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Egyptian front:

* Inconclusive (both sides claim victory) * Continued Israeli control of Sinai * Creation of the Bar Lev Line

Jordanian front:

* Inconclusive (both sides claim victory) * Black September

BELLIGERENTS

ISRAEL

EGYPT Soviet Union Cuba ------------------------- PLO Jordan ------------------------- Syria

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Levi Eshkol Yigal Allon Zalman Shazar Haim Bar-Lev Mordechai Hod Uzi Narkiss Gamal Abdel Nasser Ahmad Ismail Ali Anwar El Sadat Saad El Shazly Abdul Munim Riad † Nikolai Yurchenko †

STRENGTH

275,000 (including reserves) Egyptian : 200,000 Soviet : 10,700–15,000 Jordanian : 15,000 PLO : 900-1,000

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

694 –1,424 soldiers killed 227 civilians killed 2,659 wounded, from this 999 at the Egyptian front 14 –30 aircraft EGYPT: 2,882 –10,000 soldiers and civilians killed 6,285 wounded 60 –114 aircraft lost PLO: 1,828 killed 2,500 captured JORDAN: 40-84 killed 108-250 wounded 4 captured 30 tanks SOVIET UNION: 58 dead 4–5 aircraft CUBA: 180 dead 250 wounded SYRIA: Hundreds of casualties

* v * t * e

War of Attrition

* Rumani * INS _Eilat_ * Karameh * _Shock_ * _Bulmus 6_ * _Boxer_ * _Raviv_ * _Rooster 53_ * _Priha_ * _Rhodes_ * _Rimon 20_

The WAR OF ATTRITION (Arabic : حرب الاستنزاف‎‎ _Ḥarb al-Istinzāf_, Hebrew : מלחמת ההתשה‎‎ _Milhemet haHatashah_) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt , Jordan , PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.

Following the 1967 Six-Day War , no serious diplomatic efforts tried to resolve the issues at the heart of the Arab–Israeli conflict . In September 1967, the Arab states formulated the "three nos " policy, barring peace, recognition or negotiations with Israel. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser believed that only military initiative would compel Israel or the international community to facilitate a full Israeli withdrawal from Sinai , and hostilities soon resumed along the Suez Canal .

These initially took the form of limited artillery duels and small-scale incursions into Sinai, but by 1969 the Egyptian Army judged itself prepared for larger-scale operations. On March 8, 1969, Nasser proclaimed the official launch of the War of Attrition, characterized by large-scale shelling along the Suez Canal, extensive aerial warfare and commando raids. Hostilities continued until August 1970 and ended with a ceasefire, the frontiers remaining the same as when the war began, with no real commitment to serious peace negotiations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Egyptian front

* 2 Timeline

* 2.1 1967 * 2.2 1968 * 2.3 1969 * 2.4 1970

* 3 Casualties * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links

EGYPTIAN FRONT

Israel 's victory in the Six-Day War left the entirety of the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula up to the eastern bank of the Suez Canal under Israeli control. Egypt was determined to regain Sinai, and also sought to mitigate the severity of its defeat. Sporadic clashes were taking place along the cease-fire line, and Egyptian missile boats sank the Israeli destroyer INS _Eilat_ on October 21 of the same year.

Egypt began shelling Israeli positions along the Bar Lev Line , using heavy artillery, MiG aircraft and various other forms of Soviet assistance with the hope of forcing the Israeli government into concessions. Israel responded with aerial bombardments, airborne raids on Egyptian military positions, and aerial strikes against strategic facilities in Egypt.

The international community and both countries attempted to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict. The Jarring Mission of the United Nations was supposed to ensure that the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 242 would be observed, but by late 1970 it was clear that this mission had been a failure. Fearing the escalation of the conflict into an "East vs. West " confrontation during the tensions of the mid- Cold War , the American president, Richard Nixon , sent his Secretary of State, William Rogers , to formulate the Rogers Plan in view of obtaining a ceasefire.

In August 1970, Israel, Jordan , and Egypt agreed to an "in place" ceasefire under the terms proposed by the Rogers Plan. The plan contained restrictions on missile deployment by both sides, and required the cessation of raids as a precondition for peace. The Egyptians and their Soviet allies rekindled the conflict by violating the agreement shortly thereafter, moving their missiles near to the Suez Canal, and constructing the largest anti-aircraft system yet implemented at that point in history.

The Israelis responded with a policy which their Prime Minister, Golda Meir , dubbed “asymmetrical response ”, wherein Israeli retaliation was disproportionately large in comparison to any Egyptian attacks.

Following Nasser’s death in September 1970, his successor, Anwar Al-Sadat , continued the ceasefire with Israel, focusing on rebuilding the Egyptian army and planning a full-scale attack on the Israeli forces controlling the eastern bank of the Suez Canal. These plans would materialize three years later in the 1973 Yom Kippur War . Ultimately, Israel would return Sinai to Egypt after the two nations signed a peace treaty .

Various military historians have commented on the war with differing opinions. Chaim Herzog notes that Israel withstood the battle and adapted itself to a "hitherto alien type of warfare." Ze\'ev Schiff notes that though Israel suffered losses, she was still able to preserve her military accomplishments of 1967 and that despite increased Soviet involvement, Israel had stood firm.

Simon Dunstan notes that, although Israel continued to hold the Bar Lev Line, the war’s conclusion "led to a dangerous complacency within the Israeli High Command about the resolve of the Egyptian armed forces and the strength of the Bar-Lev Line." On the tactical level, Kenneth Pollack notes that Egypt’s commandos performed "adequately" though they rarely ventured into risky operations on a par with the daring of Israel's commandos Egypt's artillery corps encountered difficulty in penetrating the Bar-Lev forts and eventually adopted a policy of trying to catch Israeli troops in the exterior parts of the forts.

The Egyptian Air Force and Air Defense Forces performed poorly. Egyptian pilots were rigid, slow to react and unwilling to improvise. According to U.S. intelligence estimates, Egypt lost 109 aircraft, most in air-to-air combat, while only 16 Israeli aircraft were lost, most to anti-aircraft artillery or SAMs . It took a salvo of 6 to 10 SA-2 Egyptian anti-aircraft missiles to obtain a better than fifty percent chance of a hit.

TIMELINE

1967

Israeli naval personnel celebrate their victory after an engagement with Egyptian naval forces near Rumani.

JULY 1, 1967: An Egyptian commando force from Port Fuad moves south and takes up a position at Ras el 'Ish, located 10 miles south of Port Said on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal, an area controlled by the Israelis since the ceasefire on June 9, 1967. An Israeli armored infantry company attacks the Egyptian force. The Israeli company drives off the Egyptians but loses 1 dead and 13 wounded. However, another source claims that an Israeli attack on Port Fuad was repulsed.

JULY 2, 1967: The Israeli Air Force bombs Egyptian artillery positions that had supported the commandos at Ras Al-'Ish.

JULY 4, 1967: Egyptian Air Force jets strike several Israeli targets in Sinai. An Egyptian MiG-17 is shot down.

JULY 8, 1967: An Egyptian Air Force MiG-21 is shot down by Israeli air defenses while on a reconnaissance mission over el-Qanatra. Two Su-7s equipped with cameras are then sent out to carry out the mission, and manage to complete several turns over Sinai without any opposition. Two other Su-7s are sent for another reconnaissance mission hours later, but are attacked by Israeli Air Force fighter jets. One Su-7 is shot down.

JULY 11–12, 1967: Battle of Rumani Coast - The Israeli Navy destroyer INS _Eilat_ and two torpedo boats sink two Egyptian torpedo boats off the Rumani coast. No crewmen on the Egyptian torpedo boats are known to have survived, and there were no Israeli casualties.

JULY 14, 1967: Artillery exchanges and aerial duels erupt near the Suez Canal. Seven Egyptian fighter aircraft are shot down.

JULY 15, 1967: An Israeli Air Force Mirage III is shot down by an Egyptian MiG-21 . _ Israeli destroyer INS Eilat_ that was sunk by the Egyptian Navy , killing forty-seven sailors.

OCTOBER 21, 1967: The Egyptian Navy sinks the Israeli destroyer INS _Eilat_ with anti-ship missiles, killing forty-seven sailors.

OCTOBER, 1967: In retaliation to the sinking of the _Eilat_, Israeli artillery bombards oil refineries and depots near Suez . In a series of artillery exchanges throughout October, the Egyptians sustain civilian casualties. Egypt evacuates a large number of the civilian population in the canal region.

1968

King Hussein after checking an abandoned Israeli tank in the aftermath of the Battle of Karameh in 1968 President Nasser of Egypt (with binoculars), surveys positions at the Suez Canal in November 1968

MARCH 21, 1968: In response to persistent PLO raids against Israeli civilian targets, Israel attacks the town of Karameh , Jordan, the site of a major PLO camp. The goal of the invasion was to destroy Karameh camp and capture Yasser Arafat in reprisal for the attacks by the PLO against Israeli civilians, which culminated in an Israeli school bus hitting a mine in the Negev. However, plans for the two operations were prepared in 1967, one year before the bus incident. When Jordan saw the size of the raiding forces entering the battle it was led to the assumption that Israel had another goal of capturing Balqa Governorate to create a Golan Heights similar situation. Israel assumed that the Jordanian Army would ignore the invasion, but the latter fought alongside the Palestinians and opened heavy fire that inflicted losses upon the Israeli forces. This engagement marked the first known deployment of suicide bombers by Palestinian forces. The Israelis were repelled at the end of a day's battle, having destroyed most of the Karameh camp and taken around 141 PLO prisoners. Both sides declared victory. On a tactical level, the battle went in Israel's favor and the destruction of the Karameh camp was achieved. However, the relatively high casualties were a considerable surprise for the Israel Defense Forces and was stunning to the Israelis. Although the Palestinians were not victorious on their own, King Hussein let the Palestinians take credit.

JUNE 1968: The war "officially" begins, with sparse Egyptian artillery bombardment of the Israeli front line on the east bank of the Suez Canal. More artillery bombardments in the following months cause Israeli casualties.

SEPTEMBER 8, 1968: An Egyptian artillery barrage kills 10 Israeli soldiers and injures 18. Israel responds by shelling Suez and Ismaïlia .

OCTOBER 30, 1968: Israeli helicopter-borne Sayeret Matkal commandos carry out Operation Helem (Shock), destroying an Egyptian electric transformator station, two dams along the Nile River and a bridge. The blackout causes Nasser to cease hostilities for a few months while fortifications around hundreds of important targets are built. Simultaneously, Israel reinforces its position on the east bank of the Suez Canal by construction of the Bar Lev Line .

NOVEMBER 3, 1968: Egyptian MiG-17s attack Israeli positions, and are met by Israeli interceptors. One Israeli plane is damaged.

DECEMBER 1, 1968: Israeli helicopter-borne commandos destroy four bridges near Amman , Jordan.

DECEMBER 3, 1968: The Israeli Air Force bombs PLO camps in Jordan . The Israeli jets are intercepted by Hawker Hunters of the Royal Jordanian Air Force , and an Israeli fighter jet is damaged during the brief air battle.

1969

F-4E Phantom of the Israeli Air Force . The aircraft was used to good effect as "flying artillery" during the war. Roundel markings on nose credit this aircraft with three aerial kills. Soviet/Egyptian S-125 anti-aircraft type missiles in the Suez Canal vicinity Israeli troops at the Firdan Bridge by the Suez Canal , 1969

MARCH 8, 1969: Egypt strikes the Bar Lev Line with artillery fire and airstrikes, causing heavy casualties. Israel retaliates with raids deep into Egyptian territory, causing severe damage.

MARCH 9, 1969: The Egyptian Chief of Staff, General Abdul Munim Riad , is killed in an Israeli mortar attack while visiting the front lines along the Suez Canal.

MAY–JULY 1969: Heavy fighting takes place between Israeli and Egyptian forces. Israel loses 47 dead and 157 wounded, while Egyptian casualties are far heavier.

JULY 18, 1969: Egyptian commandos raid Israeli military installations in Sinai.

JULY 19–20, 1969: Operation Bulmus 6 – Israeli Shayetet 13 and Sayeret Matkal commandos raid Green Island , resulting in the total destruction of the Egyptian facility. Six Israeli soldiers and 80 Egyptian soldiers are killed. Some Egyptian casualties are caused by their own artillery.

JULY 20–28, 1969: Operation Boxer – Nearly the entire Israeli Air Force attacks the northern sector of the Canal, destroying anti-aircraft positions, tanks and artillery, and shooting down eight Egyptian aircraft. An estimated 300 Egyptian soldiers are killed, and Egyptian positions are seriously damaged. Israeli losses amount to two aircraft. Egyptian artillery fire is reduced somewhat. However, shelling with lighter weapons, particularly mortars , continues.

AUGUST 1969: The Israeli Air Force flies about 1,000 combat sorties against Egypt, destroying dozens of SAM sites and shooting down 21 aircraft. Three Israeli aircraft are lost.

SEPTEMBER 9, 1969: Operation Raviv – Israeli forces raid Egypt's Red Sea coast. The raid is preceded by Operation Escort , with Shayetet 13 naval commandos sinking a pair of Egyptian torpedo boats that could have threatened the Israeli raiding party. Three commandos are killed when an explosive device detonates prematurely. Israeli troops backed up by aircraft captured Egyptian armor, and destroy 12 Egyptian outposts. The Egyptians suffer 100–200 casualties, and a Soviet general serving as a consultant to the Egyptians is also killed, while one Israeli soldier is lightly injured. An Israeli plane is shot down during the raid, and the pilot's fate is still unknown.

SEPTEMBER 11, 1969: Sixteen Egyptian aircraft carry out a strike mission. Eight MiGs are shot down by Israeli Mirages and a further three Su-7s are lost to Israeli anti-aircraft artillery and HAWK surface-to-air missiles.

OCTOBER 17, 1969: The United States and Soviet Union begin diplomatic talks to end the conflict.

DECEMBER 9, 1969: Egyptian aircraft, with the assistance of newly delivered P-15 radars , defeats the Israelis in an aerial engagement, shooting down two Israeli Mirages. Later in the evening, an Egyptian fighter flown by Lt. Ahmed Atef shot down an Israeli F-4 Phantom II , making him the first Egyptian pilot to shoot down an F-4 in combat. The same day, the Rogers Plan is publicized. It calls for Egyptian "commitment to peace" in exchange for the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Both parties strongly reject the plan. Nasser forestalled any movement toward direct negotiations with Israel. In dozens of speeches and statements, Nasser posited the equation that any direct peace talks with Israel were tantamount to surrender. President Nasser instead opts to plead for more sophisticated weaponry from the Soviet Union to withstand the Israeli bombings. The Soviets initially refuse to deliver the requested weapons.

DECEMBER 26–27, 1969: Israel launches Operation Rooster 53 , carried out by paratroopers transported by Sikorsky CH-53E and Super Frelon helicopters. The operation results in the capture of an Egyptian P-12 radar at Ras Gharib and carrying it to Israel by 2 CH-53 Sea Stallion Helicopters. The operation enabled Israeli and American learning of the latest Soviet radar technology, and caused a huge morale impact on the Egyptians.

1970

_ Soviet medal issued to Soviet military personnel who served in Egypt during the War of Attrition. The medal says _Москва-Каир_ (Moscow-Cairo). Israeli war ribbon signifying participation in the War of Attrition

JANUARY 22, 1970: President Nasser secretly flies to Moscow to discuss the situation. His request for new SAM batteries (including the 3M9 Kub and Strela-2 ) is approved. Their deployment requires qualified personnel along with squadrons of aircraft to protect them. Thus, he needed Red Army personnel in large numbers, something the Kremlin did not want to provide. Nasser then threatens to resign, implying that Egypt might turn to the United States for help in the future. The Soviets had invested heavily in President Nasser's regime, and so, the Soviet leader, General-Secretary Leonid Brezhnev , finally obliged. The Soviet presence was to increase from 2,500–4,000 in January to 10,600–12,150 (plus 100–150 Soviet pilots) by June 30.

JANUARY 22, 1970: Operation Rhodes . Israeli paratroopers and naval commandos are transported by IAF Super Frelon helicopters to Shadwan Island where they kill 70 Egyptian soldiers and take 62 more prisoner at the loss of 3 dead and 7 wounded. The soldiers dismantle an Egyptian radar and other military equipment for transport back to Israel. IAF aircraft sink two Egyptian P-183 torpedo boats during the operation.

FEBRUARY, 1970: An Egyptian commando platoon attempts to set up an ambush in the vicinity of the Mitla Pass but is discovered. The entire unit is either killed or captured.

FEBRUARY 5, 1970: Israeli auxiliary ships are damaged in the Port of Eilat during a raid by Egyptian frogmen.

FEBRUARY 9, 1970: An air battle between Israeli and Egyptian warplanes takes place, with each side losing one plane.

MARCH 15, 1970: The first fully operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt is completed. It is part of three brigades which the Soviet Union sends to Egypt. Israeli F-4 Phantom II jets repeatedly bomb Egyptian positions in Sinai.

APRIL 8, 1970: The Israeli Air Force carries out bombing raids against targets identified as Egyptian military installations. A group of military bases about 30 kilometers from the Suez Canal is bombed. However, in what becomes known as the Bahr el-Baqar incident , Israeli F4 Phantom II fighter jets attack a single-floor school in the Egyptian town of Bahr el-Baqar, after it was mistaken for a military installation. The school is hit by five bombs and two air-to-ground missiles, killing 46 schoolchildren and injuring over 50. This incident put a definite end to the campaign, and the Israelis instead then concentrate upon Canal-side installations. The respite gives the Egyptians time to reconstruct its SAM batteries closer to the canal. Soviet flown MiG fighters provide the necessary air cover. Soviet pilots also begin approaching IAF aircraft during April 1970, but Israeli pilots have orders not to engage these aircraft, and break off whenever Soviet-piloted MiGs appear.

APRIL, 1970: the Kuwaiti Armed Forces suffered their first Kuwaiti fatality on the Egyptian front.

MAY, 1970: During the final days of the month, the IAF launch major air raids against Port Said , believing a large amphibious force is assembling in the town. On the 16th an Israeli aircraft is shot down in air combat, probably by a MiG-21.

MAY 3, 1970: Twenty-one Palestinian guerrillas are killed by Israeli troops in the Jordan Valley .

JUNE 1970: An Israeli armored raid on Syrian military positions results in "hundreds of Syrian casualties."

JUNE 25, 1970: An Israeli A-4 Skyhawk , in an attack sortie against Egyptian forces on the Canal, is attacked and pursued by a pair of Soviet MiG-21s into Sinai. According to the Soviets, the plane was shot down, while the Israelis claim that it was damaged and forced to land at a nearby airbase.

JUNE 27, 1970: The EAF continued to launch air raids across the canal. On June 27 around eight Egyptian Su-7s and MiG-21s attack Israeli rear areas in Sinai. According to Israel, two Egyptian aircraft were shot down. An Israeli Mirage was shot down, and the pilot was captured.

JUNE, 1970: The Kuwaiti Armed Forces suffer sixteen Kuwaiti fatalities on the Egyptian front.

JULY 18, 1970: An Israeli airstrike on Egypt causes casualties among Soviet military personnel.

JUNE 30, 1970: Soviet air defenses shoot down two Israeli F-4 Phantoms. Two pilots and a navigator are captured, while a second navigator is rescued by helicopter the following night.

JULY 30, 1970: A large-scale dogfight occurs between Israeli and Soviet aircraft, codenamed _Rimon 20 _, involving twelve to twenty-four Soviet MiG-21s (besides the initial twelve, other MiGs are "scrambled", but it is unclear if they reach the battle in time), and twelve Israeli Dassault Mirage IIIs and four F-4 Phantom II jets. The engagement takes place west of the Suez Canal. After luring their opponents into an ambush, the Israelis shoot down four of the Soviet-piloted MiGs. A fifth is possibly hit and later crashes en route back to base. Four Soviet pilots are killed, while the IAF suffers no losses except a damaged Mirage. The Soviets respond by luring Israeli fighter jets into a counter-ambush, downing two, and deploying more aircraft to Egypt. Following the Soviets' direct intervention, known as "Operation Kavkaz", Washington fears an escalation and redoubles efforts toward a peaceful resolution to the conflict.

EARLY AUGUST, 1970: Despite their losses, the Soviets and Egyptians manage to press the air defenses closer to the canal, shooting down a number of Israeli aircraft. The SAM batteries allow the Egyptians to move in artillery which in turn threatens the Bar Lev Line.

AUGUST 7, 1970: A cease-fire agreement is reached, forbidding either side from changing "the military status quo within zones extending 50 kilometers to the east and west of the cease-fire line." Minutes after the cease-fire, Egypt begins moving SAM batteries into the zone even though the agreement explicitly forbids new military installations. By October there are approximately one-hundred SAM sites in the zone.

SEPTEMBER 28, 1970: President Nasser dies of a heart attack, and is succeeded by Vice President Anwar Sadat .

CASUALTIES

According to the military historian Ze\'ev Schiff , some 921 Israelis, of which 694 were soldiers and the remainder civilians, were killed on all three fronts. Chaim Herzog notes a slightly lower figure of just over 600 killed and some 2,000 wounded while Netanel Lorch, states that 1,424 soldiers were killed in action between the period of June 15, 1967 and August 8, 1970. Between 24 and 26 Israeli aircraft were shot down. A Soviet estimate notes aircraft losses of 40. One destroyer, the INS _Eilat_ , was sunk.

As with the previous Arab–Israeli wars of 1948 , 1956 and 1967 , Arab losses far exceeded those of Israel, but precise figures are difficult to ascertain because official figures were never disclosed. The lowest estimate comes from the former Egyptian Army Chief of Staff, Saad el Shazly , who notes Egyptian casualties of 2,882 killed and 6,285 wounded. Historian Benny Morris states that a more realistic figure is somewhere on the scale of 10,000 soldiers and civilians killed. Ze\'ev Schiff notes that at the height of the war, the Egyptians were losing some 300 soldiers daily and aerial reconnaissance photos revealed at least 1,801 freshly dug graves near the Canal zone during this period. Among Egypt's war dead was the Egyptian Army Chief of Staff, Abdul Munim Riad .

Between 98 and 114 Egyptian aircraft were shot down, though a Soviet estimate notes air losses of 60.

Several Egyptian naval vessels were sunk. The Palestinian PLO suffered 1,828 killed and 2,500 were captured. Jordan's intervention on behalf of the PLO during the Battle of Karameh cost it 40-84 killed and 108-250 injured. An estimated 58 Soviet military personnel were killed and four to five Soviet-piloted MiG-21 aircraft were shot down in aerial combat. Syrian casualties are unknown but an armored raid by Israeli forces against Syrian positions in June 1970 led to "hundreds of Syrian casualties." Cuban forces, which were deployed on the Syrian front, were estimated to have lost 180 dead and 250 wounded.

SEE ALSO

CONFLICTS

* Black September * List of modern conflicts in the Middle East * Yom Kippur War

POLITICS

* Camp David Accords (1978) * Egypt– Israel Peace Treaty (1979)

PEOPLE

* Ahmad Ismail Ali * Ami Ayalon * Haim Bar-Lev * Leonid Brezhnev * Moshe Dayan * Saad el-Shazly * Mohamed Fawzi * Gunnar Jarring * Gamal Abdel Nasser * Nikolai Podgorny * Yitzhak Rabin * Abdul Munim Riad * William P. Rogers * Anwar Sadat * Ariel Sharon

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "The War: Lebanon and Syria". Dover.idf.il. Retrieved 2013-03-12. * ^ http://mfa.gov.il/MFA/AboutIsrael/History/Pages/The%20War%20of%20Attrition%20-1968-70.aspx * ^ _Russian Aviation and Air Power in the Twentieth Century_, Robin D. S. Higham, John T. Greenwood, Von Hardesty, Routledge , 1998, p.227 * ^ Fruchter-Ronen I, (2008), pp. 244–260 * ^ Morris (1999), p. 368 * ^ Wallach, Jedua; Ayalon, Avraham; Yitzhaki, Aryeh (1980). "Operation Inferno". in Evyatar Nur. _Carta's Atlas of Israel_, Volume 2 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Schiff, Zeev, _A History of the Israeli Army (1870–1974)_, Straight Arrow Books (San Francisco, 1974) p. 246, ISBN 0-87932-077-X * ^ Lorch, Netanel (September 2, 2003). "The Arab-Israeli Wars". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved March 3, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Benny Morris , _Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881–2001_, Random House (1999), page 362. ISBN 978-0-679-74475-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Nicolle and Cooper, 32–33 * ^ Saad el-Shazly , _The Crossing of Suez._ p. 195. ISBN 978-0-9604562-2-2 . * ^ Uri Bar, _The Watchman Fell Asleep: The Surprise Of Yom Kippur And Its Sources_. p.15. ISBN 978-0-7914-6482-3 . * ^ Insight Team of the London Sunday Times, Yom Kippur War, Double Day & Company (1974) Page 42 * ^ Zeev Schiff, History of the Israeli Army 1870–1974, Straight Arrow Books (1974) ISBN 0-87932-077-X , page 246 * ^ A list of known Soviet army losses of manpower during The War of attrition (in Russian) * ^ _A_ _B_ Karsh, Efraim: _The cautious bear: Soviet military engagement in Middle East wars in the post-1967 era_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Dunstan 2003 , pp. 7–14 * ^ " Egypt Will Fight, Nasser Shouts". _ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette _: 2. November 24, 1967. * ^ Aloni, Shlomo (2004). _Israeli Mirage and Nesher Aces_. Osprey. pp. 46–53. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Israel: The War of Attrition". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved March 3, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bard, Mitchell. "Myths & Facts Online: The War of Attrition, 1967–1970". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved March 3, 2007. * ^ Herzog (1982), 220 * ^ Schiff, Ze'ev, _History of the Israeli Army_, Straight Arrow Books (1974), p. 253 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Pollack 2002 , p. 95. * ^ Pollack 2002 , p. 94. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pollack 2002 , p. 96. * ^ Herzog, Chaim, _The Arab-Israeli Wars_, Random House, (New York, 1982), 196 * ^ El Gamasy, _The October War, 1973_ p.99 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ "War of Attrition, 1969–1970". Acig.org. Retrieved 2013-03-12. * ^ "The Israel Navy Throughout Israel\'s Wars". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-03-12. * ^ Rothrock, James, Live by the Sword: Israel’s Struggle for existence in the Holy Land, WestBow Press (2011) 48–49 * ^ Egyptian Air-to-Air Victories since 1948 * ^ El Gamasy, _The October War, 1973_ p.101 * ^ Cath Senker (2004). _The Arab-Israeli Conflict_. Black Rabbit Books. Retrieved 2015-10-25. * ^ "Debacle in the desert". _Haaretz_. 1968-03-29. Retrieved 2011-05-13. * ^ Patrick Tyler (2012-09-18). _Fortress Israel: The Inside Story of the Military Elite Who Run the Country--and Why They Can\'t Make Peace_. Macmillan. Retrieved 2015-10-25. * ^ "الذكرى الثالثة والأربعون لمعركة الكرامة الخالدة". _Petra News Agency_ (in Arabic). Ammon News. 2011-03-20. Retrieved 2015-10-25. * ^ "1968: Karameh and the Palestinian revolt". _Telegraph_. 2002-05-16. Retrieved 2008-09-03. * ^ Saada, Tass Attack by Israelis Failed to Destroy Base at Karameh or Wipe Out Commandos". _The New York Times_. The New York Times. 1968-03-28. Retrieved 2015-10-26. (subscription required) * ^ Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land, A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security and Foreign Policy, University of Michigan Press, 2006, pages 244–246 * ^ Herzog, The Arab-Israeli Wars page 205 * ^ _A_ _B_ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). _Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History_. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. * ^ Kathleen Sweet (2008-12-23). _Aviation and Airport Security: Terrorism and Safety Concerns, Second Edition_. CRC Press. Retrieved 2015-10-27. * ^ "The Israeli Assessment". _Time_. 1968-12-13. ISSN 0040-781X . Retrieved 2008-09-03. (subscription required) * ^ "Book Review: At Noon The Myth Was Shattered". Egyptian State Information Service. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007. * ^ Nicolle and Cooper, 31 * ^ Itamar Rabinovich; Haim Shaked. _From June to October: The Middle East Between 1967 And 1973_. Transaction Publishers. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-4128-2418-7 . In dozens of speeches and statements, Nasser posited the equation that any direct peace talks with Israel were tantamount to surrender. His efforts to forestall any movement toward direct negotiations... * ^ "9 Statement by Secretary of State Rogers- 9 December 1969". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved March 4, 2007. * ^ Chaim Herzog, _The Arab-Israeli Wars_, Random House New York (1982) p.214 ISBN 0-394-50379-1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Mordechai Naor, _The Twentieth Century In Eretz Israel_, Konemann (1996), 409 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cooper, Tom (September 24, 2003). "War of Attrition". Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved March 7, 2007. * ^ "The Innocent Dead". _Time Magazine_. April 20, 1970. Retrieved April 18, 2009. * ^ ^ "The War of Attrition as Reflected in Egyptian Sources" (1995), p. 107, by Mustafa Kabha (Hebrew) * ^ _A_ _B_ , Kuwait commemorates the return of 16 soldiers from the Yarmouk Brigade * ^ Nicolle and Cooper, 32 * ^ Nicolle and Cooper, 33 * ^ Sachar, Howard: _ Israel and Europe: An Appraisal in History_, p. 171-172 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Schiff (1974) p246 * ^ Chaim Herzog, _The Arab-Israeli Wars_, Random House New York, (1982) p.220 ISBN 0-394-50379-1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Morris (1999) p362 * ^ _A_ _B_ Insight Team of the London _Sunday Times_ (1974) p42 * ^ United Press International (August 12, 1972). "Al Ahram Editor Relates Soviet Air Losses To Israelis". _St. Petersburg Times_. p. 7.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Pollack, Kenneth (2002). _Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness_. University of Nebraska Press . * Bar-Simon Tov, Yaacov. _The Israeli-Egyptian War of Attrition, 1969–70_. New York: Columbia University Press , 1980. * Dunstan, Simon (2003). _ Yom Kippur War 1973: The Sinai Campaign_. Osprey Publishing . ISBN 978-1-84176-221-0 . * Herzog, Chaim and Gazit Shlomo. _The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East_. New York: Vintage Books , 2004. * Morris, Benny (1999). _Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–1999_. Knopf . ISBN 978-0-679-42120-7 . * Nicolle, David; Cooper, Tom (2004). _Arab MiG-19 and MiG-21 Units in Combat_ (First ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-84176-655-3 . * Rabinovitch (2004). _The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East_. ISBN 978-0-8052-4176-1 . * Schiff, Zeev, _History of the Israeli Army 1870–1974_, Straight Arrow Books (1974). ISBN 0-87932-077-X . * Whetten, Lawrence L. (1974). _The Canal War: Four-Power Conflict in the Middle East_. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press . ISBN 978-0-262-23069-8 . * Insight team of the London _ Sunday Times _, _Yom Kippur War_, Doubleday ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

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Israeli wars and conflicts

* Arab–Israeli War (1948–49) * Reprisal operations (1951–56) * Suez Crisis (1956) * Six-Day War (1967) * War of Attrition (1967–70) * Yom Kippur War (1973) * Operation Litani (1978) * First Lebanon War (1982–85) * South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) * First Intifada (1987–93) * Second Intifada (2000–05) * Second Lebanon War (2006) * Gaza War (2008–09) * Operation Pillar of Defense (2012) * Israel–Gaza conflict (2014)

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Arab–Israeli conflict

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* Countries * Authorities * Organizations

Primary countries and authorities

* All-Palestine * Egypt * Hamas Gaza * Iraq * Kuwait * Israel * Jordan * Lebanon * Palestinian National Authority * Saudi Arabia * Syria

ORGANIZATIONS

ACTIVE

* Abu Nidal Organization * Amal * al-Aqsa Martyrs\' Brigades * Syrian Social Nationalist Party * Arab League * Arab Liberation Front * Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine * Fatah * Guardians of the Cedars * Hamas * Hezbollah * Jaish al-Islam * Kataeb * Lebanese Forces * al-Mourabitoun * Muslim Brotherhood * Palestinian Islamic Jihad * Palestine Liberation Front * Palestine Liberation Organization * Palestinian Popular Struggle Front * Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine * Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command * Popular Resistance Committees * as-Sa\'iqa

Inactive or former

* Arab Higher Committee * Arab Liberation Army * Black Hand * Black September * Haganah * Holy War Army * Irgun (Etzel) * Japanese Red Army * Lehi * Palmach * Revolutionary Cells * South Lebanon Army

OTHER COUNTRIES

* Algeria * China * Cuba * France * Iran * Kuwait * Libya * Morocco * North Korea * Norway * Pakistan * Russia * Sudan * Tunisia * Turkey * Uganda * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela * Yemen

TRANSNATIONAL

* European Union * United Nations

FORMER STATES

* Mandatory Palestine * Soviet Union * United Arab Republic

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People

* Lester B. Pearson * Abd al-Hakim Amer * Hosni Mubarak * Gamal Abdel Nasser * Anwar Sadat * Mahmoud Ahmadinejad * Ali Khamenei * Ruhollah Khomeini * Faisal I * Saddam Hussein * Ehud Barak * Menachem Begin * David Ben-Gurion * Moshe Dayan * Levi Eshkol * Golda Meir * Benjamin Netanyahu * Ehud Olmert * Shimon Peres * Yitzhak Rabin * Yitzhak Shamir * Ariel Sharon * Chaim Weizmann * King Abdullah I of Jordan * King Abdullah II of Jordan * King Hussein of Jordan * Émile Lahoud * Hassan Nasrallah * Fouad Siniora * Recep Tayyip Erdoğan * Mona Juul * Johan Jørgen Holst * Terje Rød-Larsen * Mahmoud Abbas * Yasser Arafat * Marwan Barghouti * George Habash * Ismail Haniyeh * Haj Amin al-Husseini * Khaled Mashal * Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi * Ahmad Shukeiri * Ahmed Yassin * King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia * King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia * King Fahd of Saudi Arabia * King Faisal of Saudi Arabia * Folke Bernadotte * Hafez al-Assad * Bashar al-Assad * Shukri al-Quwatli * Salah Jadid * Ernest Bevin * Arthur Balfour * Tony Blair * Richard Crossman * Madeleine Albright * Ralph Bunche * George H. W. Bush * George W. Bush * Jimmy Carter * Bill Clinton * Henry Kissinger * Ronald Reagan * Condoleezza Rice * Dennis Ross * Ramadan Shalah * Harry S. Truman * Cyrus Vance

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Armed engagements

BACKGROUND

* 1920 Battle of Tel Hai * 1936–39 Arab revolt * 1944 Operation ATLAS

1947–1950S

* 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine * 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War * 1950s Palestinian Fedayeen attacks ( Reprisal operations ) * 1956 Suez Crisis

1960S

* 1966 Operation _Shredder_ * 1967 Six-Day War

* 1967–70 War of Attrition

* 1968 Battle of Karameh

* Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

* 1968 Operation _Gift_

1970S–1980

* 1973 Yom Kippur War

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

* 1972 Operation _Isotope_ / Lod Airport massacre / Munich Olympics massacre * 1972–79 Operation _Wrath of God_ (Airstrike , _Spring of Youth_ ) * 1973 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 * 1974 Ma\'alot massacre * 1975 Savoy Operation * 1976 Operation _Entebbe_ * 1978 Coastal Road massacre / Operation _Litani_ * 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

1980S

* 1981 Operation _Opera_ * 1982 Lebanon War * 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict * 1984 Bus 300 affair * 1985 Operation _Wooden Leg_

* 1987–93 First Intifada

* 1988 Mothers\' Bus rescue / Tunis raid

1990S

* 1992 Operation _Bramble Bush_ * 1993–2008 Palestinian suicide attacks * 1993 Operation _Accountability_ * 1996 Operation _Grapes of Wrath_

2000S

* 2000–05 Al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) * 2000–06 Shebaa Farms conflict * 2001–present Rocket and mortar attacks on southern Israel * 2003 Ain es Saheb airstrike * 2006 Operation _Bringing Home the Goods_ / Operation _Summer Rains_ / Operation _Autumn Clouds_ / Lebanon War

* 2006–present Gaza– Israel conflict

* 2007–08 Operation _Hot Winter_ * 2008–09 Gaza War

* 2007 Operation _Orchard_ * 2007–present Lebanese rocket attacks

2010S

* 2010 Adaisseh skirmish / Palestinian militancy campaign

* Gaza– Israel conflict

* 2011 Southern Israel cross-border attacks * 2012 Operation _Returning Echo_ / Operation _Pillar of Defense_ * 2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict * 2015 Israeli–Palestinian conflict (2015–2016)

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Diplomacy and peace proposals

TO 1948

* 1914 Damascus Protocol * 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence * 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement * 1917 Balfour Declaration * 1918 Declaration to the Seven / Anglo-French Declaration * 1919 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement * 1920 San Remo conference * 1922 Churchill White Paper * 1937 Peel Commission * 1939 White Paper * 1947 UN Partition Plan * 1948 American trusteeship proposal

1948–91

* 1948 UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 194 * 1949 Armistice agreements / Lausanne Conference * 1950 Tripartite Declaration * 1964 Palestinian National Covenant * 1967 Khartoum Resolution / UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 242 * 1973 UNSC Resolution 338 / UNSC Resolution 339 * 1974 Israel– Syria disengagement agreement / UNSC Resolution 350 * 1978 UNSC Resolution 425 / Camp David Accords * 1979 UNSC Resolution 446 / Egypt– Israel Peace Treaty / UNSC Resolution 452 * 1980 UNSC Resolution 478 * 1981 UNSC Resolution 497 * 1983 Israel– Lebanon agreement

1991–PRESENT

* 1991 Madrid Conference * 1993 Oslo Accords * 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement / Israel– Jordan peace treaty * 1995 Beilin-Abu Mazen agreement * 1998 Wye River Memorandum * 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum * 2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters * 2001 Taba Summit * 2002 Beirut Summit and peace initiative / Road map * 2003 Geneva Initiative * 2004 UNSC Resolution 1559 / UNSC Resolution 1566 * 2005 UNSC Resolution 1583 / Sharm el-Sheikh Summit / Israeli disengagement from Gaza / Agreement on Movement and Access * 2006 UNSC Resolution 1701 * 2007 Annapolis Conference * 2010 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks * 2013 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks

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Cold War

* USA * USSR * ANZUS * NATO * Non-Aligned Movement * SEATO * Warsaw Pact

1940S

* Hukbalahap Rebellion * Dekemvriana * Yalta Conference

* Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

* Forest Brothers * Operation Priboi * Operation Jungle * Occupation of the Baltic states

* Cursed soldiers * Operation _Unthinkable_ * Potsdam Conference * Gouzenko Affair * Operation _Masterdom_ * Operation _Beleaguer_ * Operation _Blacklist Forty_ * Iran crisis of 1946 * Greek Civil War * Corfu Channel incident * Turkish Straits crisis * Restatement of Policy on Germany * First Indochina War * Truman Doctrine * Asian Relations Conference * Marshall Plan * 1948 Czechoslovak coup d\'état * Tito–Stalin Split * Berlin Blockade * Western betrayal * Iron Curtain * Eastern Bloc * Western Bloc * Chinese Civil War (Second round) * Malayan Emergency * Albanian Subversion

1950S

* Bamboo Curtain * Korean War * 1953 Iranian coup d\'état * Uprising of 1953 in East Germany * 1954 Guatemalan coup d\'état * Partition of Vietnam * First Taiwan Strait Crisis * Geneva Summit (1955) * Poznań 1956 protests * Hungarian Revolution of 1956 * Suez Crisis * Syrian Crisis of 1957 * Sputnik crisis * Second Taiwan Strait Crisis * Cuban Revolution * Kitchen Debate * Bandung Conference * Bricker Amendment * McCarthyism * Operation Gladio * Iraqi July Revolution * " We will bury you "

1960S

* Congo Crisis * Sino-Soviet split * 1960 U-2 incident * Bay of Pigs Invasion * 1960 Turkish coup d\'état * Soviet–Albanian split * Berlin Wall

* Portuguese Colonial War

* Angolan War of Independence * Guinea-Bissau War of Independence * Mozambican War of Independence

* Cuban Missile Crisis * Sino-Indian War * Communist insurgency in Sarawak * Iraqi Ramadan Revolution * 1963 Syrian coup d\'état * Vietnam War * 1964 Brazilian coup d\'état * United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66) * South African Border War * Transition to the New Order * Domino theory * ASEAN Declaration * Laotian Civil War * 1966 Syrian coup d\'état * Argentine Revolution * Korean DMZ Conflict * Greek military junta of 1967–74 * USS _Pueblo_ incident * Six-Day War * War of Attrition * Dhofar Rebellion * Protests of 1968 * French May * Cultural Revolution * Prague Spring * Communist insurgency in Malaysia * Invasion of Czechoslovakia * Iraqi Ba\'athist Revolution * Goulash Communism * Sino-Soviet border conflict * CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion * Corrective Move

1970S

* Détente * Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty * Black September in Jordan * Corrective Movement (Syria) * Cambodian Civil War * Realpolitik * Ping-pong diplomacy * 1971 Turkish military memorandum * Corrective Revolution (Egypt) * Four Power Agreement on Berlin * Bangladesh Liberation War * 1972 Nixon visit to China * North Yemen-South Yemen Border Conflict * 1973 Chilean coup d\'état * Yom Kippur War * Carnation Revolution * Strategic Arms Limitation Talks * Rhodesian Bush War * Angolan Civil War * Mozambican Civil War * Ogaden War * Ethiopian Civil War * Lebanese Civil War * Sino-Albanian split * Cambodian–Vietnamese War * Sino-Vietnamese War * Iranian Revolution * Operation _Condor_ * Dirty War * Korean Air Lines Flight 902 * Saur Revolution * New Jewel Movement * 1979 Herat uprising * Seven Days to the River Rhine * Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980S

* Soviet–Afghan War * 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts * 1980 Turkish coup d\'état * Invasion of Grenada * 1986 Black Sea incident * 1988 Black Sea bumping incident

* Solidarity

* Soviet reaction

* Contras * Central American crisis * RYAN * Korean Air Lines Flight 007 * Able Archer 83 * Star Wars * People Power Revolution * Nagorno-Karabakh War * Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 * Fall of the Berlin Wall * Revolutions of 1989 * Glasnost * Perestroika

1990S

* Mongolian Revolution of 1990 * German reunification * Yemeni unification * Fall of communism in Albania * Breakup of Yugoslavia * Dissolution of the Soviet Union * Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

FROZEN CONFLICTS

* Abkhazia * China * Korea * Nagorno-Karabakh * South Ossetia * Transnistria * Sino-Indian border dispute * North Borneo dispute

FOREIGN POLICY

* Truman Doctrine * Containment * Eisenhower Doctrine * Domino theory * Hallstein Doctrine * Kennedy Doctrine * Peaceful coexistence * Ostpolitik * Johnson Doctrine * Brezhnev Doctrine * Nixon Doctrine * Ulbricht Doctrine * Carter Doctrine * Reagan Doctrine * Rollback * Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

IDEOLOGIES

* Capitalism

* Chicago school * Keynesianism * Monetarism * Neoclassical economics * Reaganomics * Supply-side economics * Thatcherism * CIA and the Cultural Cold War

* Communism

* Marxism–Leninism * Castroism * Eurocommunism * Guevarism * Hoxhaism * Juche * Maoism * Naxalism * Stalinism * Titoism

* Liberal democracy * Social democracy * White supremacy

ORGANIZATIONS

* ASEAN * CIA * Comecon * EEC * KGB * Non-Aligned Movement * SAARC * Safari Club * MI6 * Stasi

PROPAGANDA

* Active measures * _ Izvestia _ * _ Pravda _ * Crusade for Freedom * Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty * Red Scare * TASS * Voice of America * Voice of Russia

RACES

* Arms race * Nuclear arms race * Space Race

SEE ALSO

* Brinkmanship * NATO– Russia relations * Soviet espionage in the United States * Russian espionage in the United States * American espionage in the Soviet Union * Soviet Union– United States relations * US–Soviet summits * Cold War II

* CATEGORY * Portal * Timeline * List of conflicts

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Armed conflicts involving Cuba

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* Ten Years\' War * Cuban War of Independence * Spanish–American War * World War I * World War II * 1952 Cuban Coup * Cuban Revolution * Congo Crisis * Bay of Pigs Invasion * Sand War * Cuban Missile Crisis