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Coalition victory, Treaty of Fontainebleau, First Treaty of Paris

Bourbon Restoration; Napoleon's exile to Elba Various territorial changes Beginning of the Congress of Vienna Hostilities resume with the return of Napoleon
Napoleon
to power in 1815

Belligerents

Original coalition

Kingdom of Prussia  Russian Empire  Austrian Empire  United Kingdom Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Portugal Spanish Empire  Kingdom of Sicily  Kingdom of Sardinia

After Battle of Leipzig

 Bavaria  Württemberg Baden United Netherlands

 French Empire

 Napoleonic Italy  Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw[a]

Until January 1814

Denmark–Norway Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
(Many member states defected after Battle of Leipzig)

 United States (War of 1812)

Commanders and leaders

Alexander I Frederick William III Francis I Lord Liverpool

Napoleon
Napoleon
I

Strength

1813: 1,070,000 1813: 850,000 1814: 356,000

Casualties and losses

526,000[1]

391,000 killed and wounded 135,000 captured and missing

668,900[2][1]

103,300 killed 320,600 wounded 245,000 captured and missing

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War of the Sixth Coalition

Lützen Bautzen Hamburg Luckau Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm Dennewitz Feistritz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Caldiero Mainz Danzig Arnhem Bornhöved Sehested Nive Metz Hoogstraten Antwerp 1st Bar-sur-Aube Brienne La Rothière Lesmont Mincio Six Days Garris Mormant Montereau 2nd Bar-sur-Aube Orthez Gué-à-Tresmes Saint-Julien Laubressel Craonne Bergen op Zoom Laon Mâcon Reims Limonest Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Paris Courtrai Toulouse Bayonne

German Campaign Campaign in north-east France Campaign in south-west France

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Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Anglo-Spanish War Russo-Persian War Franco-Swedish War Fourth Coalition Russo-Turkish War Gunboat War Finnish War Dano-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War Peninsular War Anglo-Russian War Fifth Coalition Anglo-Swedish War French invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition

German Campaign Campaign in north-east France Campaign in south-west France

Swedish-Norwegian War Seventh Coalition

Neapolitan War Waterloo Campaign Minor campaigns of 1815

West Indies Campaign Adriatic campaign 1st Java Indian Ocean 2nd Java

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Polish–Swedish wars

Livonian Sigismund 1600–11 1617–18 1621–25 1626–29 2nd Northern (Deluge) Great Northern War of the Fourth Coalition War of the Sixth Coalition

Map of Europe in 1813, in red the Sixth Coalition.

In the War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
(March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain
Spain
and a number of German states finally defeated France
France
and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia
French invasion of Russia
of 1812, the continental powers joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal
Portugal
and the rebels in Spain
Spain
who were already at war with France. The War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
saw major battles at Lützen, Bautzen, and Dresden. The even larger Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
(also known as the Battle of Nations) was the largest battle in European history before World War I. Ultimately, Napoleon's earlier setbacks in Russia and Germany proved to be the seeds of his undoing. With their armies reorganized, the allies drove Napoleon
Napoleon
out of Germany in 1813 and invaded France
France
in 1814. The Allies defeated the remaining French armies, occupied Paris, and forced Napoleon
Napoleon
to abdicate and go into exile. The French monarchy was revived by the allies, who handed rule to the heir of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the Bourbon Restoration. This was not, however, the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon subsequently escaped from his captivity and returned to power in France, sparking the War of the Seventh Coalition in 1815 (also known as the "Hundred Days").

Contents

1 Invasion of Russia 2 Formation of the Sixth Coalition

2.1 Russia, Britain and Sweden
Sweden
attempt an alliance 2.2 Defection of Prussia 2.3 Declarations of war

3 War in Germany 4 War in Denmark 5 Peninsular War 6 War in France 7 Abdication and peace 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Invasion of Russia[edit] Main article: French invasion of Russia In 1812, Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Russia to compel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System. The Grande Armée, consisting of as many as 650,000 men (roughly half of whom were French, with the remainder coming from allies or subject areas), crossed the Neman River on 23 June 1812. Russia proclaimed a Patriotic War, while Napoleon
Napoleon
proclaimed a "Second Polish War". But against the expectations of the Poles, who supplied almost 100,000 troops for the invasion force, and having in mind further negotiations with Russia, he avoided any concessions toward Poland. Russian forces fell back, destroying everything potentially of use to the invaders until giving battle at Borodino (7 September) where the two armies fought a devastating battle. Despite the fact that France
France
won a tactical victory, the battle was inconclusive. Following the battle the Russians withdrew, thus opening the road to Moscow. By 14 September, the French had occupied Moscow
Moscow
but found the city practically empty. Alexander I (despite having almost lost the war by Western European standards) refused to capitulate, leaving the French in the abandoned city of Moscow
Moscow
with little food or shelter (large parts of Moscow
Moscow
had burned down) and winter approaching. In these circumstances, and with no clear path to victory, Napoleon
Napoleon
was forced to withdraw from Moscow. So began the disastrous Great Retreat, during which the retreating army came under increasing pressure due to lack of food, desertions, and increasingly harsh winter weather, all while under continual attack by the Russian army led by Commander-in-Chief Mikhail Kutuzov, and other militias. Total losses of the Grand Army were at least 370,000 casualties as a result of fighting, starvation and the freezing weather conditions, and 200,000 captured. By November, only 27,000 fit soldiers re-crossed the Berezina River. Napoleon
Napoleon
now left his army to return to Paris
Paris
and prepare a defence of Poland against the advancing Russians. The situation was not as dire as it might at first have seemed; the Russians had also lost around 400,000 men and their army was similarly depleted. However, they had the advantage of shorter supply lines and were able to replenish their armies with greater speed than the French, especially because Napoleon's losses of cavalry and wagons were irreplaceable. Formation of the Sixth Coalition[edit] Russia, Britain and Sweden
Sweden
attempt an alliance[edit] On 9 January 1812, French troops occupied Swedish Pomerania
Swedish Pomerania
to end the illegal trade with the United Kingdom from Sweden, which was in violation of the Continental System. Swedish estates were confiscated and Swedish officers and soldiers were taken as prisoners. In response, Sweden
Sweden
declared neutrality and signed the secret Treaty of Saint Petersburg with Russia against France
France
and Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
on 5 April. On 18 July, the Treaty of Örebro
Treaty of Örebro
formally ended the wars between Britain and Sweden
Sweden
and Britain and Russia, forming an alliance between Russia, Britain, and Sweden. However, when Napoleon
Napoleon
marched on Moscow, neither Britain nor Sweden
Sweden
would give any military support to Russia, which was left on its own. The alliance existed only on paper. Defection of Prussia[edit]

All the participants of the War of the Sixth Coalition. Blue: The Coalition and their colonies and allies. Red: The First French Empire, its protectorates, colonies and allies in 1813.

The Convention of Tauroggen
Convention of Tauroggen
was a truce signed 30 December 1812 at Tauroggen (now Tauragė, Lithuania), between Generalleutnant Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg on behalf of his Prussian troops (who had been compelled to augment the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
during the invasion of Russia), and by General Hans Karl von Diebitsch
Hans Karl von Diebitsch
of the Russian Army. According to the Treaty of Tilsit, Prussia had to support Napoleon's invasion of Russia. This resulted in some Prussians leaving their army to avoid serving the French, like Carl von Clausewitz, who joined Russian service. When Yorck's immediate French superior Marshal MacDonald, retreated before the corps of Diebitsch, Yorck found himself isolated. As a soldier his duty was to break through, but as a Prussian patriot his position was more difficult. He had to judge whether the moment was favorable for starting a war of liberation; and, whatever might be the enthusiasm of his junior staff-officers, Yorck had no illusions as to the safety of his own head, and negotiated with Clausewitz. The Convention of Tauroggen
Convention of Tauroggen
armistice, signed by Diebitsch and Yorck, "neutralized" the Prussian corps without consent of their king. The news was received with the wildest enthusiasm in Prussia, but the Prussian Court dared not yet throw off the mask, and an order was despatched suspending Yorck from his command pending a court-martial. Diebitsch refused to let the bearer pass through his lines, and the general was finally absolved when the Treaty of Kalisch (28 February 1813) definitely ranged Prussia on the side of the Allies. Declarations of war[edit] On 3 March 1813, after the United Kingdom agreed to Swedish claims to Norway, Sweden
Sweden
entered an alliance with the United Kingdom and declared war against France. On 17 March, King Frederick William III of Prussia published a call to arms to his subjects, An Mein Volk, and declared war on France
France
as well. The first armed conflict occurred on 5 April in the Battle of Möckern, where combined Prusso-Russian forces defeated French troops. In June, the United Kingdom formally entered the coalition.[3] Initially, Austria remained loyal to France, and foreign minister Metternich aimed to mediate a peace between France
France
and its continental enemies, but when it became apparent that Napoleon
Napoleon
was not interested in compromise, Austria joined the allies and declared war on France
France
in August 1813. War in Germany[edit] Main article: German Campaign of 1813 Napoleon
Napoleon
vowed that he would create a new army as large as that he had sent into Russia, and quickly built up his forces in the east from 30,000 to 130,000 and eventually to 400,000. Napoleon
Napoleon
inflicted 40,000 casualties on the Allies at Lützen (near Leipzig, 2 May) and Bautzen (20–21 May 1813) but he himself lost about the same number of men during those encounters. Both battles involved total forces of over 250,000 – making them among the largest battles of the Napoleonic Wars to that point in time.

Battle of Hanau

The belligerents declared an armistice from 4 June 1813 which lasted until 13 August, during which time both sides attempted to recover from approximately quarter of a million losses since April. During this time Allied negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France
France
(like Prussia, Austria had moved from nominal ally of France
France
in 1812 to armed neutral in 1813). Two principal Austrian armies deployed in Bohemia and Northern Italy, adding 300,000 troops to the Allied armies. In total the Allies now had around 800,000 frontline troops in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of 350,000. Napoleon
Napoleon
succeeded in bringing the total imperial forces in the region up to around 650,000 (although only 250,000 were under his direct command, with another 120,000 under Nicolas Charles Oudinot
Nicolas Charles Oudinot
and 30,000 under Davout). The Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
furnished Napoleon
Napoleon
with the bulk of the remainder of the forces, with Saxony and Bavaria
Bavaria
as principal contributors. In addition, to the south, Murat's Kingdom of Naples and Eugène de Beauharnais's Kingdom of Italy had a combined total of 100,000 men under arms. In Spain
Spain
an additional 150–200,000 French troops were being steadily beaten back by Spanish and British forces numbering around 150,000. Thus in total around 900,000 French troops were opposed in all theatres by somewhere around a million Allied troops (not including the strategic reserve being formed in Germany). Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon
Napoleon
seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden (26–27 August 1813), where he defeated a numerically-superior allied army and inflicted enormous casualties, while sustaining relatively few. However at about the same time Oudinot's thrust towards Berlin was beaten back, and the French sustained several defeats in the north at Großbeeren, Katzbach and Dennewitz. Napoleon
Napoleon
himself, lacking reliable and numerous cavalry, was unable to fully take advantage of his victory, and could not avoid the destruction of a whole army corps at the Battle of Kulm
Battle of Kulm
(29–30 August 1813), further weakening his army. He withdrew with around 175,000 troops to Leipzig
Leipzig
in Saxony where he thought he could fight a defensive action against the Allied armies converging on him. There, at the so-called Battle of Nations
Battle of Nations
(16–19 October 1813) a French army, ultimately reinforced to 191,000, found itself faced by three Allied armies converging on it, ultimately totalling more than 430,000 troops. Over the following days the battle resulted in a defeat for Napoleon, who however was still able to manage a relatively orderly retreat westwards. However, as the French forces were pulling across the Elster, the bridge was prematurely blown and 30,000 troops were stranded to be taken prisoner by the Allied forces.

The charge of the Life Guards Cossacks
Cossacks
at Leipzig

Napoleon
Napoleon
defeated an army of his former ally Bavaria
Bavaria
at the Battle of Hanau (30–31 October 1813) before pulling what was left of his forces back into France. Meanwhile, Davout's corps continued to hold out in its siege of Hamburg, where it became the last Imperial force east of the Rhine. The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals
Frankfurt proposals
in November 1813. Napoleon
Napoleon
would remain as Emperor of France, but it would be reduced to its "natural frontiers". That meant that France
France
could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland (the west bank of the Rhine
Rhine
River), while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Poland, Spain
Spain
and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany. Metternich told Napoleon
Napoleon
these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher. Metternich aimed to maintain France
France
as a balance against Russian threats, while ending the highly destabilizing series of wars.[4] Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. When his back was to the wall in 1814 he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals. The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France
France
to its 1791 boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium. Napoleon
Napoleon
adamantly refused.[5] War in Denmark[edit] In December 1813, the Swedish army attacked Danish troops in Holstein. General Anders Skjöldebrand
Anders Skjöldebrand
defeated the Danes at Bornhöved on 7 December 1813. Three days later, the Danish Auxiliary Corps scored a victory over the Swedes at Sehested. However, the Danish victory could not change the course of war. On 14 January 1814, the Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
was concluded between Sweden and Denmark–Norway. By the terms of the treaty, Norway was to be ceded to the king of Sweden. However, the Norwegians rejected this, declaring independence and adopting their own constitution on 17 May. On 27 July, Swedish forces invaded Norway. After a short war, an armistice (the Convention of Moss) was concluded on 14 August. Norway agreed to enter into a personal union with Sweden
Sweden
as a separate state with its own constitution and institutions, except for the common king and foreign service. The Union between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway was formally established on 4 November 1814, when the Parliament of Norway adopted the necessary constitutional amendments, and elected Charles XIII of Sweden
Sweden
as king of Norway. Peninsular War[edit] Main article: Peninsular War While events unfolded in the East, the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in Iberia continued to be Napoleon's "Spanish ulcer" tying down hundreds of thousands of French soldiers.[6] In 1813, Arthur Wellesley Duke of Wellington finally broke the French power in Spain
Spain
and forced the French to retreat. In a strategic move, Wellington planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. The Anglo-Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos; they then outflanked the French army, forcing Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
into the valley of the River Zadorra. At the Battle of Vitoria, 21 June, the 65,000 French under Joseph were routed by 53,000 British, 27,000 Portuguese and 19,000 Spaniards. Wellington pursued and dislodged the French from San Sebastián, which was sacked and burnt. The allies chased the retreating French, reaching the Pyrenees in early July. Marshal Soult
Marshal Soult
was given command of the French forces and began a counter-offensive, dealing the allied generals two sharp defeats at the Battle of Maya
Battle of Maya
and the Battle of Roncesvalles. Yet, he was put again onto the defensive by the British army
British army
and its Portuguese allies, lost momentum, and finally fled after the allied victory at the Battle of Sorauren
Battle of Sorauren
(28 and 30 July). In the Battle of the Pyrenees
Battle of the Pyrenees
Wellington fought far from his supply line but won with a mixture of manoeuvre, shock and persistent hounding of the French forces. On 7 October, after Wellington received news of the reopening of hostilities in Germany, the Coalition allies finally crossed into France, fording the Bidasoa
Bidasoa
river. On 11 December, a beleaguered and desperate Napoleon
Napoleon
agreed to a separate peace with Spain
Spain
under the Treaty of Valençay, under which he would release and recognize Ferdinand VII as King of Spain
Spain
in exchange for a complete cessation of hostilities. But the Spanish had no intention of trusting Napoleon, and the fighting continued on into France. War in France[edit] Main articles: Campaign in south-west France
France
(1814) and Campaign in north-east France
France
(1814)

Battle of Toulouse, 10 April 1814 by Fonds Ancely.

During the last months of 1813 and into 1814 Wellington led the Peninsular army into south-west France
France
and fought a number of battles against Marshals Soult and Suchet. The Peninsular army gained victories at Vera pass, the Battle of Nivelle, the Battle of Nive
Battle of Nive
near Bayonne
Bayonne
(10–14 December 1813), the Battle of Orthez
Battle of Orthez
(27 February 1814) and the Battle of Toulouse (10 April).[7][b]

Episode of the battle of Paris, by Horace Vernet

After retreating from Germany, Napoleon
Napoleon
fought a series of battles, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, in France, but was steadily forced back against overwhelming odds. During the campaign he had issued a decree for 900,000 fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these were ever raised. In early February Napoleon
Napoleon
fought his Six Days' Campaign, in which he won multiple battles against numerically superior enemy forces marching on Paris.[9] However, he fielded less than 80,000 soldiers during this entire campaign against a Coalition force of between 370,000 and 405,000 engaged in the campaign.[9][c] At the Treaty of Chaumont (9 March) the Allies agreed to preserve the Coalition until Napoleon's total defeat. The Allies entered Paris
Paris
on 30 March 1814 after a short battle. Abdication and peace[edit]

Napoleon's exile to Elba, from a British engraving, 1814

Russian cossacks in Paris
Paris
in 1814

Napoleon
Napoleon
was determined to fight on, proposing to march on Paris. His soldiers and regimental officers were eager to fight on. But Napoleon's marshals and senior officers mutinied. On 4 April, Napoleon was confronted by his marshals and senior officers, led by Ney. They told the Emperor that they refused to march. Napoleon
Napoleon
asserted that the army would follow him. Ney replied, "The army will follow its chiefs".[citation needed] Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated on 11 April 1814 and the war officially ended soon after, although some fighting continued until May. The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed on 11 April 1814 between the continental powers and Napoleon, followed by the Treaty of Paris
Paris
on 30 May 1814 between France
France
and the Great Powers including Britain. The victors exiled Napoleon
Napoleon
to the island of Elba, and restored the Bourbon monarchy in the person of Louis XVIII. The Allied leaders attended Peace Celebrations in England in June, before progressing to the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(between September 1814 and June 1815), which was held to redraw the map of Europe. See also[edit]

The Hundred Days
Hundred Days
or the War of the Seventh Coalition

Notes[edit]

^ Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw
as a state was in effect fully occupied by Russian and Prussian forces by May 1813, though most Poles remained loyal to Napoleon ^ There was one last bloody engagement in south-west France, when. under the orders of Thouvenot, the French sortied from Toulouse and fought the Battle of Bayonne
Battle of Bayonne
(14 April 1814).[8] ^ Hodgson gives no size for the Army of the North but estimates the Austrian Grand Army have 10,000 and the Army of Silesia 25,000 more men than Maud (Hodgson 1841, p. 504).

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (November 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ a b Bodart 1916, p. 46. ^ Bodart 1916, pp. 130–131. ^ Merriman 1996, p. 579. ^ Riley 2013, p. 206. ^ Ross 1969, pp. 342-344. ^ "Spanish Ulcer" Ellis 2014, p. 100 cites Owen Connelly (ed), "peninsular War", Historical Dictionary, p. 387. ^ Robinson 1911, pp. 95–97. ^ Robinson 1911, p. 97. ^ a b Maude 1911, p. 232.

References[edit]

Bodart, G. (1916). Losses of Life in Modern Wars, Austria-Hungary; France. ISBN 978-1371465520.  Ellis, Geoffrey (2014), Napoleon: Profiles In Power, Routledge, p. 100, ISBN 9781317874706  Hodgson, William (1841), The life of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, once Emperor of the French, who died in exile, at St. Helena, after a captivity of six years' duration, Orlando Hodgson  Merriman, John (1996), A History Of Modern Europe, W.W. Norton Company, p. 579   Maude, Frederic Natusch (1911), "Napoleonic Campaigns", in Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 19 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 212–236  Riley, J. P. (2013), Napoleon
Napoleon
and the World War of 1813: Lessons in Coalition Warfighting, Routledge, p. 206   Robinson, Charles Walker (1911), "Peninsular War", in Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 21 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–98  Ross, Stephen T. (1969), European Diplomatic History 1789-1815: France against Europe, pp. 342–344 

Further reading[edit]

Cate, Curtis (1985), The War of the Two Emperors: The Duel Between Napoleon
Napoleon
and Alexander: Russia, 1812, Random house  Delderfield, Ronald Frederick (1984), Imperial sunset: The fall of Napoleon, 1813-14, Stein and Day  Leggiere, Michael V. (2007), The Fall of Napoleon: Volume 1, The Allied Invasion of France, 1813-1814, 1, Cambridge University Press  Lüke, Martina (2009), "Anti- Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
of Liberation (1813–1815)", in Ness, Immanuel, The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500–present, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 188–190, ISBN 9781405184649  Muir, Rory (1996), Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807–1815, Yale University Press  Riehn, Richard K (1990), 1812: Napoleon's Russian campaign  Rothenberg, Gunther Erich (1999), The Napoleonic Wars, London: Cassell, ISBN 0304359831  Riley, Jonathon P. (2009), Napoleon
Napoleon
and the world war of 1813: lessons in coalition warfighting, Psychology Press  Spring, Lawrence (2009), 1812: Russia's Patriotic War 

External links[edit]

Napoleon, His Armies and Tactics Collection of historical eBooks about the War of the Sixth Coalition (German)

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Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Fourth Coalition Peninsular War Fifth Coalition French Invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition Seventh Coalition

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

France Polish Legions Italy Holland Etruria Swiss Confederation Naples Confederation of the Rhine

Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg

Denmark–Norway Ottoman Empire Persia Spain

Coalition forces

United Kingdom Austria Russia Prussia Spain Portugal Sicily Papal States Ottoman Empire Persia Sardinia Sweden Netherlands Brunswick Hanover Nassau French Royalists

Major battles

Prelude

French Revolution First Coalition Second Coalition 18 Brumaire Planned invasion of the United Kingdom Duc d'Enghien Execution Coronation of Napoleon

1805

Diamond Rock Cape Finisterre Wertingen Günzburg Haslach-Jungingen Elchingen Ulm Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Dürenstein Schöngrabern Austerlitz

1806

Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Schleiz Saalfeld Jena–Auerstedt Erfurt Halle Magdeburg Prenzlau Pasewalk Stettin Waren-Nossentin Lübeck Greater Poland Uprising Hameln Czarnowo Golymin Pułtusk

1807

Mohrungen Stralsund Eylau Ostrołęka Kolberg Danzig Mileto Guttstadt-Deppen Heilsberg Friedland Copenhagen Invasion of Portugal

1808

Dos de Mayo Bruch Rosily Squadron Cabezón 1st Zaragoza Valencia Medina de Rioseco Bailén Roliça Vimeiro Pancorbo Valmaseda Burgos Espinosa Tudela Somosierra 2nd Zaragoza Sahagún Benavente

1809

Castellón Uclés Corunna Valls Tyrolean Rebellion Villafranca Yevenes/Yébenes Ciudad Real 1st Porto Medellín Bergisel Sacile Teugen-Hausen Raszyn Abensberg Landshut Eckmühl Ratisbon Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Dalmatian Campaign Ebelsberg Gerona Piave River Grijó 2nd Porto Wörgl Tarvis Aspern-Essling Alcañiz Sankt Michael Stralsund Raab María Graz Wagram Korneuburg Stockerau Gefrees Hollabrunn Schöngrabern Armistice of Znaim Talavera Walcheren Campaign Ölper Almonacid Tamames Ocaña Alba de Tormes

1810

Cádiz Astorga Ciudad Rodrigo Barquilla Côa Almeida Bussaco

1811

Gebora Barrosa Pombal Redinha Casal Novo Campo Maior Sabugal Almeida Fuentes de Oñoro Tarragona Albuera Usagre Saguntum Arroyo dos Molinos Valencia

1812

Ciudad Rodrigo Badajoz Villagarcia Almaraz Maguilla Mir Salamanca García Hernández Saltanovka Ostrovno Vitebsk Klyastitsy Majadahonda Smolensk 1st Polotsk Valutino Mesoten Borodino Burgos Tarutino 2nd Polotsk Venta del Pozo Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Smoliani Krasnoi Berezina

1813

Castalla Lützen Bautzen Tarragona Luckau Vitoria San Sebastián Pyrenees Sorauren Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm San Marcial Dennewitz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Bornhöved Sehested

1814

Brienne La Rothière Mincio River Champaubert Montmirail Château-Thierry Vauchamps Garris Mormant Montereau Orthez Bar-sur-Aube Laon Reims Craonne Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Montmartre Paris Toulouse Bayonne

1815

Panaro Occhiobello Carpi Casaglia Ronco Cesenatico Pesaro Scapezzano Tolentino Ancona Castel di Sangro San Germano Gaeta Quatre Bras Ligny Waterloo Wavre Rocheserviere La Suffel Rocquencourt Issy

Info

French and ally military and political leaders

Napoleon Louis-Alexandre Berthier Joachim Murat Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean Lannes Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Michel Ney Jean-de-Dieu Soult Marshal Victor Jean-Baptiste Bessières Pierre-Charles Villeneuve Joseph I Louis Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Prince Poniatowski Prince Eugène Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick I of Württemberg Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

Duke of Wellington Rowland Hill John Moore Horatio Nelson Thomas Cochrane Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Manuel Lapeña Archduke Charles Prince von Schwarzenberg Archduke John of Austria Alexander I of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Count Bennigsen Pyotr Bagration Frederick William III of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe Ferdinand VII of Spain Miguel de Álava Maria I of Portugal Prince Regent John of Portugal Count of Feira William, Prince of Orange Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Prince Charles John of Sweden Louis XVIII of France

Related conflicts

Anglo-Russian War Anglo-Spanish War Anglo-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War English Wars

Gunboat War Dano-Swedish War

Finnish War Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) Russo-Persian War Russo-Turkish War Spanish American Wars of Independence Swedish–Norwegian War War of 1812

Treaties

Campo Formio Lunéville Amiens Artlenburg Pressburg Finckenstein Tilsit Cintra Schönbrunn Paris
Paris
(1810) Tauroggen Ried Chaumont Kiel Mantua Casalanza Paris
Paris
(1815)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Bourbon Restoration Casualties Congress of Erfurt Continental System England expects that every man will do his duty Grande Armée Longwood House

Portal Military History definition m

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