Vienna's influence within the Empire declined, not least because the rulers of Hanover, Saxony, and Prussia had territorial claims beyond Germany, and now had royal titles they considered equal to the Emperor.[147]

King George I (1660–1727). Artist unknown, 1714. The accession of George I brought forth the Hanoverian dynasty in Great Britain.

On 1 August 1714 (O.S.) Queen Anne of Great Britain died. Despite Jacobite machinations, the Act of Settlement ensured a smooth Protestant succession and the Elector of Hanover ascended the throne as George I of Great Britain
George I of Great Britain
and Ireland. The first warrant signed by George reinstated Marlborough as Captain-General of the army, and from London the Duke helped organise the defeat of the Jacobite rising of 1715. However, the new King and the Whigs in general never forgave those Tories accused of abandoning the Grand Alliance and the part they played in concluding the Peace of Utrecht.[148] Rather than face impeachment Bolingbroke fled to France in April 1715 (N.S) to join the Pretender, as did Ormonde who followed in August. Oxford remained in England
England
and was imprisoned in the Tower of London
Tower of London
for two years, never again to hold office. The Tory party, leaderless and riven by faction, did not survive intact, and their decline paved the way for the eventual rise of Robert Walpole
Robert Walpole
and decades of Whig domination in early Georgian Britain – a country which emerged from the war as a world power, and one which had learnt to utilise its financial muscle to harness European allies for its own strategic interests.[149] Although the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
was not to be the last in which the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
fought as a major power, it was however the beginning of the end [150]; despite its talented merchants, bankers, and diplomats, the country of just three million people was burdened with debt. Exhausted after its supreme efforts, the Republic could no longer compete with Great Britain; the Dutch navy could not match the British fleet, which had now secured a foothold in the Mediterranean with the annexation of Gibraltar and Menorca.[151] Nevertheless, the Dutch had achieved their principal war aim: the Austro-Dutch Antwerp treaty of 15 November 1715 assured the Dutch their coveted barrier fortress defence system in the Austrian Netherlands. The agreement also included the closure of the river Scheldt
Scheldt
to maritime commerce,[152] thereby restoring Dutch commercial and trade domination. The Dutch oligarchs would henceforth pursue a more defensive, and even neutralist, policy and by the mid-century the Netherlands was a much reduced force in European politics.[153]

Portrait of King Louis XV of France
Louis XV of France
as child (1710–74) by Pierre Gobert, c. 1715

On 1 September 1715 Louis XIV
Louis XIV
died, bringing an end to his long reign that had made France the supreme power in Europe. Louis's five-year-old great-grandson and heir survived his precarious childhood and, including the eight-year regency of the Duke of Orléans, reigned in France as Louis XV
Louis XV
until his death in 1774. Louis XIV had ended the war with some minor adjustments along France's eastern borders, but the final settlement had been far more favourable than what the Allies had offered in 1709/10: France had resisted the Allied demand of 'no peace without Spain', and Louis XIV
Louis XIV
could claim dynastic victory in Spain, thereby avoiding Habsburg encirclement.[154] In North America France lost territory, and the French settlers were vastly outnumbered by the British in their colonies. Nevertheless, the French held on to Canada, Louisiana, Cape Breton Island, and Prince Edward Island,[155] and thus control of the St Lawrence; thousands more remained in Acadia, and they still held the vast territory to the west between French Canada and Louisiana in the south.[156] However, the war had stretched Louis XIV's finances beyond its limits, and France was left with a massive burden of debt. The kingdom remained inherently strong, but it could not maintain its former dominance and suffered a relative decline in military and economic terms.[157]

Portrait of Philip V of Spain
Philip V of Spain
by Nicolò Maria Vaccaro, c. 1715

On 14 February 1714 the Spanish queen, Marie Luisa, died; on 16 September Philip V married, by proxy, Elisabeth Farnese, niece of the Duke of Parma. Farnese' ejection of Madame des Ursins and Jean Orry from Spain, and her reliance on a new favourite, Giulio Alberoni, the envoy to the Duke of Parma, signalled the end of French dominance in Madrid, and brought forth a new direction of Spanish policy.[158] Italian politics and culture became highly influential, but Philip V had lost his Italian territories, which together with the losses of Gibraltar and Menorca had deprived the king his power in the western Mediterranean. However, the territorial losses had enabled the King and his ministers to concentrate on internal reform and centralisation. For the provinces of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
this meant the end to much of their political autonomy as they were united into a Castilian Spanish state ruled from Madrid. These steps were problematic and painful, particularly in Catalonia where, despite the survival of Catalan private law and the Catalan language, resentment would linger.[159] The Basques – Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Navarre
and the Basque Provinces ("Biscay") – had supported the king against the Habsburg
Habsburg
pretender, and initially retained their home rule (fueros). However, the centralising drive of the Spanish Crown did not spare them. In 1718, following Philip V's attempt to suppress home rule by bringing customs to the coast and the Pyrenees, Basques in Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
and the seigneury of Biscay
Biscay
rose up in arms across coastal areas.[160] Philip V sent over troops and the uprising (matxinada) was quelled in blood. Despite his military success, eventually Philip V backed down on his decision, brought customs back to the Ebro
Ebro
river (1719). The Basques managed to keep their traditional institutions and laws.[160] Nevertheless, Spain
Spain
eventually grew in strength under Philip V's and Farnese's leadership, and the country would return to the forefront of European politics.[161] With neither Charles VI nor Philip V willing to accept the Spanish partition, and with no treaty existing between Spain
Spain
and Austria, the two powers would soon clash in order to gain control of Italy, starting with a brief war in 1718. However, the War of the Spanish Succession brought to an end a long period of major conflict in western Europe: the partition of the Spanish Monarchy had secured the balance of power, and the conditions imposed at Utrecht helped to regulate the relations between the major European powers over the coming century.[162] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to War of the Spanish Succession.

John Arbuthnot's John Bull Sacheverell riots Golden Age of Piracy

Notes[edit]

^ The 1707 Acts of Union united England
England
and Scotland ^ Subsidiary conflicts in North America and elsewhere were the continuation of ongoing struggles for colonial territories unrelated to the issues in Europe. ^ The Habsburgs were rulers of Austria and Hungary in their own right and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, technically an elected position but held by the Habsburgs since 1438; the term 'Austria' or 'Empire' are used for the same basic unit. ^ This stated 'If new rights to the Spanish monarchy revert to the King of France, the King of England
England
will aid him in maintaining these rights.' ^ Ironically, attempts to change that by Charles VI and allow women to inherit the Habsburg
Habsburg
titles later led to the War of the Austrian Succession. ^ Template:Claimants to the Spanish throne ^ In practice this meant Italy; the Spanish had long since recognised their inability to retain the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
unaided. ^ The high mortality rate of the period meant Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was ultimately succeeded by his 4 year old great-grandson. ^ Scotland's support made doing so easier but its lack of economic or naval power meant it was not a limiting factor in that decision. ^ And continued to be so eg the 1839 Treaty of London guaranteeing Belgium, the 'scrap pf paper' that took Britain into war in 1914-18. ^ Tallard was captured; recognised as one of the best French commanders, he was not exchanged until 1711. ^ Whiel Bavaria
Bavaria
was no longer officially in the war, Max Emmanuel remained a French general, fighting in many of the battles of 1705-08. ^ Boufflers conducted a similar and renowned defence of Namur in 1695.

References[edit]

^ "Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Eighteenth Century (the 1700s)".  ^ Duffy, Christopher (1987). The Military Experience in the Age of Reason. Wordsworth Military Library. p. 320. ISBN 0710210248.  ^ Gonzalo Alvarez; Francisco C. Ceballos; Celsa Quinteiro (15 April 2009). "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLoS ONE. 4 (4): e5174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. PMC 2664480 . PMID 19367331. Retrieved 16 September 2013.  ^ Durant, Ariel, Durant, Will (1963). Age of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
(Story of Civilization). TBS Publishing. ISBN 0207942277.  ^ Storrs, Christopher (2006). The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy 1665-1700. OUP Oxford. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0199246378.  ^ McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 54; Ingrao: The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 105 ^ Meerts, Paul Willem (2014). Diplomatic negotiation: Essence and Evolution. http://hdl.handle.net/1887/29596: Leiden University dissertation. p. 168.  ^ Wolf: Louis XIV, 493 ^ Ingrao: The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 105; McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 55 ^ Frey, Linda (ed), Frey, Marsha (ed) (1995). The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession: An Historical and Critical Dictionary. Greenwood. p. 389. ISBN 0313278849. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Clark: From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish succession, 382–3; McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 54–5; Wolf: The Emergence, 59–60 ^ Clark: From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish Succession, 393 ^ McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 55; Ingrao: The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 106; Spielman: Leopold I, 172–4 ^ Kamen: Philip V, 3; Spielman: Leopold I, 176 ^ Clark: From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish Succession, 396–7; Wolf: Louis XIV, 503–4 ^ Trevelyan: England, I, 134; Wolf: Louis XIV, 507 ^ Falkner, James (2015). The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
1701-1714 (Kindle ed.). 96: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473872905.  ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 126; Wolf: Louis XIV, 510–1 ^ Thompson, RT (1973). Lothar Franz von Schönborn and the Diplomacy of the Electorate of Mainz:. Springer. p. 157. ISBN 9024713463.  ^ Wolf: The Emergence, 62; Ingrao: Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 108 ^ Israel: Dutch Republic, 969, 975–6; Clark: From the Nine Years' War to the War of the Spanish Succession, 384 ^ Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 17 ^ McKay: Eugene, 56; Spielman: Leopold I, 186 ^ Thompson, RT (1973). Lothar Franz von Schönborn and the Diplomacy of the Electorate of Mainz:. Springer. pp. 158–160. ISBN 9024713463.  ^ Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 106, 113; Burton: The Captain-General, 18–9 ^ Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 17–8; Wolf: Louis XIV, 515 ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 152; Trevelyan: England, I, 163 ^ Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 415; Trevelyan: England, I, 165 ^ Wolf: Louis XIV, 514 ^ Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 27 ^ Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 19; Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 105–6 ^ Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 20, 27; Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 123 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 39–40; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, 410–1 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 30. Denmark signed a Treaty of Alliance with England
England
and the States General on 15 June 1701 promising Danish neutrality. ^ Israel: Dutch Republic, 972; Jones: Marlborough, 62–3 ^ Ostwald: The 'Decisive' Battle of Ramillies, 664 ^ Scouller: Armies of Queen Anne, 81–2; Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 123–5; Israel: Dutch Republic, 971. These figures represent what Parliament approved, and were the maximum commanders could hope for; they were never the actual number of men in the field. The Anglo-Dutch army would receive a augmentation of 20,000 men in 1703, and another 20,000 in 1709. ^ a b Rodger: The Command, 608, Appendix II; Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 98. In the English rating scheme at this time a ship of the line meant First to Fourth Rate ships. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
strength in the war remained constant at approximately 225 vessels in total. The number of ships ready for actual sea service would in all cases have been substantially lower. Rodger and Lynn take their naval statistics from Jan Glete's Navies and Nations, volume II. ^ Simms: Three Victories, 50; Israel: Dutch Republic, 971 ^ McKay: Eugene, 66; Burton: The Captain-General, 20 ^ Clark: From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish Succession, 385; Kamen: Philip V, 30 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 19; Wolf: Louis XIV, 580 ^ Kamen: War of Succession, 86–7 ^ Kamen: War of Succession, 94–5 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 271. This latter figure is less than that attained during the Nine Years' War. The fleet number includes those not in commission (J. H. Owen: War at Sea under Queen Anne, 279). ^ Kamen: War of Succession, 58–60; Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 114 ^ There were limited and very short-lived exceptions in the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his ally the Duke of Saxe-Gotha. ^ Wolf: The Emergence, 64; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, 413; Hattendorf: England
England
in the War, 136 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 99; McKay: Eugene, 57; Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 138, 140; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 414; ^ Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 134–5, 138–9; McKay: Eugene, 57; Ingrao: In Quest, 103 ^ Spielman: Leopold I, 174; McKay: Eugene, 57 ^ Spielman: Leopold I, 184; McKay: Eugene59–63; Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 139–40 ^ Burton: The Captain-General, 30–7; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 275; Jones: Marlborough, 63–6 ^ Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 416; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 280–1; Burton: The Captain-General, 40–8 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 276; Chandler: Marlborough, 105 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 283–4; Chandler: Marlborough, 124. ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 284; Burton: Captain-General, 52 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 123; McKay: Eugene, 73 ^ Chandler: Marlborough, 123–52; Jones: Marlborough, 79–100; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 286–94 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 298–9; Burton: The Captain-General, 83–9 ^ Ostwald: The 'Decisive' Battle of Ramillies, 666–77; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 427–8; Israel: The Dutch Republic, 977 ^ Burton: The Captain-General, 134–42; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 320–3; Chandler: Marlborough, 223–39 ^ Afflerbach, Holger (ed), Strachan, Hew (ed) (2012). How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender. OUP. p. 159. ISBN 0199693625. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ McKay: Eugene, 64–6; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 276–7 ^ Victor Amadeus began the war with a paper strength of nearly 14,000 men and horse; the figure peaked in 1704 to just over 26,500 men and horse before dropping off. In 1710 it numbered nearly 20,000, including hired and garrison troops. (Storrs: Rise of Savoy, 26) ^ Including Montferrat
Montferrat
– the property of the Duke of Mantua
Mantua
– and the Milanese districts of Lomellina, Valsesia, Alessandria, Valenza, and Vigevano. ^ Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 140–5; Ingrao: In Quest, 89. The final version of the treaty was signed in June 1704. ^ Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 144, 146–8; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 295 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 38–41, 76; Ingrao: The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 113–4 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 84; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 309. Ingrao puts Vendôme's strength as 44,000, and La Feuillade's as 48,000. Lynn puts both French armies at 41,000 men. ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 84–5; McKay: Eugene, 99–101; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 309–10 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 90; Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 153. Joseph I handed over to Victor Amadeus Alessandria, Lomellina, Valsesia, and Valenza, and de facto possession, though not formal investiture, of Monferrato in early 1707; but disputes would linger over Vigevano
Vigevano
and upkeep payments for Imperial troops. ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 127, 140–1; Trevelyan: England, II, 287–8 ^ McKay: Eugene, 101–2; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 310 ^ McKay: Eugene, 102–8; Veenendaal: War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 433 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 54–65; McKay: Eugene, 104 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 99–116; Stoye: The Austrian Habsburgs, 594–5. The treaty was signed on 15 January 1709, though Clement XI's formal public recognition was not forthcoming until 10 October. Comacchio
Comacchio
was not restored to papal sovereignty till 1724. ^ Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 155 ^ Rodger: The Command, 165–6; Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 20 ^ Most of the silver had already been unloaded from the ships before the attack. ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 59–81; Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 114. Beyond financial and military aid, the English representative, John Methuen, promised Peter II territorial concessions in Galicia and Extremadura, including Badajoz. Spain
Spain
was also to renounce its claim to the north shore of the river Plate (Godinho: Portugal and Her Empire, 525–6). ^ A third treaty on 27 December 1703 opened up Portuguese markets to English cloth, and English markets to Portuguese wine. ^ Peter II was to provide a regular army of 15,000 foot and horse, and an auxiliary force of 13,000 men, paid for by the Maritime Powers. The Allies were to provide an army of 12,000 men, but all fell short of their treaty obligations (Francis: Peninsular War, 75). ^ Stoye: The Austrian Habsburgs, 591; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, 419; Spielman: Leopold I, 190 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 91; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 295 ^ Hugill: No Peace, 87–146; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, 419; Trevelyan: England, I, 302–3 ^ The so-called 'Pact of Genoa' was signed on 20 June 1705 by the English representative Mitford Crowe, and the two Catalan delegates, Antoni de Peguera i Aimeric and Dominic Perera. They by no means spoke for all Catalonia. ^ Kamen: War of Succession, 242–308; Kamen: Philip V, 42–7; Francis: Peninsular War, 198–9 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 171–94; Hugill: No Peace, 156–93 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 222–41; Hugill: No Peace, 202–43; Kamen: Philip V, 53–8; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 311 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 238–46; Hugill: No Peace, 247–62; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 316 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 247–9; Hugill: No Peace, 263–70; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 316 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 249; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 316 ^ Hugill: No Peace, 271–84 Rodger: Command, 172–3; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 324–5 ^ Israel: The Dutch Republic, 970, 974 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 165–78, 197; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 446–51; Burton: Marlborough, 142; Wolf: Louis XIV, 559 ^ Ingrao: In quest, 178–81; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 325–6; Trevelyan: England, II, 399 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 182; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 452–3; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 325–6 ^ Hussey and Bromley: The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
under Foreign Pressures, 374; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 326; Kamen: Philip V, 70–2; ^ Burton: Marlborough, 146–59; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 329–35; Jones: Marlborough, 172–84; McKay: Eugene, 123–6. Army strengths taken from Lynn. The size of Villars' army is unclear. ^ Hill: Robert Harley, 124; Chandler: Marlborough, 275 ^ Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 434, 438–9; Ingrao: In Quest, 197–9; McKay: Eugene, 129 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 204–8; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, 439, 456; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 336–7; Wolf: Louis XIV, 569, 573 ^ Trevelyan: England, III, 33–5, 45; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 457 ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 218–32; Hill: Robert Harley, 104–6. Sunderland was the Duke of Marlborough's son-in-law. ^ MacLachlan: The Road to Peace, 200 ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 254–9; Hill: Robert Harley, 114–17; Burton: The Captain-General, 119–20 ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 298–319; Hill: Robert Harley, 126–31; Simms: Three Victories, 57–8 ^ Quote from Torcy in Kamen Philip V, 77 ^ Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 25; MacLachlan: The Road to Peace, 203 ^ Chandler: Marlborough, 278–82; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 337–8 ^ Hugill: No Peace, 301–18; Ingrao: In Quest, 211-2; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 339–40 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 340–1; Kamen: Philip V, 77 ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 334–8; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 459; Trevelyan: England, III, 176–82 ^ MacLachlan: Road to Peace, 202–3; Hattendorf: Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition, 26; Hill: Robert Harley, 151 ^ Simms: Three Victories, 62–4; Hattendorf: England
England
in the War, 344; Trevelyan: England, III, 143–6 ^ Chandler: Marlborough, 286–99; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 341–5; Burton: The Captain-General, 181–2 ^ Stoye: The Austrian Habsburgs, 596; Francis: Peninsular War, 355 ^ McKay: Eugene, 133 ^ McKay: Eugene, 133–4; Francis: Peninsular War, 356 ^ Hugill: No Peace, 334–5, 341–5; Francis: Peninsular War, 342–4 ^ Hill: Robert Harley, 162–5; Wolf: Louis XIV, 581; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 460; Trevelyan: England, III, 182–5 ^ Hill: Robert Harley, 167; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 460 ^ Hill: Robert Harley, 168; Hattendorf: England
England
in the War, 365; Trevelyan: England, III, 187, 189–90 ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, 347 ^ Jones: Marlborough, 219; Simms: Three Victories, 58–62; Trevelyan: England, III, 192 ^ MacLachlan: The Road to Peace, 199–200; Hill: Robert Harley, 168–73; McKay & Scott. The Rise of the Great Powers, 64 ^ McKay, Prince Eugene, 141 ^ Louis XIV's only living son, the Grand Dauphin, had already died in April 1711; on 18 February 1712 the Dauphin's eldest son and successor, the Duke of Burgundy, also died. Burgundy's eldest son followed his father to the grave in March, leaving Louis as the one surviving heir to the crown. ^ Wolf: Louis XIV, 582–7; Hill: Robert Harley, 180–4; Gregg: Queen Anne, 355 ^ Hattendorf: England
England
in the War 375–9; Hill: Robert Harley, 182–5 ^ McKay: Eugene, 139–41; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 351–4 ^ Francis: Peninsular War, 349–50; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 354–5, 361–2 ^ McKay: Eugene, 141–2; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 477; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, 444 ^ McKay: Eugene, 143–4; McKay & Scott: The Rise, 65 ^ James Stuart was expelled from France to Lorraine in February. ^ Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 470; Wolf: The Emergence, 89–91; McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 65 ^ Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 160, 164. Lacking a fleet the Austrians had been unable to conquer Sicily; British trade routes to the Levant passed near Sicily. ^ Symcox: Victor Amadeus, 166 ^ Storrs: War, Diplomacy, 4; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 356; Trevelyan: England, III, 224–6 ^ Godinho: Portugal and Her Empire, 528; Kamen: Philip V, 80; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 475–6 ^ Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 473; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 357–8; Ingrao: In Quest, 219; McKay: Eugene, 146 ^ Kamen: Philip V, 85. Kamen writes: '… there was no general movement of rebellion; the image, cultivated later by romantic historiography, of a national uprising against Castile, has no foundation in reality'. ^ Hugill: No Peace, 354–7; Kamen: Philip V, 85, 87–8; Trevelyan: England, III, 226–8 ^ Hugill: No Peace, 370–87; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 358; Francis: Peninsular War, 379–80 ^ Ingrao: In Quest, 220; Ingrao: The Habsburg, 121; Hatton: George I, 114 ^ Ingrao: The Habsburg, 120; McKay: Eugene, 147; McKay & Scott. The Rise of the Great Powers, 99 ^ Hatton: George I, 105 ^ Ostwald: Creating the British Way of War, 129; Gregg: Queen Anne, 399; Holmes: Britain, 231–5 ^ Van Nimwegen: De Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden als Grote Mogendheid – Buitenlandse politiek en oorlogvoering in de eerste helft van de achttiende eeuw en in het bijzonder tijdens de Oostenrijkse Successieoorlog (1740 – 1748); 2002 De Bataafsche Leeuw, Amsterdam. ^ Israel: Dutch Republic, 960, 985–6; Trevelyan: England, III, 229; Hatton: George I, 114 ^ By the terms of the Peace of Münster
Peace of Münster
(1648) Spain
Spain
had guaranteed the permanent closure of the Scheldt
Scheldt
in order to benefit Dutch trade. In return the Dutch had promised to provide military help against French incursions into the Spanish Netherlands. ^ Israel: The Dutch Republic, 978; Veenendaal: The War of the Spanish Succession, 445; McKay & Scott. The Rise of the Great Powers, 100 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 359 ^ Named Île St Jean and Île Royale respectively, at the time. ^ Lenman: Britain's Colonial Wars, 41 ^ Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 361–2; McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 98 ^ Hussey and Bromley: The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
under Foreign Pressures, 380; Kamen: Philip V, 80–1, 97 ^ The Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
(New Plan) for Catalonia was formally issued on 16 January 1716 and followed the lines of the New Plan given to Aragon in April 1711 by preserving existing civil law. There followed subsequent decrees in July 1717 and October 1718. ^ a b Kamen: Philip V, 125 ^ Kamen: War of Succession, 390–4; Kamen: Philip V, 112–6; Hussey and Bromley: The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
under Foreign Pressures, 379–80 ^ Ingrao: The Habsburg, 119; Kamen: Philip V, 80–1

Further reading[edit]

Bromley, J. S (ed.). The New Cambridge Modern History VI: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia 1688–1725. Cambridge University Press, 1971. ISBN 0521075246 Burton, Ivor F. The Captain-General: The Career of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, from 1702 to 1711. Constable & Co Ltd., 1968. ISBN 0094561001 Chandler, David G. Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd, 2003. ISBN 186227195X Clark, George. From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish Succession in J. S. Bromley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History, VI, 381–409. Falkner, James. The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
1701 – 1714 (2015). Francis, David. The First Peninsular War 1702–1713. Ernest Benn Limited, 1975. ISBN 0510002056 Frey, Linda and Marsha Frey, The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession: An Historical and Critical Dictionary (1995) online; covers diplomatic, economic, & military roles and battles Godinho, Vitorino Magalhães. Portugal and Her Empire, 1680–1720 in J. S. Bromley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History, VI, 509–40. Gregg, Edward. Queen Anne. Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0300090242 Hattendorf, John, B. Alliance, Encirclement, and Attrition: British Grand Strategy in the War of the Spanish Succession, 1702–1713, in Paul Kennedy (ed.) Grand Strategies in War and Peace, 11–29. Yale University Press, 1991. ISBN 0300049447 Hattendorf, John, B. England
England
in the War of the Spanish Succession: A Study of the English View & Conduct of Grand Strategy, 1702–1712 (1987) ——— England
England
in the War of the Spanish Succession: A Study in the English View and Conduct of Grand Strategy, 1701–1713. (Ph.D.), 1979. University of Oxford Hatton, Ragnhild. George I. Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0300088833 Hill, Brian W. Robert Harley: Speaker, Secretary of State and Premier Minister. Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0300042841 Holmes, Geoffrey (ed.). Britain after the Glorious Revolution 1689–1714. The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1969. ISBN 0333106024 Hugill, J. A. C. No Peace Without Spain. The Kensal Press, 1991. ISBN 094604158X Hussey, R. D and Bromley, J. S. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
under Foreign Pressures, 1688–1715 in J. S. Bromley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History, VI, 343–80 Ingrao, Charles. In Quest and Crisis: Emperor Joseph I
Emperor Joseph I
and the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy. Purdue University Press, 1979. ISBN 0911198539 ——— The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy: 1618–1815. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0521389003 Israel, Jonathan I.. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall. Clarendon Press, 1998. ISBN 0198207344 ____ "Commerce, Religion, and World Politics: Sephardi Jewry and the Struggle for the Spanish Succession (1700–1714)" in Diasporas within a Diaspora: Jews, Crypto-Jews, and the World of Maritime Empires (1540–1740). Leiden: Brill 2002, pp. 533–566. ISBN 90-04-12765-8. Jones, J. R. Marlborough. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0521375932 Kamen, Henry. Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice. Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0300087187 ——— The War of Succession in Spain
Spain
1700–15. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969. ISBN 029717777X Lenman, Bruce. Britain's Colonial Wars 1688–1783. Longman, 2001. ISBN 0582424011 Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
1667–1714. Longman, 1999. ISBN 0582056292 MacLachlan, A. D. The Road to Peace 1710–13, in G. Holmes (ed.) Britain after the Glorious Revolution 1689–1714, 197–215 McKay, Derek. Prince Eugene of Savoy. Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1977. ISBN 0500870071 McKay, Derek and Scott, H. M. The Rise of the Great Powers: 1648–1815. Longman, 1984. ISBN 0582485541 Ostwald, Jamel M. Creating the British Way of War: English Strategy in the War of the Spanish Succession, in Williamson Murray (ed.), Richard Hart Sinnreich (ed.) Successful Strategies: Triumphing in War and Peace from Antiquity to the Present, 100–29. Cambridge University Press, 2014. ISBN 9781107633599 ——— The 'Decisive' Battle of Ramillies, 1706: Prerequisites for Decisiveness in Early Modern Warfare. The Journal of Military History 62 (July 2000): 649–78 Pitt, H. G. The Pacification of Utrecht
Utrecht
in J. S. Bromley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History, VI, 446–79 Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815. Penguin Group, 2006. ISBN 0141026901 Scouller, R. E. The Armies of Queen Anne. Oxford University Press, 1966. ISBN 0198213433 Simms, Brendan. Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire. Penguin, 2008. ISBN 9780140289848 Spielman, John. Leopold I of Austria. Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1977. ISBN 0500870055 Storrs, Christopher. The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy 1665–1700. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0199246378 ——— War, Diplomacy and the Rise of Savoy, 1690–1720. Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0521551463 Stoye, J. W. The Austrian Habsburgs, in J. S. Bromley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History, VI, 572–607 Symcox, Geoffrey. Victor Amadeus II: Absolutism in the Savoyard State 1675–1730. Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1983. ISBN 0500870101 Trevelyan, G. M. England
England
under Queen Anne. 3 volumes. London, 1930–34 Veenendaal, A. J. The Opening Phase of Marlborough's Campaign of 1708 in the Netherlands. History, 35 (Feb–June 1950): 34–48 ——— The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in Europe, in J. S. Bromley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History, VI, 410–45 Whaley, Joachim. Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Volume II: The Peace of Westphalia to the Dissolution of the Reich, 1648–1806. Oxford University Press, 2012. Wolf, John B. The Emergence of the Great Powers: 1685–1715. Harper & Row, 1962. ISBN 978-0-06-139750-9 ——— Louis XIV. W. W. Norton & Company, 1968. ISBN 0575000880

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