Wannsee Conference (German: Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of
senior government officials of
Nazi Germany and
leaders, held in the
Berlin suburb of
Wannsee on 20 January 1942. The
purpose of the conference, called by the director of the Reich Main
Security Office SS-
Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, was to ensure
the cooperation of administrative leaders of various government
departments in the implementation of the so-called Final solution to
the Jewish question (German: Endlösung der Judenfrage), whereby most
German-occupied Europe would be deported to occupied
Poland and murdered. Conference attendees included representatives
from several government ministries, including state secretaries from
the Foreign Office, the justice, interior, and state ministries, and
representatives from the SS. In the course of the meeting, Heydrich
outlined how European
Jews would be rounded up and sent to
extermination camps in the
General Government (the occupied part of
Poland), where they would be killed.
Soon after the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the persecution
of European Jewry was raised to unprecedented levels, but systematic
killing of men, women and children only began in June 1941 after the
Operation Barbarossa against the Soviets. On 31 July 1941
Hermann Göring gave written authorization to Heydrich to prepare and
submit a plan for a "total solution of the Jewish question" in
territories under German control and to coordinate the participation
of all involved government organisations. At Wannsee, Heydrich
emphasized that once the mass deportation was complete, the SS would
take complete charge of the exterminations. A secondary goal was to
arrive at a definition of who was formally Jewish and thus determine
the scope of the genocide.
One copy of the Protocol with circulated minutes of the meeting
survived the war. It was found by
Robert Kempner in March 1947 among
files that had been seized from the German Foreign Office. It was used
as evidence in the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials. The
site of the conference, is now a
2 Planning the conference
7 House of the
8 See also
12 External links
Legalized discrimination against
Jews in Germany began immediately
Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power in January 1933. Violence and economic
pressure were used by the Nazi regime to encourage
Jews to voluntarily
leave the country. The ideology of
Nazism brought together elements of
antisemitism, racial hygiene, and eugenics and combined them with
pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining
Lebensraum (living space) for the Germanic people. Nazi
Germany attempted to obtain this new territory by attacking Poland and
the Soviet Union, intending to deport or exterminate the
Slavs living there, who were viewed as being inferior to the Aryan
Discrimination against Jews, longstanding but extralegal throughout
much of Europe at the time, was codified in Germany immediately after
Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power on 30 January 1933. The Law for the
Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April of
that year, excluded most
Jews from the legal profession and the civil
service. Similar legislation soon deprived Jewish members of other
professions of the right to practise. Violence and economic
pressure were used by the regime to force
Jews to leave the
country. Jewish businesses were denied access to markets, forbidden
to advertise in newspapers, and deprived of access to government
contracts. Citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks and
boycotts of their businesses.
1935 chart shows racial classifications under the Nuremberg Laws:
German, Mischlinge, and Jew.
In September 1935, the
Nuremberg Laws were enacted, prohibiting
Jews and people of Germanic extraction, extramarital
Jews and Germans, and the employment of German women
under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households. The
Reich Citizenship Law stated that only those of German or related
blood were defined as citizens; thus,
Jews and other minority groups
were stripped of their German citizenship. A supplementary decree
issued in November defined as Jewish anyone with three Jewish
grandparents, or two grandparents if the Jewish faith was followed.
By the start of World War II in 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's
Jews emigrated to the United States, Palestine, Great Britain,
and other countries.
After the invasion of Poland in September 1939, Hitler ordered that
the Polish leadership and intelligentsia should be destroyed. The
Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen (
Special Prosecution Book Poland)—lists of
people to be killed—had been drawn up by the SS as early as May
Einsatzgruppen (special task forces) performed these
murders with the support of the
Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (Germanic
Self-Protection Group), a paramilitary group consisting of ethnic
Germans living in Poland. Members of the SS, the
Armed Forces), and the
Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo) also shot
civilians during the Polish campaign. Approximately 65,000
civilians were killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of
Polish society, they killed Jews, prostitutes, Romani people, and the
On 31 July 1941
Hermann Göring gave written authorization to
Obergruppenführer (Senior Group Leader) Reinhard Heydrich, Chief
Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), to prepare and submit a plan
for a "total solution of the Jewish question" in territories under
German control and to coordinate the participation of all involved
government organisations. The resulting
Generalplan Ost (General
Plan for the East) called for deporting the population of occupied
Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, for use as slave
labour or to be murdered. The minutes of the
estimated the Jewish population of the Soviet Union to be five
million, with another three million in Ukraine.
In addition to eliminating Jews, the Nazis also planned to reduce the
population of the conquered territories by 30 million people through
starvation in an action called the
Hunger Plan devised by Herbert
Backe. Food supplies would be diverted to the German army and
German civilians. Cities would be razed and the land allowed to return
to forest or resettled by German colonists. The objective of the
Hunger Plan was to inflict deliberate mass starvation on the Slavic
civilian populations under German occupation by directing all food
supplies to the German home population and the
Wehrmacht on the
Eastern Front. According to the historian Timothy Snyder, "4.2
million Soviet citizens (largely Russians, Belarusians, and
Ukrainians) were starved" by the Nazis (and the Nazi-controlled
Wehrmacht) in 1941–1944 as a result of Backe's plan.
Harvests were poor in Germany in 1940 and 1941 and food supplies were
short, as large numbers of forced labourers had been brought into the
country to work in the armaments industry. If these workers—as
well as the German people—were to be adequately fed, there must be a
sharp reduction in the number of "useless mouths", of whom the
Jews under German rule were, in the light of Nazi
ideology, the most obvious example.
At the time of the
Wannsee Conference, the killing of
Jews in the
Soviet Union had already been underway for some months. Right from the
start of Operation Barbarossa—the invasion of the Soviet
Einsatzgruppen were assigned to follow the army into the
conquered areas and round up and kill Jews. In a letter dated 2 July
1941 Heydrich communicated to his SS and Police Leaders that the
Einsatzgruppen were to execute
Comintern officials, ranking members of
the Communist Party, extremist and radical Communist Party members,
people's commissars, and
Jews in party and government posts.
Open-ended instructions were given to execute "other radical elements
(saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc.)."
He instructed that any pogroms spontaneously initiated by the
occupants of the conquered territories were to be quietly
encouraged. On 8 July, he announced that all
Jews were to be
regarded as partisans, and gave the order for all male
the ages of 15 and 45 to be shot. By August the net had been
widened to include women, children, and the elderly—the entire
Jewish population. By the time planning was underway for the
Wannsee Conference, hundreds of thousands of Polish, Serbian, and
Jews had already been killed. The initial plan was to
Generalplan Ost after the conquest of the Soviet
Jews would be deported to occupied parts of
Russia, where they would be worked to death in road-building
Planning the conference
Letter from Heydrich to Martin Luther, Undersecretary at the Foreign
Office, inviting him to the
Wannsee Conference (
House Memorial, Berlin)
On 29 November 1941, Heydrich sent invitations for a ministerial
conference to be held on 9 December at the offices of
Interpol at 16
Am Kleinen Wannsee. He changed the venue on 4 December to the
eventual location of the meeting. He enclosed a copy of a letter
from Göring dated 31 July that authorised him to plan a so-called
Final solution to the Jewish question. The ministries to be
represented were Interior, Justice, the Four-year plan, Propaganda,
and the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories.
Between the date the invitations to the conference went out (29
November) and the date of the cancelled first meeting (9 December),
the situation changed. On 5 December, the Soviet Army began a
counter-offensive in front of Moscow, ending the prospect of a rapid
conquest of the Soviet Union. On 7 December, the Japanese attacked the
United States at Pearl Harbor, causing the U.S. to declare war on
Japan the next day. The Reich government declared war on the U.S. on
11 December. Some invitees were involved in these preparations, so
Heydrich postponed his meeting. Somewhere around this time, Hitler
resolved that the
Jews of Europe were to be exterminated immediately,
rather than after the war, which now had no end in sight.[a] At
Reich Chancellery meeting of 12 December 1941
Reich Chancellery meeting of 12 December 1941 he met with top
party officials and made his intentions plain. On 18 December,
Hitler discussed the fate of the
Jews with Himmler in the
Wolfsschanze. Following the meeting, Himmler made a note on his
service calendar, which simply stated "Jewish question/to be destroyed
The war was still ongoing, and since transporting masses of people
into a combat zone was impossible, Heydrich decided that the Jews
currently living in the
General Government (the German-occupied area
of Poland) would be killed in extermination camps set up in occupied
areas of Poland, as would
Jews from the rest of Europe.
On 8 January 1942, Heydrich sent new invitations to a meeting to be
held on 20 January. The venue for the rescheduled conference was a
villa at Am Großen
Wannsee 56–58, overlooking the Großer Wannsee.
The villa had been purchased from
Friedrich Minoux in 1940 by the
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Force; SD) for use as a conference centre
and guest house.
Heydrich invited representatives from several government ministries,
including state secretaries from the Foreign Office, the justice,
interior, and state ministries, and representatives from the SS. The
process of disseminating information about the fate of the
already well underway by the time the meeting was held. Of the 15
who attended, 8 held academic doctorates.
List of attendees
Obergruppenführer (General of the branch) Reinhard Heydrich
Chief of the RSHA
Deputy Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia
Reichsführer-SS (Reich Leader SS) Heinrich Himmler
Gruppenführer (Major-General) Otto Hofmann
Head of the SS Race and Settlement Main Office (RuSHA)
Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler
Gruppenführer (Major-General) Heinrich Müller
Chief of Amt IV (Gestapo)
Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), Schutzstaffel
Chief of the
Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich
Oberführer (Senior Colonel) Dr. Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Commander of the SiPo and the SD in the General Government
SiPo and SD, RSHA, Schutzstaffel
Chief of the
Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich
Oberführer (Senior Colonel) Dr. Gerhard Klopfer
Nazi Party Chancellery
Chief of the Party Chancellery Martin Bormann
Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel) Adolf Eichmann
Head of Referat IV B4 of the Gestapo
Gestapo, RSHA, Schutzstaffel
Chief of Amt IV SS-
Gruppenführer Heinrich Müller
Sturmbannführer (Major) Dr. Rudolf Lange
Commander of the SiPo and the SD for Latvia; Deputy Commander of the
SiPo and the SD for the RKO
SiPo and SD, RSHA, Schutzstaffel
Brigadeführer (Brigadier General) and
Generalmajor der Polizei
(Major-General of Police) Dr. Franz Walter Stahlecker
Dr. Georg Leibbrandt
Reichsamtleiter (Reich Head Office)
Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories
Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Dr. Alfred
Dr. Alfred Meyer
Gauleiter (Regional Party Leader)
State Secretary and Deputy Reich Minister
Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories
Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Dr. Alfred
Dr. Josef Bühler
(Polish Occupation Authority)
Governor-General Dr. Hans Frank
Dr. Roland Freisler
Reich Ministry of Justice
Reich Minister of Justice Dr. Franz Schlegelberger
Brigadeführer (Brigadier General) Dr. Wilhelm Stuckart
Reich Interior Ministry
Reich Minister of the Interior Dr. Wilhelm Frick
Oberführer (Senior Colonel) Erich Neumann
Office of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan
Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan Hermann Göring
Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger
Reich Minister and head of the
Reich Chancellery SS-Obergruppenführer
Dr. Hans Lammers
Reich Foreign Ministry
Ernst von Weizsäcker, State Secretary to Reich Foreign Minister
Joachim von Ribbentrop
In preparation for the conference, Eichmann drafted a list of the
Jews in the various European countries. Countries were
listed in two groups, "A" and "B". "A" countries were those under
direct Reich control or occupation (or partially occupied and
quiescent, in the case of Vichy France); "B" countries were allied or
client states, neutral, or at war with Germany.[b] The numbers
reflect the estimated Jewish population within each country; for
example, Estonia is listed as
Judenfrei (free of Jews), since the
Jews who remained in Estonia after the German occupation had
been exterminated by the end of 1941. Occupied Poland was not on
the list because by 1939 the country was split three ways among Polish
areas annexed by
Nazi Germany in the west, the territories of Poland
annexed by the Soviet Union in the east, and the General Government
where many Polish and Jewish expellees had already been resettled.
Heydrich opened the conference with an account of the anti-Jewish
measures taken in Germany since the
Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power in 1933. He
said that between 1933 and October 1941, 537,000 German, Austrian, and
Jews had emigrated. This information was taken from a
briefing paper prepared for him the previous week by Eichmann.
Heydrich reported that there were approximately eleven million
the whole of Europe, of whom half were in countries not under German
control.[b] He explained that since further Jewish emigration had
been prohibited by Himmler, a new solution would take its place:
Jews to the east. This would be a temporary solution, a
step towards the "final solution of the Jewish question".
Under proper guidance, in the course of the final solution the Jews
are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied
Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns
to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action
doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes. The
possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the
most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly, because it is
the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as the
seed of a new Jewish revival.
Peter Longerich notes that vague orders couched in
terminology that had a specific meaning for members of the regime were
common, especially when people were being ordered to carry out
criminal activities. Leaders were given briefings about the need to be
"severe" and "firm"; all
Jews were to be viewed as potential enemies
that had to be dealt with ruthlessly. The wording of the Wannsee
Protocol—the distributed minutes of the meeting—made it clear to
participants that evacuation east was a euphemism for death.
The conference room at the
Wannsee Conference House, 2006
Heydrich went on to say that in the course of the "practical execution
of the final solution", Europe would be "combed through from west to
east" but that Germany, Austria, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and
Moravia would have priority "due to the housing problem and additional
social and political necessities". This was a reference to
increasing pressure from the Gauleiters (regional
Nazi Party leaders)
in Germany for the
Jews to be removed from their areas to allow
accommodation for Germans made homeless by Allied bombing, as well as
to make space for laborers being imported from occupied countries. The
"evacuated" Jews, he said, would first be sent to "transit ghettos" in
the General Government, from which they would be transported
eastward. Heydrich said that to avoid legal and political
difficulties, it was important to define who was a Jew for the
purposes of "evacuation". He outlined categories of people who would
not be killed.
Jews over 65 years old, and Jewish
World War I
World War I veterans
who had been severely wounded or who had won the Iron Cross, might be
Theresienstadt concentration camp
Theresienstadt concentration camp instead of being killed.
"With this expedient solution," he said, "in one fell swoop many
interventions will be prevented."
The situation of people who were half or quarter Jews, and of
were married to non-Jews, was more complex. Under the Nuremberg Laws
of 1935, their status had been left deliberately ambiguous. Heydrich
announced that Mischlings (mixed-race persons) of the first degree
(persons with two Jewish grandparents) would be treated as Jews. This
would not apply if they were married to a non-Jew and had children by
that marriage. It would also not apply if they had been granted
written exemption by "the highest offices of the Party and State."
Such persons would be sterilised or deported if they refused
sterilisation. "Mischlings of the second degree" (persons with one
Jewish grandparent) would be treated as Germans unless they were
Jews or Mischlings of the first degree, had a "racially
especially undesirable appearance that marks him outwardly as a
Jew", or had a "political record that shows that he feels and
behaves like a Jew". Persons in these latter categories would be
killed even if married to non-Jews. In the case of mixed
marriages, Heydrich recommended that each case should be evaluated
individually and the impact on any German relatives assessed. If such
a marriage had produced children who were being raised as Germans, the
Jewish partner would not be killed. If they were being raised as Jews,
they might be killed or sent to an old-age ghetto. These
exemptions applied only to German and Austrian Jews, and were not
always observed even for them. In most of the occupied countries, Jews
were rounded up and killed en masse, and anyone who lived in or
identified with the Jewish community in any given place was regarded
as a Jew.[c]
Facsimiles of the minutes of the
Wannsee Conference and Eichmann's
list, presented under glass at the
Wannsee Conference House Memorial
Heydrich commented, "In occupied and unoccupied France, the
Jews for evacuation will in all probability proceed
without great difficulty", but in the end the great majority of
Jews survived. More difficulty was anticipated with
Romania and Hungary. "In
Romania the government has
[now] appointed a commissioner for Jewish affairs", Heydrich said.
In fact the deportation of Romanian
Jews was slow and inefficient
despite a high degree of popular antisemitism. "In order to settle
the question in Hungary," Heydrich said, "it will soon be necessary to
force an adviser for Jewish questions onto the Hungarian
government". The Hungarian regime of
Miklós Horthy continued to
resist German interference in its Jewish policy until the spring of
1944, when the
Wehrmacht invaded Hungary. Very soon, 600,000
Hungary (and parts of Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia occupied
by Hungary) were sent to their deaths by Eichmann, with the
collaboration of Hungarian authorities.
Heydrich spoke for nearly an hour. Then followed about thirty minutes
of questions and comments, followed by some less formal
Otto Hofmann (head of the SS Race and Settlement
Main Office (RuSHA)) and
Wilhelm Stuckart (State Secretary of the
Reich Interior Ministry) pointed out the legalistic and administrative
difficulties over mixed marriages, and suggested compulsory
dissolution of mixed marriages or the wider use of sterilisation as a
simpler alternative. Erich Neumann from the Four Year Plan argued
for the exemption of
Jews who were working in industries vital to the
war effort and for whom no replacements were available. Heydrich
assured him that this was already the policy; such
Jews would not be
killed.[d] Josef Bühler, State Secretary of the General
Government, stated his support for the plan and his hope that the
killings would commence as soon as possible. Towards the end of
the meeting cognac was served, and after that the conversation became
less restrained. "The gentlemen were standing together, or sitting
together", Eichmann said, "and were discussing the subject quite
bluntly, quite differently from the language which I had to use later
in the record. During the conversation they minced no words about it
at all ... they spoke about methods of killing, about
liquidation, about extermination". Eichmann recorded that Heydrich
was pleased with the course of the meeting. He had expected a lot of
resistance, Eichmann recalled, but instead he had found "an atmosphere
not only of agreement on the part of the participants, but more than
that, one could feel an agreement which had assumed a form which had
not been expected".
View of the Großer
Wannsee lake from the villa at 56–58 Am Grossen
Wannsee, where the conference was held
At the conclusion of the meeting Heydrich gave Eichmann firm
instructions about what was to appear in the minutes. They were not to
be verbatim: Eichmann ensured that nothing too explicit appeared in
them. He said at his trial: "How shall I put it — certain over-plain
talk and jargon expressions had to be rendered into office language by
me". Eichmann condensed his records into a document outlining the
purpose of the meeting and the intentions of the regime moving
forward. He stated at his trial that it was personally edited by
Heydrich, and thus reflected the message he intended the participants
to take away from the meeting. Copies of the minutes (known from
the German word for "minutes" as the "
Wannsee Protocol"[e]) were sent
by Eichmann to all the participants after the meeting. Most of
these copies were destroyed at the end of the war as participants and
other officials sought to cover their tracks. It was not until 1947
that Luther's copy (number 16 out of 30 copies prepared) was found by
Robert Kempner, a U.S. prosecutor in the International Military
Tribunal at Nuremberg, in files that had been seized from the German
Wannsee Conference lasted only about ninety minutes. The enormous
importance which has been attached to the conference by postwar
writers was not evident to most of its participants at the time.
Heydrich did not call the meeting to make fundamental new decisions on
the Jewish question. Massive killings of
Jews in the conquered
territories in the Soviet Union and Poland were ongoing and a new
extermination camp was already under construction at Belzec at the
time of the conference; other extermination camps were in the planning
stages. The decision to exterminate the
Jews had already been
made, and Heydrich, as Himmler's emissary, held the meeting to ensure
the cooperation of the various departments in conducting the
deportations. Observations from historian
Laurence Rees support
Longerich's position that the decision over the fate of the
determined before the conference; Rees notes that the Wannsee
Conference was really a meeting of "second-level functionaries" and
stresses that neither Himmler, Goebbels, nor Hitler were present.
According to Longerich, a primary goal of the meeting was to emphasise
that once the deportations had been completed, the implementation of
the "final solution" became an internal matter of the SS, totally
outside the purview of any other agency. A secondary goal was to
determine the scope of the deportations and arrive at definitions of
who was Jewish, who was Mischling, and who (if anybody) should be
spared. "The representatives of the ministerial bureaucracy had
made it plain that they had no concerns about the principle of
deportation per se. This was indeed the crucial result of the meeting
and the main reason why Heydrich had detailed minutes prepared and
widely circulated", said Longerich. Their presence at the meeting
also ensured that all those present were accomplices and accessories
to the murders that were about to be undertaken.
David Cesarani agrees with Longerich's
interpretation; he notes that Heydrich's main purpose was to impose
his own authority on the various ministries and agencies involved in
Jewish policy matters, and to avoid any repetition of the disputes
that had arisen earlier in the annihilation campaign. "The simplest,
most decisive way that Heydrich could ensure the smooth flow of
deportations", he writes, "was by asserting his total control over the
fate of the
Jews in the Reich and the east, and [by] cow[ing] other
interested parties into toeing the line of the RSHA".
House of the
In 1965, historian
Joseph Wulf proposed that the
Wannsee House should
be made into a
Holocaust memorial and document centre, but the West
German government was not interested at that time. The building was in
use as a school, and funding was not available. Despondent at the
failure of the project and the West German government's failure to
pursue and convict Nazi war criminals, Wulf committed suicide in
On 20 January 1992, on the fiftieth anniversary of the conference, the
site was finally opened as a
Holocaust memorial and museum known as
the Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz (House of the
The museum also hosts permanent exhibits of texts and photographs that
document events of the
Holocaust and its planning. The Joseph Wulf
Bibliothek / Mediothek on the second floor houses a large collection
of books on the Nazi era, plus other materials such as microfilms and
original Nazi documents.
Wannsee Conference (1984 film)
Conspiracy (2001 film)
Fatherland (novel dealing in large part with
^ German historian
Christian Gerlach has claimed that Hitler approved
the policy of extermination in a speech to senior officials in Berlin
on 12 December. Gerlach 1998, p. 785. This date is not
universally accepted, but it seems likely that a decision was made at
around this time. On 18 December, Himmler met with Hitler and noted in
his appointment book "Jewish question – to be exterminated as
partisans". Browning 2007, p. 410. On 19 December, Wilhelm
Stuckert, State Secretary at the Interior Ministry, told one of his
officials: "The proceedings against the evacuated
Jews are based on a
decision from the highest authority. You must come to terms with it."
Browning 2007, p. 405.
^ a b This information was contained in the briefing paper Eichmann
prepared for Heydrich before the meeting. Cesarani 2005, p. 112.
^ At a meeting of 17 ministerial representatives held at the Ministry
for the Occupied Eastern Territories on 29 January, it decided that in
the eastern territories all Mischlings were to be classed as Jews,
while in western Europe the relatively more lenient German standard
would be applied. Browning 2007, p. 414.
^ Göring and his subordinates made persistent efforts to prevent
skilled Jewish workers whose labour was an important part of the war
effort from being killed. But by 1943 Himmler was a much more powerful
figure in the regime than Göring, and all categories of skilled Jews
eventually lost their exemptions. Tooze 2006, pp. 522–529.
^ The minutes are headed Besprechungsprotokoll (discussion minutes).
^ a b Longerich 2010, pp. 309–310.
^ Evans 2008, p. 7.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 132.
^ Longerich 2010, pp. 38–39.
^ Longerich 2010, pp. 67–69.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 41.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 346.
^ Evans 2005, p. 544.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 347.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 127.
^ Evans 2005, p. 555.
^ a b Longerich 2010, p. 144.
^ Longerich 2010, pp. 144–145.
^ Longerich 2012, p. 429.
^ Evans 2008, p. 15.
^ Longerich 2012, pp. 430–432.
^ Browning 2007, p. 315.
^ a b Snyder 2010, p. 416.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 112.
^ Tooze 2006, pp. 476-486, 538-549.
^ Snyder 2010, pp. 162–163, 416.
^ Tooze 2006, p. 669.
^ Snyder 2010, p. 411.
^ Gerhard 2009.
^ Tooze 2006, p. 539.
^ Tooze 2006, pp. 538–549.
^ a b c Longerich 2012, p. 523.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 198.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 207.
^ a b c Longerich 2010, p. 309.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 683.
^ a b Roseman 2002, p. 57.
^ Browning 2007, p. 406.
^ Browning 2007, p. 407.
^ Longerich 2000, p. 2.
^ Browning 2007, pp. 407–408.
^ a b Dederichs 2009, p. 119.
^ Browning 2007, p. 410.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 65.
^ Browning 2007, pp. 410–411.
^ Rees 2017, pp. 252–253.
^ "The 'Final Solution': The
Wannsee Conference", Encyclopaedia
Judaica, The Gale Group, 2008.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 66.
^ a b Roseman 2002, pp. 111–112.
^ Longerich 2010, pp. 237, 239.
^ Browning 2007, p. 93.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 110.
^ Cesarani 2005, p. 112.
^ Roseman 2002, pp. 110–111.
^ a b c d Roseman 2002, p. 113.
^ Longerich 2010, pp. 189–190.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 77.
^ a b Roseman 2002, p. 115.
^ a b Roseman 2002, pp. 115–116.
^ a b Roseman 2002, p. 116.
^ a b Browning 2007, p. 414.
^ a b c Roseman 2002, p. 114.
^ Marrus & Paxton 1981, pp. 343–344.
^ Cesarani 2005, pp. 151–155.
^ Cesarani 2005, pp. 159–195.
^ a b Browning 2007, p. 413.
^ a b Cesarani 2005, p. 113.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 71.
^ a b Cesarani 2005, p. 114.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 68.
^ Cesarani 2005, pp. 117–118.
^ Roseman 2002, p. 1.
^ Breitman 1991, pp. 229–233.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 310.
^ Rees 2017, pp. 251–252.
^ a b Longerich 2000, p. 14.
^ Longerich 2010, pp. 306, 310.
^ Longerich 2000, p. 7.
^ Cesarani 2005, pp. 110–111.
^ Lehrer 2000, p. 134–135.
^ a b Lehrer 2000, p. 135.
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